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Sökning: WFRF:(Kyle GS)

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1.
  • Murray, Christopher J. L., et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X .- 0140-6736. ; 386:10009, s. 2145-2191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development. Methods We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time. Findings Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6.2 years (95% UI 5.6-6.6), from 65.3 years (65.0-65.6) in 1990 to 71.5 years (71.0-71.9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5.4 years (4.9-5.8), from 56.9 years (54.5-59.1) to 62.3 years (59.7-64.8), total DALYs fell by 3.6% (0.3-7.4), and age-standardised DALY rates per 100 000 people fell by 26.7% (24.6-29.1). For communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, global DALY numbers, crude rates, and age-standardised rates have all declined between 1990 and 2013, whereas for non-communicable diseases, global DALYs have been increasing, DALY rates have remained nearly constant, and age-standardised DALY rates declined during the same period. From 2005 to 2013, the number of DALYs increased for most specific non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in addition to dengue, food-borne trematodes, and leishmaniasis; DALYs decreased for nearly all other causes. By 2013, the five leading causes of DALYs were ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, cerebrovascular disease, low back and neck pain, and road injuries. Sociodemographic status explained more than 50% of the variance between countries and over time for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; maternal disorders; neonatal disorders; nutritional deficiencies; other communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases; musculoskeletal disorders; and other non-communicable diseases. However, sociodemographic status explained less than 10% of the variance in DALY rates for cardiovascular diseases; chronic respiratory diseases; cirrhosis; diabetes, urogenital, blood, and endocrine diseases; unintentional injuries; and self-harm and interpersonal violence. Predictably, increased sociodemographic status was associated with a shift in burden from YLLs to YLDs, driven by declines in YLLs and increases in YLDs from musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, and mental and substance use disorders. In most country-specific estimates, the increase in life expectancy was greater than that in HALE. Leading causes of DALYs are highly variable across countries. Interpretation Global health is improving. Population growth and ageing have driven up numbers of DALYs, but crude rates have remained relatively constant, showing that progress in health does not mean fewer demands on health systems. The notion of an epidemiological transition-in which increasing sociodemographic status brings structured change in disease burden-is useful, but there is tremendous variation in burden of disease that is not associated with sociodemographic status. This further underscores the need for country-specific assessments of DALYs and HALE to appropriately inform health policy decisions and attendant actions.
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2.
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • Centrality dependence of the high (PT) charged hadron suppression in Au+Au collisions at root s(NN)=130 GeV
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 561:1-2, s. 82-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PHENIX has measured the centrality dependence of charged hadron p(T) spectra from Au +An collisions at root(s)NN = 130 GeV The truncated mean p(T) decreases with centrality for p(T) > 2 GeV/c, indicating an apparent reduction of the contribution from hard scattering to high p(T) hadrdn production. For central collisions the yield at high p(T) is shown to be suppressed compared to binary nucleon-nucleon collision scaling of p + p, data. This suppression is monotonically increasing with centrality, but most of the change occurs below 30% centrality, i.e., for collisions with less than similar to140 participating nucleons. The observed p(T) and centrality dependence is consistent with the particle production predicted by models including hard scattering and subsequent energy loss of the scattered partons in the dense matter created in the collisions. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
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3.
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • Event-by-event fluctuations in mean p(T) and mean E(T) in root s(NN)=130 GeVAu+Au collisions
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 66:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Distributions of event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum and mean transverse energy near mid-rapidity have been measured in Au+Au collisions at roots(NN)=130 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. By comparing the distributions to what is expected for statistically independent particle emission, the magnitude of nonstatistical fluctuations in mean transverse momentum is determined to be consistent with zero. Also, no significant nonrandom fluctuations in mean transverse energy are observed. By constructing a fluctuation model with two event classes that preserve the mean and variance of the semi-inclusive p(T) or e(T) spectra, we exclude a region of fluctuations in roots(NN)=130 GeV Au+Au collisions.
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4.
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • Flow Measurements via Two-Particle Azimuthal Correlations in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt[sNN]=130 GeV
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 89
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two-particle azimuthal correlation functions are presented for charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (sqrt[sNN]=130 GeV). The measurements permit determination of elliptic flow without event-by-event estimation of the reaction plane. The extracted elliptic flow values (v2) show significant sensitivity to both the collision centrality and the transverse momenta of emitted hadrons, suggesting rapid thermalization and relatively strong velocity fields. When scaled by the eccentricity of the collision zone ε, the scaled elliptic flow shows little or no dependence on centrality for charged hadrons with relatively low pT. A breakdown of this ε scaling is observed for charged hadrons with pT >1.0 GeV/c.
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5.
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • Formation of dense partonic matter in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC: Experimental evaluation by the PHENIX Collaboration
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Physics, Section A. - : Elsevier. - 0375-9474. ; 757:1-2, s. 184-283
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Extensive experimental data from high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions were recorded using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The comprehensive set of measurements from the first three years of RHIC operation includes charged particle multiplicities, transverse energy, yield ratios and spectra of identified hadrons in a wide range of transverse momenta (PT), elliptic flow, two-particle correlations, nonstatistical fluctuations, and suppression of particle production at high PT. The results are examined with an emphasis on implications for the formation of a new state of dense matter. We find that the state of matter created at RHIC cannot be described in terms of ordinary color neutral hadrons.
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6.
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of Lambda and (Lambda)over-bar particles in Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=130 GeV
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 89:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present results on the measurement of Lambda and (&ULambda;) over bar production in Au+Au collisions at roots(NN)=130 GeV with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The transverse momentum spectra were measured for minimum bias and for the 5% most central events. The (&ULambda;) over bar/Lambda ratios are constant as a function of p(T) and the number of participants. The measured net Lambda density is significantly larger than predicted by models based on hadronic strings (e.g., HIJING) but in approximate agreement with models which include the gluon-junction mechanism.
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7.
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of single electrons and implications for charm production in Au+Au collisions at root(NN)-N-S=130 GeV
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 88:19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transverse momentum spectra of electrons from Au+Au collisions at roots(NN) = 130 GeV have been measured at midrapidity by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The spectra show an excess above the background from photon conversions and light hadron decays. The electron signal is consistent with that expected from semileptonic decays of charm. The yield of the electron signal dN(e)/dy for p(T) > 0.8 GeV/c is 0.025 +/- 0.004(stat) +/- 0.010( syst) in central collisions, and the corresponding charm cross section is 380 +/- 60(stat) +/- 200(syst ) mub per binary nucleon-nucleon collision.
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8.
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • Net charge fluctuations in Au+Au interactions root s(NN)=130 GeV
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 89
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Data from Au+ Au interactions at s(NN)=130 GeV, obtained with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, are used to investigate local net charge fluctuations among particles produced near midrapidity. According to recent suggestions, such fluctuations may carry information from the quark-gluon plasma. This analysis shows that the fluctuations are dominated by a stochastic distribution of particles, but are also sensitive to other effects, like global charge conservation and resonance decays.
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9.
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • PHENIX detector overview
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment. - : Elsevier. - 0167-5087. ; 499:2-3, s. 469-479
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX detector is designed to perform a broad study of A-A, p-A, and p-p collisions to investigate nuclear matter under extreme conditions. A wide variety of probes, sensitive to all timescales, are used to study systematic variations with species and energy as well as to measure the spin structure of the nucleon. Designing for the needs of the heavy-ion and polarized-proton programs has produced a detector with unparalleled capabilities. PHENIX measures electron and muon pairs, photons, and hadrons with excellent energy and momentum resolution. The detector consists of a large number of subsystems that are discussed in other papers in this volume. The overall design parameters of the detector are presented. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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10.
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • Suppression of hadrons with large transverse momentum in central Au+Au collisions at root s(NN)=130 GeV
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 88:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transverse momentum spectra for charged hadrons and for neutral pions in the range 1 Gev/c < P-T < 5 GeV/c have been measured by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC in Au + Au collisions at rootS(NN) = 130 GeV. At high p(T) the spectra from peripheral nuclear collisions are consistent with scaling the spectra from p + p collisions by the average number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. The spectra from central collisions are significantly suppressed when compared to the binary-scaled p + p expectation, and also when compared to similarly binary-scaled peripheral collisions, indicating a novel nuclear-medium effect in central nuclear collisions at RHIC energies.
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