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Sökning: WFRF:(Laughlin Gail)

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1.
  • Meng, Jerry, et al. (författare)
  • Associations of estradiol and testosterone with serum phosphorus in older men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Kidney International. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1523-1755 .- 0085-2538. ; 78:4, s. 415-422
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Postmenopausal women consistently have higher phosphorus levels than similarly aged men. As it is known that estradiol induces phosphaturia in rodents, we evaluated the cross-sectional association of sex hormones with serum phosphorus in 1346 community-living older men (mean age 76) of which 18% had moderate (stage 3) kidney disease. Using linear regression with serum phosphorus levels as the dependent variable, we found that for each 10 pg/ml higher total estradiol level there was a statistically significant 0.05 mg/dl lower serum phosphorus when adjusted for age, ethnicity, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, calcium, estimated glomerular filtration rate, intact parathyroid hormone, 25(OH) vitamin D, bone mineral density, and alkaline phosphatase. These results were similar in individuals with or without chronic kidney disease. Serum testosterone concentrations were also statistically significantly associated with lower serum phosphorus levels. We confirmed these results in an independent sample of 2555 older men, wherein these associations were not attenuated when adjusted for fibroblast growth factor-23 levels. Hence, our study of community-living older men suggests that estradiol may directly or indirectly induce phosphaturia in humans. The mechanism responsible for the association of testosterone with serum phosphorus remains to be determined. Kidney International (2010) 78, 415-422; doi:10.1038/ki.2010.161; published online 9 June 2010
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2.
  • Orwoll, Eric S., et al. (författare)
  • The Limited Clinical Utility of Testosterone, Estradiol, and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Measurements in the Prediction of Fracture Risk and Bone Loss in Older Men
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - : WILEY. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 32:3, s. 633-640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurement of serum testosterone (T) levels is recommended in the evaluation of osteoporosis in older men and estradiol (E2) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are associated with the rate of bone loss and fractures, but the clinical utility of sex steroid and SHBG measurements for the evaluation of osteoporosis in men has not been examined. To evaluate whether measurements of T, E2, and/or SHBG are useful for the prediction of fracture risk or the rate of bone loss in older men, we analyzed longitudinal data from 5487 community-based men participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study in the United States, Sweden, and Hong Kong. Serum T, E2, and SHBG levels were assessed at baseline; incident fractures were self-reported at 4-month intervals with radiographic verification (US), or ascertained via national health records (Sweden, Hong Kong). Rate of bone loss was assessed by serial measures of hip bone mineral density (BMD). We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) to assess improvement in prediction. Mean age at baseline was 72 to 75 years and the prevalence of low T levels (<300 ng/dL) was 7.6% to 21.3% in the three cohorts. There were 619 incident major osteoporotic and 266 hip fractures during follow-up of approximately 10 years. Based on ROC curves, there were no improvements in fracture risk discrimination for any biochemical measure when added to models, including the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) with BMD. Although minor improvements in NRI were observed for the dichotomous parameters low bioavailable E2 (BioE2) (<11.4 pg/mL) and high SHBG(>59.1 nM), neither sex steroids nor SHBG provided clinically useful improvement in fracture risk discrimination. Similarly, they did not contribute to the prediction of BMD change. In conclusion, there is limited clinical utility of serum E2, T, and SHBG measures for the evaluation of osteoporosis risk in elderly men.
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3.
  • Gregson, J., et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factors Associated With Venous Thromboembolism
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA Cardiology. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 0965-2590 .- 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 4:2, s. 163-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE It is uncertain to what extent established cardiovascular risk factors are associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). OBJECTIVE To estimate the associations of major cardiovascular risk factors with VTE, ie, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This study included individual participant data mostly from essentially population-based cohort studies from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (ERFC; 731728 participants; 75 cohorts; years of baseline surveys, February 1960 to June 2008; latest date of follow-up, December 2015) and the UK Biobank (421537 participants; years of baseline surveys, March 2006 to September 2010; latest date of follow-up, February 2016). Participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline were included. Data were analyzed from June 2017 to September 2018. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Hazard ratios (HRs) per 1-SD higher usual risk factor levels (or presence/absence). Incident fatal outcomes in ERFC (VTE, 1041; coronary heart disease [CND], 25131) and incident fatal/nonfatal outcomes in UK Biobank (VTE, 2321; CHD, 3385). Hazard ratios were adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, diabetes, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS Of the 731728 participants from the ERFC. 403 396 (55.1%) were female, and the mean (SD) age at the time of the survey was 51.9 (9.0) years; of the 421537 participants from the UK Biobank, 233 699 (55.4%) were female, and the mean (SD) age at the time of the survey was 56.4 (8.1) years. Risk factors for VTE included older age (ERFC: HR per decade, 2.67; 95% CI, 2.45-2.91; UK Biobank: HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.71-1.92), current smoking (ERFC: HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.20-1.58; UK Biobank: HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08-1.40), and BMI (ERFC: HR per 1-SD higher BMI, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35-1.50; UK Biobank: HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.32-1.41). For these factors, there were similar HRs for pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in UK Biobank (except adiposity was more strongly associated with pulmonary embolism) and similar HRs for unprovoked vs provoked VTE. Apart from adiposity, these risk factors were less strongly associated with VTE than CHD. There were inconsistent associations of VTEs with diabetes and blood pressure across ERFC and UK Biobank, and there was limited ability to study lipid and inflammation markers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Older age, smoking, and adiposity were consistently associated with higher VTE risk.
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4.
  • Vandenput, Liesbeth, 1974, et al. (författare)
  • Low Testosterone, but Not Estradiol, Is Associated With Incident Falls in Older Men: The International MrOS Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - : AMBMR. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 32:6, s. 1174-1181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fracture risk is determined by bone strength and the risk of falls. The relationship between serum sex steroids and bone strength parameters in men is well known, whereas the predictive value of sex steroids for falls is less studied. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between serum testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) and the likelihood of falls. Older men (aged > 65 years) from the United States (n = 1919), Sweden (n = 2495), and Hong Kong (n = 1469) participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study had baseline T and E2 analyzed by mass spectrometry. Bioavailable (Bio) levels were calculated using mass action equations. Incident falls were ascertained every 4 months during a mean follow-up of 5.7 years. Associations between sex steroids and falls were estimated by generalized estimating equations. Fall rate was highest in the US and lowest in Hong Kong (US 0.50, Sweden 0.31, Hong Kong 0.12 fall reports/person/year). In the combined cohort of 5883 men, total T (odds ratio [OR] per SD increase = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-0.91) and BioT (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.83-0.88) were associated with incident falls in models adjusted for age and prevalent falls. These associations were only slightly attenuated after simultaneous adjustment for physical performance variables (total T: OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.96; BioT: OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.94). E2, BioE2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were not significantly associated with falls. Analyses in the individual cohorts showed that both total T and BioT were associated with falls in MrOS US and Sweden. No association was found in MrOS Hong Kong, and this may be attributable to environmental factors rather than ethnic differences because total T and BioT predicted falls in MrOS US Asians. In conclusion, low total T and BioT levels, but not E2 or SHBG, are associated with increased falls in older men. (C) 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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5.
  • Eriksson, Anna-Lena, 1971, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Determinants of Circulating Estrogen Levels and Evidence of a Causal Effect of Estradiol on Bone Density in Men.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 103:3, s. 991-1004
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Serum estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) levels exhibit substantial heritability.To investigate the genetic regulation of serum E2 and E1 in men.Genome-wide association study in 11,097 men of European origin from nine epidemiological cohorts.Genetic determinants of serum E2 and E1 levels.Variants in/near CYP19A1 demonstrated the strongest evidence for association with E2, resolving to three independent signals. Two additional independent signals were found on the X chromosome; FAMily with sequence similarity 9, member B (FAM9B), rs5934505 (P = 3.4 × 10-8) and Xq27.3, rs5951794 (P = 3.1 × 10-10). E1 signals were found in CYP19A1 (rs2899472, P = 5.5 × 10-23), in Tripartite motif containing 4 (TRIM4; rs17277546, P = 5.8 × 10-14), and CYP11B1/B2 (rs10093796, P = 1.2 × 10-8). E2 signals in CYP19A1 and FAM9B were associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Mendelian randomization analysis suggested a causal effect of serum E2 on BMD in men. A 1 pg/mL genetically increased E2 was associated with a 0.048 standard deviation increase in lumbar spine BMD (P = 2.8 × 10-12). In men and women combined, CYP19A1 alleles associated with higher E2 levels were associated with lower degrees of insulin resistance.Our findings confirm that CYP19A1 is an important genetic regulator of E2 and E1 levels and strengthen the causal importance of E2 for bone health in men. We also report two independent loci on the X-chromosome for E2, and one locus each in TRIM4 and CYP11B1/B2, for E1.
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6.
  • LeBlanc, Erin S, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of serum testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin levels on fracture risk in older men.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 94:9, s. 3337-46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: The relationship between sex steroids and fracture is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine associations between nonvertebral fracture risk and bioavailable estradiol (bioE2), bioavailable testosterone (bioT), and SHBG. DESIGN: This was a case-cohort study. SETTING: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) was conducted in a prospective U.S. cohort in 5995 community-dwelling men 65 yr old or older. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included a subcohort of 1436 randomly chosen white men plus all 446 minorities and all those with incident hip and other nonvertebral fractures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline testosterone and estradiol were measured by mass spectrometry (MS) and SHBG by RIA. RESULTS: Men with the lowest bioE2 (<11.4 pg/ml) or highest SHBG (>59.1 nm) had greater risk of all nonvertebral fractures [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval]: 1.5 (1.2-1.9) and 1.4 (1.1-21.8), respectively]. Men with the lowest bioT (<163.5 ng/dl) had no increased fracture risk after adjustment for bioE2 [adjusted HR 1.16 (0.90-1.49)]. A significant interaction between SHBG and bioT (P = 0.03) resulted in men with low bioT and high SHBG having higher fracture risk [HR 2.1 (1.4-3.2)]. Men with low bioE2, low bioT, and high SHBG were at highest risk [HR 3.4 (2.2-5.3)]. CONCLUSIONS: Older men with low bioE2 or high SHBG levels are at increased risk of nonvertebral fracture. When SHBG levels are high, men with low bioT levels have higher risk. The strongest association occurred when all measures were considered in combination.
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7.
  • Pennells, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Equalization of four cardiovascular risk algorithms after systematic recalibration : individual-participant meta-analysis of 86 prospective studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 40:7, s. 621-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: There is debate about the optimum algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk estimation. We conducted head-to-head comparisons of four algorithms recommended by primary prevention guidelines, before and after ‘recalibration’, a method that adapts risk algorithms to take account of differences in the risk characteristics of the populations being studied.Methods and results: Using individual-participant data on 360 737 participants without CVD at baseline in 86 prospective studies from 22 countries, we compared the Framingham risk score (FRS), Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), pooled cohort equations (PCE), and Reynolds risk score (RRS). We calculated measures of risk discrimination and calibration, and modelled clinical implications of initiating statin therapy in people judged to be at ‘high’ 10 year CVD risk. Original risk algorithms were recalibrated using the risk factor profile and CVD incidence of target populations. The four algorithms had similar risk discrimination. Before recalibration, FRS, SCORE, and PCE over-predicted CVD risk on average by 10%, 52%, and 41%, respectively, whereas RRS under-predicted by 10%. Original versions of algorithms classified 29–39% of individuals aged ≥40 years as high risk. By contrast, recalibration reduced this proportion to 22–24% for every algorithm. We estimated that to prevent one CVD event, it would be necessary to initiate statin therapy in 44–51 such individuals using original algorithms, in contrast to 37–39 individuals with recalibrated algorithms.Conclusion: Before recalibration, the clinical performance of four widely used CVD risk algorithms varied substantially. By contrast, simple recalibration nearly equalized their performance and improved modelled targeting of preventive action to clinical need.
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