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  • Hetland, M. L., et al. (författare)
  • Active conventional treatment and three different biological treatments in early rheumatoid arthritis: phase IV investigator initiated, randomised, observer blinded clinical trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Bmj-British Medical Journal. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1756-1833. ; 371
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE To evaluate and compare benefits and harms of three biological treatments with different modes of action versus active conventional treatment in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN Investigator initiated, randomised, open label, blinded assessor, multiarm, phase IV study. SETTING Twenty nine rheumatology departments in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, the Netherlands, and Iceland between 2012 and 2018. PARTICIPANTS Patients aged 18 years and older with treatment naive rheumatoid arthritis, symptom duration less than 24 months, moderate to severe disease activity, and rheumatoid factor or anti-citrullinated protein antibody positivity, or increased C reactive protein. INTERVENTIONS Randomised 1:1:1:1, stratified by country, sex, and anti-citrullinated protein antibody status. All participants started methotrexate combined with (a) active conventional treatment (either prednisolone tapered to 5 mg/day, or sulfasalazine combined with hydroxychloroquine and intraarticular corticosteroids), (b) certolizumab pegol, (c) abatacept, or (d) tocilizumab. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was adjusted clinical disease activity index remission (CDAI <= 2.8) at 24 weeks with active conventional treatment as the reference. Key secondary outcomes and analyses included CDAI remission at 12 weeks and over time, other remission criteria, a non-inferiority analysis, and harms. RESULTS 812 patients underwent randomisation. The mean age was 54.3 years (standard deviation 14.7) and 68.8% were women. Baseline disease activity score of 28 joints was 5.0 (standard deviation 1.1). Adjusted 24 week CDAI remission rates were 42.7% (95% confidence interval 36.1% to 49.3%) for active conventional treatment, 46.5% (39.9% to 53.1%) for certolizumab pegol, 52.0% (45.5% to 58.6%) for abatacept, and 42.1% (35.3% to 48.8%) for tocilizumab. Corresponding absolute differences were 3.9% (95% confidence interval -5.5% to 13.2%) for certolizumab pegol, 9.4% (0.1% to 18.7%) for abatacept, and -0.6% (-10.1% to 8.9%) for tocilizumab. Key secondary outcomes showed no major differences among the four treatments. Differences in CDAI remission rates for active conventional treatment versus certolizumab pegol and tocilizumab, but not abatacept, remained within the prespecified non-inferiority margin of 15% (per protocol population). The total number of serious adverse events was 13 (percentage of patients who experienced at least one event 5.6%) for active conventional treatment, 20 (8.4%) for certolizumab pegol, 10 (4.9%) for abatacept, and 10 (4.9%) for tocilizumab. Eleven patients treated with abatacept stopped treatment early compared with 20-23 patients in the other arms. CONCLUSIONS All four treatments achieved high remission rates. Higher CDAI remission rate was observed for abatacept versus active conventional treatment, but not for certolizumab pegol or tocilizumab versus active conventional treatment. Other remission rates were similar across treatments. Non-inferiority analysis indicated that active conventional treatment was non-inferior to certolizumab pegol and tocilizumab, but not to abatacept. The results highlight the efficacy and safety of active conventional treatment based on methotrexate combined with corticosteroids, with nominally better results for abatacept, in treatment naive early rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Ameur, Adam, et al. (författare)
  • SweGen : a whole-genome data resource of genetic variability in a cross-section of the Swedish population
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 25:11, s. 1253-1260
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Here we describe the SweGen data set, a comprehensive map of genetic variation in the Swedish population. These data represent a basic resource for clinical genetics laboratories as well as for sequencing-based association studies by providing information on genetic variant frequencies in a cohort that is well matched to national patient cohorts. To select samples for this study, we first examined the genetic structure of the Swedish population using high-density SNP-array data from a nation-wide cohort of over 10 000 Swedish-born individuals included in the Swedish Twin Registry. A total of 1000 individuals, reflecting a cross-section of the population and capturing the main genetic structure, were selected for whole-genome sequencing. Analysis pipelines were developed for automated alignment, variant calling and quality control of the sequencing data. This resulted in a genome-wide collection of aggregated variant frequencies in the Swedish population that we have made available to the scientific community through the website https://swefreq.nbis.se. A total of 29.2 million single-nucleotide variants and 3.8 million indels were detected in the 1000 samples, with 9.9 million of these variants not present in current databases. Each sample contributed with an average of 7199 individual-specific variants. In addition, an average of 8645 larger structural variants (SVs) were detected per individual, and we demonstrate that the population frequencies of these SVs can be used for efficient filtering analyses. Finally, our results show that the genetic diversity within Sweden is substantial compared with the diversity among continental European populations, underscoring the relevance of establishing a local reference data set.
  • Vikgren, Jenny, 1957, et al. (författare)
  • Visual and Quantitative Evaluation of Emphysema: A Case-Control Study of 1111 Participants in the Pilot Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study (SCAPIS)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Academic Radiology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1076-6332 .- 1878-4046. ; 27:5, s. 636-643
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale and Objectives: Emphysema is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The primary aim of this study was to investigate inter- and intraobserver agreement of visual assessment of mild emphysema in low-dose multidetector computed tomography of subjects in the pilot SCAPIS in order to certify consistent detection of mild emphysema. The secondary aim was to investigate the performance of quantitative densitometric measurements in the cohort. Materials and Methods: Participants with emphysema (n = 100, 56 males and 44 females) reported in the electronic case report form of pilot SCAPIS and 100 matched controls (gender, age, height, and weight) without emphysema were included. To assess interobserver variability the randomized examinations were evaluated by two thoracic radiologists. For intraobserver variability three radiologists re-evaluated randomized examinations which they originally evaluated. The results were evaluated statistically by Krippendorff's α. The dataset was also assessed quantitively for % lung attenuation value −950 HU (LAV950), mean lung density and total lung volume by commercially available software. Results: Emphysema was visually scored as mild and Krippendorff's α was ≥0.8 for both the inter- and intraobserver agreement regarding presence of emphysema and approaching 0.8 regarding presence and extent of emphysema by location in the upper lobes. Mean LAV950 was not different between the emphysematous and the nonemphysematous participants; 8.3% and 8.4%, respectively. Conclusion: The inter- and intraobserver agreement for visual detection of mild emphysema in low-dose multidetector computed tomography was good. Surprisingly, quantitative analysis could not reliably identify participants with mild emphysema, which hampers the use of automatic evaluation. © 2019 The Association of University Radiologists
  • Forsberg, A., et al. (författare)
  • Disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis is inversely related to cerebral TSPO binding assessed by [11C]PBR28 positron emission tomography
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuroimmunology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0165-5728 .- 1872-8421. ; 334
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by peripheral joint inflammation. Recently, an engagement of the brain immune system has been proposed. The aim with the current investigation was to study the glial cell activation marker translocator protein (TSPO) in a well characterized cohort of RA patients and to relate it to disease activity, peripheral markers of inflammation and autonomic activity. Fifteen RA patients and fifteen healthy controls matched for age, sex and TSPO genotype (rs6971) were included in the study. TSPO was measured using Positron emission tomography (PET) and the radioligand [C-11] PBR28. The outcome measure was total distribution volume (V-T) estimated using Logan graphical analysis, with grey matter (GM) as the primary region of interest. Additional regions of interest analyses as well as voxel-wise analyses were also performed. Clinical evaluation of disease activity, symptom assessments, serum analyses of cytokines and heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of 24 h ambulatory ECG were performed in all subjects. There were no statistically significant group differences in TSPO binding, either when using the primary outcome V-T or when normalizing V-T to the lateral occipital cortex (p > 0.05). RA patients had numerically lower V-T values than healthy controls (Cohen's D for GM = -0.21). In the RA group, there was a strong negative correlation between [C-11]PBR28 V-T in GM and disease activity (DAS28)(r = -0.745, p = 0.002, corrected for rs6971 genotype). Higher serum levels of IFN gamma and TNF-alpha were found in RA patients compared to controls (p < 0.05) and several measures of autonomic activity showed significant differences between RA and controls (p < 0.05). However, no associations between markers of systemic inflammation or autonomic activity and cerebral TSPO binding were found. In conclusion, no statistically significant group differences in TSPO binding as measured with [C-11]PBR28 PET were detected. Within the RA group, lower cerebral TSPO binding was associated with higher disease activity, suggesting that cerebral TSPO expression may be related to disease modifying mechanisms in RA. In light of the earlier confirmed neuro-immune features of RA, these results warrant further investigations regarding neuro-immune joint-to-CNS signalling to open up for potentially new treatment strategies.
  • Lind, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Life-Time Covariation of Major Cardiovascular Diseases : A 40-Year Longitudinal Study and Genetic Studies
  • 2021
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It is known that certain cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are associated, like atrial fibrillation and stroke. However, for other CVDs, the links and temporal trends are less studied. In this longitudinal study, we have investigated temporal epidemiological and genetic associations between different CVDs.Methods: The ULSAM (Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men; 2322 men aged 50 years) has been followed for 40 years regarding 4 major CVDs (incident myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation). For the genetic analyses, publicly available data were used.Results: Using multistate modeling, significant relationships were seen between pairs of all of the 4 investigated CVDs. However, the risk of obtaining one additional CVD differed substantially both between different CVDs and between their temporal order. The relationship between heart failure and atrial fibrillation showed a high risk ratio (risk ratios, 24-26) regardless of the temporal order. A consistent association was seen also for myocardial infarction and atrial fibrillation but with a lower relative risk (risk ratios, 4-5). In contrast, the risk of receiving a diagnosis of heart failure following a myocardial infarction was almost twice as high as for the reverse temporal order (risk ratios, 16 versus 9). Genetic loci linked to traditional risk factors could partly explain the observed associations between the CVDs, but pathway analyses disclosed also other pathophysiological links.Conclusions: During 40 years, all of the 4 investigated CVDs were pairwise associated with each other regardless of the temporal order of occurrence, but the risk magnitude differed between different CVDs and their temporal order. Genetic analyses disclosed new pathophysiological links between CVDs.
  • Schelin, M. E.C., et al. (författare)
  • Widespread non-joint pain in early rheumatoid arthritis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0300-9742. ; 50:4, s. 271-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the development of widespread non-joint pain (WNP) in a cohort of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the associated health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and clinical and demographic risk factors for WNP. Method: Incident cases with RA, from the Swedish population-based study Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA), with a follow-up of at least 3 years, constituted the study population. WNP was defined as pain outside the joints in all four body quadrants and was assessed at the 3 year follow-up. Patients who reported WNP were compared to patients without WNP regarding HRQoL, measured by the Short Form-36, at 3 years, and clinical and demographic characteristics at the time of RA diagnosis. Results: A total of 749 patients constituted the study sample, of whom 25 were excluded after reporting already having severe pain before RA diagnosis. At the 3 year follow-up, 8% of the patients reported having WNP as well as statistically significant worse HRQoL. At the time of RA diagnosis, the patients with WNP had worse pain and pain-related features, while no difference was seen in the inflammatory parameters. Conclusion: WNP occurs in a substantial subset of patients with RA, also early in the course of the disease, and the HRQoL for these patients is significantly reduced. Patients who develop WNP at 3 years are already distinguishable at the time of diagnosis by displaying more pronounced pain ratings together with an average level of inflammatory disease activity.
  • Lind, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Uppsala Consensus Statement on Environmental Contaminants and the Global Obesity Epidemic
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - : US DEPT HEALTH HUMAN SCIENCES PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCE. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 124:5, s. A81-A83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • From the lectures presented at the 2nd International Workshop on Obesity and Environmental Contaminants, which was held in Uppsala, Sweden, on 8-9 October 2015, it became evident that the findings from numerous animal and epidemiological studies are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental contaminants could contribute to the global obesity epidemic. To increase awareness of this important issue among scientists, regulatory agencies, politicians, chemical industry management, and the general public, the authors summarize compelling scientific evidence that supports the hypothesis and discuss actions that could restrict the possible harmful effects of environmental contaminants on obesity.
  • Tamm, Sandra, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence of fatigue, disordered sleep and peripheral inflammation, but not increased brain TSPO expression, in seasonal allergy : A [11C]PBR28 PET study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity. - : Elsevier BV. - 0889-1591 .- 1090-2139. ; 68, s. 146-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Allergy is associated with non-specific symptoms such as fatigue, sleep problems and impaired cognition. One explanation could be that the allergic inflammatory state includes activation of immune cells in the brain, but this hypothesis has not been tested in humans. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate seasonal changes in the glial cell marker translocator protein (TSPO), and to relate this to peripheral inflammation, fatigue and sleep, in allergy. We examined 18 patients with severe seasonal allergy, and 13 healthy subjects in and out-of pollen season using positron emission tomography (n = 15/13) and the TSPO radioligand [C-11]PBR28. In addition, TNF-alpha, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-gamma were measured in peripheral blood, and subjective ratings of fatigue and sleepiness as well as objective and subjective sleep were investigated. No difference in levels of TSPO was seen between patients and healthy subjects, nor in relation to pollen season. However, allergic subjects displayed both increased fatigue, sleepiness and increased percentage of deep sleep, as well as increased levels of IL-5 and TNF-alpha during pollen season, compared to healthy subjects. Allergic subjects also had shorter total sleep time, regardless of season. In conclusion, allergic subjects are indicated to respond to allergen exposure during pollen season with a clear pattern of behavioral disruption and peripheral inflammatory activation, but not with changes in brain TSPO levels. This underscores a need for development and use of more specific markers to understand brain consequences of peripheral inflammation that will be applicable in human subjects.
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