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  • Engström, Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • Pulmonary function and atherosclerosis in the general population : causal associations and clinical implications
  • 2024
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - : Springer Nature. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 39:1, s. 35-49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reduced lung function is associated with cardiovascular mortality, but the relationships with atherosclerosis are unclear. The population-based Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage study measured lung function, emphysema, coronary CT angiography, coronary calcium, carotid plaques and ankle-brachial index in 29,593 men and women aged 50–64 years. The results were confirmed using 2-sample Mendelian randomization. Lower lung function and emphysema were associated with more atherosclerosis, but these relationships were attenuated after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Lung function was not associated with coronary atherosclerosis in 14,524 never-smokers. No potentially causal effect of lung function on atherosclerosis, or vice versa, was found in the 2-sample Mendelian randomization analysis. Here we show that reduced lung function and atherosclerosis are correlated in the population, but probably not causally related. Assessing lung function in addition to conventional cardiovascular risk factors to gauge risk of subclinical atherosclerosis is probably not meaningful, but low lung function found by chance should alert for atherosclerosis.
  • Allentoft, Morten E., et al. (författare)
  • Population genomics of post-glacial western Eurasia
  • 2024
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 625:7994, s. 301-311
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Western Eurasia witnessed several large-scale human migrations during the Holocene1–5. Here, to investigate the cross-continental effects of these migrations, we shotgun-sequenced 317 genomes—mainly from the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods—from across northern and western Eurasia. These were imputed alongside published data to obtain diploid genotypes from more than 1,600 ancient humans. Our analyses revealed a ‘great divide’ genomic boundary extending from the Black Sea to the Baltic. Mesolithic hunter-gatherers were highly genetically differentiated east and west of this zone, and the effect of the neolithization was equally disparate. Large-scale ancestry shifts occurred in the west as farming was introduced, including near-total replacement of hunter-gatherers in many areas, whereas no substantial ancestry shifts happened east of the zone during the same period. Similarly, relatedness decreased in the west from the Neolithic transition onwards, whereas, east of the Urals, relatedness remained high until around 4,000 bp, consistent with the persistence of localized groups of hunter-gatherers. The boundary dissolved when Yamnaya-related ancestry spread across western Eurasia around 5,000 bp, resulting in a second major turnover that reached most parts of Europe within a 1,000-year span. The genetic origin and fate of the Yamnaya have remained elusive, but we show that hunter-gatherers from the Middle Don region contributed ancestry to them. Yamnaya groups later admixed with individuals associated with the Globular Amphora culture before expanding into Europe. Similar turnovers occurred in western Siberia, where we report new genomic data from a ‘Neolithic steppe’ cline spanning the Siberian forest steppe to Lake Baikal. These prehistoric migrations had profound and lasting effects on the genetic diversity of Eurasian populations.
  • Andersson, Sarah, et al. (författare)
  • Malmbanan Diaries
  • 2010
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • This booklet is a report for a case study visit during four day field trip, a group of nine PhD students and their supervisors – all part of the National Research School for Architecture and Planning in the Urban Landscape, APULA – set out to explore what may be considered the outback of Western Europe’s conurbations, the transnational region of Kiruna -Narvik.Both “remote” and “resourceful”, “threatened” and “thriving” (equally relative notions), this region seemed to offer possibilities to reflect upon many of the current tendencies influencing contemporary planning practice and research.
  • Aspegren, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Novel non-coding RNAs in Dictyostelium discoideum and their expression during development
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Nucleic Acids Research. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0305-1048 .- 1362-4962. ; 32:15, s. 4646-4656
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The quest for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the last few years has revealed a surprisingly large number of small RNAs belonging to previously known as well as entirely novel classes. Computational and experimental approaches have uncovered new ncRNAs in all kingdoms of life. In this work, we used a shotgun cloning approach to construct full-length cDNA libraries of small RNAs from the eukaryotic model organism Dictyostelium discoideum. Interestingly, two entirely novel classes of RNAs were identified of which one is developmentally regulated. The RNAs within each class share conserved 5'- and 3'-termini that can potentially form stem structures. RNAs of both classes show predominantly cytoplasmic localization. In addition, based on conserved structure and/or sequence motifs, several of the identified ncRNAs could be divided into classes known from other organisms, e.g. 18 small nucleolar RNA candidates (17 box C/D, of which a few are developmentally regulated, and one box H/ACA). Two ncRNAs showed a high degree of similarity to the small nuclear U2 RNA and signal recognition particle RNA (SRP RNA), respectively. Furthermore, the majority of the regions upstream of the sequences encoding the isolated RNAs share conserved motifs that may constitute new promoter elements.
  • Björnfot, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebral arterial stiffness is linked to white matter hyperintensities and perivascular spaces in older adults : a 4D flow MRI study
  • 2024
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. - : Sage Publications. - 0271-678X .- 1559-7016.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • White matter hyperintensities (WMH), perivascular spaces (PVS) and lacunes are common MRI features of small vessel disease (SVD). However, no shared underlying pathological mechanism has been identified. We investigated whether SVD burden, in terms of WMH, PVS and lacune status, was related to changes in the cerebral arterial wall by applying global cerebral pulse wave velocity (gcPWV) measurements, a newly described marker of cerebral vascular stiffness. In a population-based cohort of 190 individuals, 66–85 years old, SVD features were estimated from T1-weighted and FLAIR images while gcPWV was estimated from 4D flow MRI data. Additionally, the gcPWV’s stability to variations in field-of-view was analyzed. The gcPWV was 10.82 (3.94) m/s and displayed a significant correlation to WMH and white matter PVS volume (r = 0.29, p < 0.001; r = 0.21, p = 0.004 respectively from nonparametric tests) that persisted after adjusting for age, blood pressure variables, body mass index, ApoB/A1 ratio, smoking as well as cerebral pulsatility index, a previously suggested early marker of SVD. The gcPWV displayed satisfactory stability to field-of-view variations. Our results suggest that SVD is accompanied by changes in the cerebral arterial wall that can be captured by considering the velocity of the pulse wave transmission through the cerebral arterial network.
  • Engström, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Fever Depends on Prostaglandin E2 Production Specifically in Brain Endothelial Cells
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Endocrinology. - : Endocrine Society. - 0013-7227 .- 1945-7170. ; 153:10, s. 4849-4861
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immune-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis is critical for fever and other centrally elicited disease symptoms. The production of PGE2 depends on cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), but the identity of the cells involved has been a matter of controversy. We generated mice expressing mPGES-1 either in cells of hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic origin. Mice lacking mPGES-1 in hematopoietic cells displayed an intact febrile response to lipopolysaccharide, associated with elevated levels of PGE2 in the cerebrospinal fluid. In contrast, mice that expressed mPGES-1 only in hematopoietic cells, although displaying elevated PGE2 levels in plasma but not in the cerebrospinal fluid, showed no febrile response to lipopolysaccharide, thus pointing to the critical role of brain-derived PGE2 for fever. Immunohistochemical stainings showed that induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the brain exclusively occurred in endothelial cells, and quantitative PCR analysis on brain cells isolated by flow cytometry demonstrated that mPGES-1 is induced in endothelial cells and not in vascular wall macrophages. Similar analysis on liver cells showed induced expression in macrophages and not in endothelial cells, pointing at the distinct role for brain endothelial cells in PGE2 synthesis. These results identify the brain endothelial cells as the PGE2-producing cells critical for immune-induced fever.
  • Gertow, Karl, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of the BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A Locus as a Determinant of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Coronary Artery Disease Risk
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. - 1942-325X .- 1942-3268. ; 5:6, s. 656-665
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a widely accepted marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. To date, large-scale investigations of genetic determinants of cIMT are sparse. Methods and Results-To identify cIMT-associated genes and genetic variants, a discovery analysis using the Illumina 200K CardioMetabochip was conducted in 3430 subjects with detailed ultrasonographic determinations of cIMT from the IMPROVE (Carotid Intima Media Thickness [IMT] and IMT-Progression as Predictors of Vascular Events in a High Risk European Population) study. Segment-specific IMT measurements of common carotid, bifurcation, and internal carotid arteries, and composite IMT variables considering the whole carotid tree (IMTmean, IMTmax, and IMTmean-max), were analyzed. A replication stage investigating 42 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for association with common carotid IMT was undertaken in 5 independent European cohorts (total n=11 590). A locus on chromosome 16 (lead single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4888378, intronic in CFDP1) was associated with cIMT at significance levels passing multiple testing correction at both stages (array-wide significant discovery P=6.75x10(-7) for IMTmax; replication P=7.24x10(-6) for common cIMT; adjustments for sex, age, and population substructure where applicable; minor allele frequency 0.43 and 0.41, respectively). The protective minor allele was associated with lower carotid plaque score in a replication cohort (P=0.04, n=2120) and lower coronary artery disease risk in 2 case-control studies of subjects with European ancestry (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.83 [0.77-0.90], P=6.53x10(-6), n=13 591; and 0.95 [0.92-0.98], P=1.83x10(-4), n= 82 297, respectively). Queries of human biobank data sets revealed associations of rs4888378 with nearby gene expression in vascular tissues (n=126-138). Conclusions-This study identified rs4888378 in the BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A locus as a novel genetic determinant of cIMT and coronary artery disease risk in individuals of European descent. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2012;5:656-665.)
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