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Sökning: WFRF:(Latt Jimmy)

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1.
  • Santillo, Alexander Frizell, et al. (författare)
  • Diffusion Tensor Tractography versus Volumetric Imaging in the Diagnosis of Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 8:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • MRI diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of white matter integrity in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia have consistently shown involvement of frontal and temporal white matter, corresponding to regional loss of cortical volume. Volumetric imaging has a suboptimal sensitivity as a diagnostic tool and thus we wanted to explore if DTI is a better method to discriminate patients and controls than volumetric imaging. We examined the anterior cingulum bundle in 14 patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and 22 healthy controls using deterministic manual diffusion tensor tractography, and compared DTI parameters with two measures of cortical atrophy, VBM and cortical thickness, of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Statistically significant changes between patients and controls were detected in all DTI parameters, with large effect sizes. ROC-AUC was for the best DTI parameters: 0.92 (fractional anisotropy) to 0.97 (radial diffusivity), 0.82 for the best cortical parameter, VBM of the ACC. Results from the AUC were confirmed with binary logistic regression analysis including demographic variables, but only for fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. Ability to classify patient/nonpatient status was significantly better for mean diffusivity vs. VBM (p=0.031), and borderline significant for fractional anisotropy vs. VBM (p=0.062). The results indicate that DTI could offer advantages in comparison with the assessment of cortical volume in differentiating patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and controls.
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2.
  • Spotorno, N., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma neurofilament light protein correlates with diffusion tensor imaging metrics in frontotemporal dementia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 15:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurofilaments are structural components of neurons and are particularly abundant in highly myelinated axons. The levels of neurofilament light chain (NfL) in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma have been related to degeneration in several neurodegenerative conditions including frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and NfL is currently considered as the most promising diagnostic and prognostic fluid biomarker in FTD. Although the location and function of filaments in the healthy nervous system suggests a link between increased NfL and white matter degeneration, such a claim has not been fully elucidated in vivo, especially in the context of FTD. The present study provides evidence of an association between the plasma levels of NfL and white matter involvement in behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) by relating plasma concentration of NfL to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics in a group of 20 bvFTD patients. The results of both voxel-wise and tract specific analysis showed that increased plasma NfL concentration is associated with a reduction in fractional anisotropy (FA) in a widespread set of white matter tracts including the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the fronto-occipital fasciculus the anterior thalamic radiation and the dorsal cingulum bundle. Plasma NfL concentration also correlated with cortical thinning in a portion of the right medial prefrontal cortex and of the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex. These results support the hypothesis that blood NfL levels reflect the global level of neurodegeneration in bvFTD and help to advance our understanding of the association between this blood biomarker for FTD and the disease process.
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3.
  • Mårtensson, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Spatial analysis of diffusion tensor tractography statistics along the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus with application in progressive supranuclear palsy
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Magma. - : Springer. - 1352-8661 .- 0968-5243. ; 26:6, s. 527-537
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the study was to develop a method for analysis of diffusion parameters along white matter (WM) tracts, using spatial normalization based on anatomical landmarks, and to introduce the apparent area coefficient (AAC). The method's applicability was tested in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO) in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and healthy controls (HCs). A framework for analysis of diffusion parameters was developed. Spatial normalization of the tracts was performed using anatomical landmarks, to avoid deformations caused by cerebral atrophy. Initially, 38 HCs were used to optimize a threshold for the minimal size of regions that differ between groups. The fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, AAC, and the hemispheric asymmetry index (AI), were compared between 11 PSP patients and 15 HCs. The method was feasible for analysis of PSP patients and HCs. The AI showed that the observed hemispheric asymmetry of AAC was significantly larger in PSP patients compared with HCs in small regions of the IFO. The method was successfully employed for analysis of diffusion parameters along the IFO in a patient group. This method can be potentially useful in studies of WM diseases, with or without cerebral atrophy.
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4.
  • Szczepankiewicz, Filip, et al. (författare)
  • Tensor-valued diffusion encoding for diffusional variance decomposition (DIVIDE) : Technical feasibility in clinical MRI systems
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 14:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microstructure imaging techniques based on tensor-valued diffusion encoding have gained popularity within the MRI research community. Unlike conventional diffusion encoding—applied along a single direction in each shot—tensor-valued encoding employs diffusion encoding along multiple directions within a single preparation of the signal. The benefit is that such encoding may probe tissue features that are not accessible by conventional encoding. For example, diffusional variance decomposition (DIVIDE) takes advantage of tensor-valued encoding to probe microscopic diffusion anisotropy independent of orientation coherence. The drawback is that tensor-valued encoding generally requires gradient waveforms that are more demanding on hardware; it has therefore been used primarily in MRI systems with relatively high performance. The purpose of this work was to explore tensor-valued diffusion encoding on clinical MRI systems with varying performance to test its technical feasibility within the context of DIVIDE. We performed whole-brain imaging with linear and spherical b-tensor encoding at field strengths between 1.5 and 7 T, and at maximal gradient amplitudes between 45 and 80 mT/m. Asymmetric gradient waveforms were optimized numerically to yield b-values up to 2 ms/μm 2 . Technical feasibility was assessed in terms of the repeatability, SNR, and quality of DIVIDE parameter maps. Variable system performance resulted in echo times between 83 to 115 ms and total acquisition times of 6 to 9 minutes when using 80 signal samples and resolution 2×2×4 mm 3 . As expected, the repeatability, signal-to-noise ratio and parameter map quality depended on hardware performance. We conclude that tensor-valued encoding is feasible for a wide range of MRI systems—even at 1.5 T with maximal gradient waveform amplitudes of 33 mT/m—and baseline experimental design and quality parameters for all included configurations. This demonstrates that tissue features, beyond those accessible by conventional diffusion encoding, can be explored on a wide range of MRI systems.
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5.
  • Delgado, Anna F., et al. (författare)
  • Diffusion kurtosis imaging of gliomas grades II and III - A study of perilesional tumor infiltration, tumor grades and subtypes at clinical presentation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Radiology and Oncology. - : Onkoloski Institut Ljubljana. - 1318-2099. ; 51:2, s. 121-129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) allows for assessment of diffusion influenced by microcellular structures. We analyzed DKI in suspected low-grade gliomas prior to histopathological diagnosis. The aim was to investigate if diffusion parameters in the perilesional normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) differed from contralesional white matter, and to investigate differences between glioma malignancy grades II and III and glioma subtypes (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas). Forty-eight patients with suspected low-grade glioma were prospectively recruited to this institutional review board-approved study and investigated with preoperative DKI at 3T after written informed consent. Patients with histologically proven glioma grades II or III were further analyzed (n=35). Regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated on T2FLAIR images and co-registered to diffusion MRI parameter maps. Mean DKI data were compared between perilesional and contralesional NAWM (student's t-test for dependent samples, Wilcoxon matched pairs test). Histogram DKI data were compared between glioma types and glioma grades (multiple comparisons of mean ranks for all groups). The discriminating potential for DKI in assessing glioma type and grade was assessed with receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. There were significant differences in all mean DKI variables between perilesional and contralesional NAWM (p=<0.000), except for axial kurtosis (p=0.099). Forty-four histogram variables differed significantly between glioma grades II (n=23) and III (n=12) (p=0.003-0.048) and 10 variables differed significantly between ACs (n=18) and ODs (n=17) (p=0.011-0.050). ROC curves of the best discriminating variables had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.657-0.815. Mean DKI variables in perilesional NAWM differ significantly from contralesional NAWM, suggesting altered microstructure by tumor infiltration not depicted on morphological MRI. Histogram analysis of DKI data identifies differences between glioma grades and subtypes.
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6.
  • Eriksson, Sam, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in apparent diffusion coefficient and pathological response in colorectal liver metastases after preoperative chemotherapy
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Acta Radiologica. - : SAGE Publications. - 0284-1851. ; , s. 2841851221074496-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The pathological response to preoperative chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) is predictive of long-term prognosis after liver resection. Accurate preoperative assessment of chemotherapy response could enable treatment optimization. Purpose: To investigate whether changes in lesion-apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to assess pathological treatment response in patients with CRLMs undergoing preoperative chemotherapy. Material and Methods: Patients who underwent liver resection for CRLMs after preoperative chemotherapy between January 2011 and December 2019 were retrospectively included if they had undergone MRI before and after preoperative chemotherapy on the same 1.5-T MRI scanner with diffusion-weighted imaging with b-values 50, 400, and 800 s/mm2. The pathological chemotherapy response was assessed using the tumor regression grade (TRG) by AJCC/CAP. Lesions were divided into two groups: pathological responding (TRG 0–2) and non-responding (TRG 3). The change in lesion ADC after preoperative chemotherapy was compared between responding and non-responding lesions. Results: A total of 27 patients with 49 CRLMs were included, and 24/49 lesions showed a pathological chemotherapy response. After chemotherapy, ADC increased in both pathological responding (pretreatment ADC: 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06–1.37] vs. post-treatment ADC: 1.33 [95% CI=1.13–1.56] × 10−3 mm2/s; P = 0.026) and non-responding lesions (1.12 [95% CI=0.980–1.21] vs. 1.20 [95% CI=1.09–1.43] × 10−3 mm2/s; P = 0.018). There was no difference in median relative difference in ADC after chemotherapy between pathological responding and non-responding lesions (15.8 [95% CI=1.42–26.3] vs. 7.17 [95% CI=−4.31 to 31.2]%; P = 0.795). Conclusion: Changes in CRLM ADCs did not differ between pathological responding and non-responding lesions.
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7.
  • Follin, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Impaired brain metabolism and neurocognitive function in childhood leukemia survivors despite complete hormone supplementation in adulthood
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - : Elsevier. - 0306-4530 .- 1873-3360. ; 73, s. 157-165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cranial radiotherapy is a known risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Understanding the nature of cognitive dysfunction during adulthood in ALL survivors is important as it has an impact on major life situations. Thirty-eight (21 women) ALL survivors were investigated 34 years after diagnosis. Median-age was 38 (27–46) years. All were treated with a CRT dose of 24 Gy and 11 years (3–13) of complete hormone supplementation. Comparisons were made to 29 matched controls. Assessments of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (white and grey matter metabolic alterations), brain volume and neuropsychological tests were performed. ALL survivors demonstrate a generally lower performance in neuropsychological tests. ALL survivors scored lower than controls in vocabulary (p < 0.001), memory (p < 0.001), learning capacity (p < 0.001), spatial ability (p < 0.001), executive functions and attention (p < 0.001) 34 years after ALL treatment. Compared to controls ALL survivors had reduced white matter (WM) (492 vs 536 cm3, p < 0.001) and grey matter (GM) volumes (525 vs 555 cm3, p = 0.001). ALL survivors had lower levels of WM N-acetyl aspartate/creatin (NAA/Cr) (1.48 vs 1.63, p = 0.004), WM NAA + NAAG (N-acetylaspartylglutamate)/Cr (1.61 vs 1.85, p < 0.001) and lower levels of GM NAA/Cr (1.18 vs 1.30, p = 0.001) and GM NAA + NAAG/Cr (1.28 vs 1.34, p = 0.01) compared to controls. ALL survivors had higher levels in WM MI (Myoinositol)/NAA (0.65 vs 0.56, p = 0.01) concentrations compared to controls. There was a significantly negative correlation of years since ALL diagnosis to WM NAA + NAAG/Cr (r = −0.4, p = 0.04) in ALL survivors. The present study shows impaired brain metabolism detected by MRS, reduced brain volumes and neurocognitive impairment in childhood ALL survivors treated with cranial radiotherapy and chemotherapy, despite complete hormone substitution. We also report an impairment of metabolites correlated to time since treatment and a progressive impairment in sustained attention, suggesting an accelerated aging in the irradiated brain. Following these survivors many decades, or throughout life, after treatment with cranial radiotherapy and chemotherapy is highly warranted for a broader understanding of long-term outcome in this patient group.
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8.
  • Looi, Jeffrey C. L., et al. (författare)
  • Morphometric analysis of subcortical structures in progressive supranuclear palsy: In vivo evidence of neostriatal and mesencephalic atrophy
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. - : Elsevier. - 0925-4927. ; 194:2, s. 163-175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by gait and postural disturbance, gaze palsy, apathy, decreased verbal fluency and dysexecutive symptoms, with some of these clinical features potentially having origins in degeneration of frontostriatal circuits and the mesencephalon. This hypothesis was investigated by manual segmentation of the caudate and putamen on MRI scans, using previously published protocols, in 15 subjects with PSP and 15 healthy age-matched controls. Midbrain atrophy was assessed by measurement of mid-sagittal area of the midbrain and pons. Shape analysis of the caudate and putamen was performed using spherical harmonics (SPHARM-PDM, University of North Carolina). The sagittal pons area/midbrain area ratio (P/M ratio) was significantly higher in the PSP group, consistent with previous findings. Significantly smaller striatal volumes were found in the PSP group - putamina were 10% smaller and caudate volumes were 17% smaller than in controls after controlling for age and intracranial volume. Shape analysis revealed significant shape deflation in PSP in the striatum, compared to controls; with regionally significant change relevant to frontostriatal and corticostriatal circuits in the caudate. Thus, in a clinically diagnosed and biomarker-confirmed cohort with early PSP, we demonstrate that neostriatal volume and shape are significantly reduced in vivo. The findings suggest a neostriatal and mesencephalic structural basis for the clinical features of PSP leading to frontostriatal and mesocortical-striatal circuit disruption. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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9.
  • Santillo, Alexander Frizell, et al. (författare)
  • Grey and white matter clinico-anatomical correlates of disinhibition in neurodegenerative disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 11:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Disinhibition is an important symptom in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the clinico- anatomical underpinnings remain controversial. We explored the anatomical correlates of disinhibition in neurodegenerative disease using the perspective of grey and white matter imaging. Disinhibition was assessed with a neuropsychological test and a caregiver information- based clinical rating scale in 21 patients with prefrontal syndromes due to behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 12) or progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 25). Cortical thickness was assessed using the Freesurfer software on 3T MRI data. The integrity of selected white matter tracts was determined by the fractional anisotropy (FA) from Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Disinhibition correlated with the cortical thickness of the right parahippocampal gyrus, right orbitofrontal cortex and right insula and the FA of the right uncinate fasciculus and right anterior cingulum. Notably, no relationship was seen with the thickness of ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Our results support an associative model of inhibitory control, distributed in a medial temporal lobe-insularorbitofrontal network, connected by the intercommunicating white matter tracts. This reconciles some of the divergences among previous studies, but also questions the current conceptualisation of the prefrontal syndrome and the central role attributed to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in inhibitory control.
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