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  • Campbell, PJ, et al. (författare)
  • Pan-cancer analysis of whole genomes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-4687 .- 0028-0836. ; 578:7793, s. 82-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Ek, W. E., et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in genes in the androgen pathway and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 138:5, s. 1146-1152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The strong male predominance in Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) remains inadequately explained, but sex hormones might be involved. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the androgen pathway influence risk of developing BE and EAC. This genetic-epidemiological analysis included 14 studies from Australia, Europe and North America. Polymorphisms in 16 genes coding for the androgen pathway were analyzed using a gene-based approach: versatile gene-based test association study. This method evaluates associations between a trait and all SNPs within a specific gene rather than each SNP marker individually as in a conventional GWAS. The data were stratified for sex, body-mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, tobacco smoking and gastroesophageal reflux status. Included were data from 1,508 EAC patients, 2,383 BE patients and 2,170 control participants. SNPs within the gene CYP17A1 were associated with risk of BE in the sexes combined (p=0.002) and in males (p=0.003), but not in females separately (p=0.3). This association was found in tobacco smokers (p=0.003) and in BE patients without reflux (p=0.004), but not in nonsmokers (p=0.2) or those with reflux (p=0.036). SNPs within JMJD1C were associated with risk of EAC in females (p=0.001). However, none of these associations replicated in a subsequent sample. Fourteen other genes studied did not reach statistically significant levels of association with BE, EAC or the combination of BE and EAC, after correcting for the number of genes included in the analysis. In conclusion, genetic variants in the androgen-related genes CYP17A1 and JMJD1C might be associated with risk of BE and EAC, respectively, but replication data with larger sample sizes are needed.
  • Lagergren, K., et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in Genes of Relevance for Oestrogen and Oxytocin Pathways and Risk of Barrett's Oesophagus and Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Pooled Analysis from the BEACON Consortium
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 10:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The strong male predominance in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) and Barrett's oesophagus (BO) continues to puzzle. Hormonal influence, e.g. oestrogen or oxytocin, might contribute. This genetic-epidemiological study pooled 14 studies from three continents, Australia, Europe, and North America. Polymorphisms in 3 key genes coding for the oestrogen pathway (receptor alpha (ESR1), receptor beta (ESR2), and aromatase (CYP19A1)), and 3 key genes of the oxytocin pathway (the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), oxytocin protein (OXT), and cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase glycoprotein (CD38)), were analysed using a gene-based approach, versatile gene-based test association study (VEGAS). Among 1508 OAC patients, 2383 BO patients, and 2170 controls, genetic variants within ESR1 were associated with BO in males (p = 0.0058) and an increased risk of OAC and BO combined in males (p = 0.0023). Genetic variants within OXTR were associated with an increased risk of BO in both sexes combined (p = 0.0035) and in males (p = 0.0012). We followed up these suggestive findings in a further smaller data set, but found no replication. There were no significant associations between the other 4 genes studied and risk of OAC, BO, separately on in combination, in males and females combined or in males only. Genetic variants in the oestrogen receptor alpha and the oxytocin receptor may be associated with an increased risk of BO or OAC, but replication in other large samples are needed.
  • Jokinen, Jussi, et al. (författare)
  • Suicide attempt and future risk of cancer : a nationwide cohort study in Sweden
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 26:3, s. 501-509
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Little is known about cancer incidence among patients with a history of suicide attempt. Suicide attempters have lower levels of oxytocin, a hormone related to lactation, stress, social functioning, and well-being, and recent research indicates influence on carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that the low oxytocin levels among suicide attempters results in an increased risk of cancer in general and in organs with oxytocin receptors in particular.Methods: A nationwide cohort study of patients aged 15 years or older with hospitalization for self-inflicted injury or attempted suicide was identified from the Swedish patient register in 1968–2011. The cancer outcomes were identified from the Swedish cancer register. Cancer risk in suicide attempters was compared with the risk in the background population of the corresponding age, sex, and calendar period by calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI).Results: The 186,627 patients (83,637 men and 102,990 women) hospitalized for self-inflicted injury or attempted suicide contributed with 2.6 million person-years at risk. The SIR for all cancer was 1.3 (95 % CI 1.27–1.33) in men and 1.25 (1.22–1.28) in women. For cancers in organs rich in oxytocin receptors (uterus, breast, and brain), the corresponding SIRs were 1.02 (0.87–1.19) and 1.13 (1.09–1.17), respectively. There was a particularly increased risk of cancers related to alcohol and tobacco in both sexes.Conclusion: Patients attempting suicide have an increased risk of cancer. However, this increase does not seem to be associated with low oxytocin levels, but rather to exposures like tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption.
  • Mason, P, et al. (författare)
  • Octupole signatures in Ba-124,Ba-125
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics G. - 0954-3899 .- 1361-6471. ; 31:10, s. S1729-S1733
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The gamma decay of the nuclei Ba-121,Ba-125 has been investigated with the EUROBALL array, using the reaction Ni-64+Ni-64 at E-beam = 255 and 261 MeV. Six new E1 transitions have been found in the nucleus Ba-125, suggesting a significant role of octupole correlations in the origin of its parity doublets. The J(pi) = 3(-) level of the nucleus Ba-124 has been identified for the first time. Its excitation energy is in very good agreement with a prediction based on a microscopic model including octupole interactions.
  • Rutegård, Martin, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Population-based esophageal cancer survival after resection without neoadjuvant therapy : an update
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Surgery. - : Mosby Inc.. - 0039-6060 .- 1532-7361. ; 152:5, s. 903-910
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: There are few population-based studies addressing the survival after resection for esophageal cancer. This study represents an update of a nationwide Swedish cohort initiated in 1987.METHODS: Based on data from the Swedish Patient Register, Swedish Cancer Register, and histopathologic records, 1,008 patients who had undergone esophageal resection as the only treatment for esophageal cancer were identified between January 1, 1987 and December 31, 2005. These were followed until death or emigration through linkage to the Swedish Total Population Register until January 1, 2009. Tumor stage, location, and histology were assessed from histopathologic reports, and comorbidities were assessed from the Patient Register. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) regarding survival. The results were adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, tumor stage, location, histology, surgical radicality, and hospital volume.RESULTS: The proportion of patients surviving for 5 years increased from 19.7% in 1987-1991 to 30.7% in 1997-2000, but remained at 30.5% between 2001 and 2005. No difference in overall adjusted survival was found between the periods of 2001-2005 and 1997-2000 (adjusted HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.70-1.13). Thirty-day mortality decreased from 4.9% in 1997-2000 to 2.0% in 2001-2005, rendering an adjusted HR of 0.26 (95% CI, 0.08-0.87).CONCLUSION: After adjusting for relevant prognostic factors, long-term population-based survival after resection for esophageal cancer was unchanged between 2001 and 2005 compared to 1997-2000, while the corresponding 30-day mortality improved.
  • Thies-Lagergren, Li, et al. (författare)
  • A Swedish register-based study exploring primary postpartum hemorrhage in 405 936 full term vaginal births between 2005 and 2015
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. - : Elsevier. - 0301-2115 .- 1872-7654. ; 258, s. 184-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To explore diagnoses of postpartum haemorrhage following vaginal birth, in relation to socio-demographic and obstetrical data from women who gave birth at term, in Sweden, during the years 2005–2015. Study design: A register-based cohort study was carried out, describing and comparing socio-demographic variables, obstetric variables and infant variables in 52 367 cases of diagnosed postpartum haemorrhage compared to 353 569 controls without a postpartum haemorrhage diagnosis. Postpartum hemorrhage was identified in The Swedish Medical Birth Register by ICD-10 code O72. Variables for maternal characteristics were dichotomized and used to calculate odds ratios to find possible explanatory variables for postpartum haemorrhage. Results: Between 2005 and 2015 there was no statistically significant decrease in diagnoses of postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal birth at term. Primiparity was associated with the highest risk and women birthing their fifth or subsequent child were associated with the lowest risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Increased maternal age (> 35 years) and/or obesity (BMI > 30) were associated with higher odds of postpartum haemorrhage. The risk of postpartum hemorrhage was 55 % higher when vaginal birth followed induction as compared to vaginal birth after spontaneous onset. Some of the factors known to be associated with postpartum haemorrhage were poorly documented in The Swedish Medical Birth Register. Conclusions: Birthing women in a Swedish contemporary setting are, despite efforts to improve care, still at risk of birth being complicated by postpartum haemorrhage. Primiparity, increasing maternal age and/or obesity are found to provoke an increased risk and the reasons for these findings need to be further investigated. However, grand multi-parity did not increase the risk for postpartum hemorrhage. Codes for diagnoses require correct documentation in the birth records: only when local statistics are sound and correctly reported can intrapartum care be improved, and the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage reduced.
  • Cederwall, B., et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for a spin-aligned neutron-proton paired phase from the level structure of Pd-92
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 469:7328, s. 68-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Shell structure and magic numbers in atomic nuclei were generally explained by pioneering work(1) that introduced a strong spin-orbit interaction to the nuclear shell model potential. However, knowledge of nuclear forces and the mechanisms governing the structure of nuclei, in particular far from stability, is still incomplete. In nuclei with equal neutron and proton numbers (N = Z), enhanced correlations arise between neutrons and protons (two distinct types of fermions) that occupy orbitals with the same quantum numbers. Such correlations have been predicted to favour an unusual type of nuclear superfluidity, termed isoscalar neutron-proton pairing(2-6), in addition to normal isovector pairing. Despite many experimental efforts, these predictions have not been confirmed. Here we report the experimental observation of excited states in the N = Z = 46 nucleus Pd-92. Gamma rays emitted following the Ni-58(Ar-36,2n)Pd-92 fusion-evaporation reaction were identified using a combination of state-of-the-art high-resolution c-ray, charged-particle and neutron detector systems. Our results reveal evidence for a spin-aligned, isoscalar neutron-proton coupling scheme, different from the previous prediction(2-6). We suggest that this coupling scheme replaces normal superfluidity (characterized by seniority coupling(7,8)) in the ground and low-lying excited states of the heaviest N = Z nuclei. Such strong, isoscalar neutron-proton correlations would have a considerable impact on the nuclear level structure and possibly influence the dynamics of rapid proton capture in stellar nucleosynthesis.
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