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Sökning: WFRF:(Le Hellard Stephanie)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 27
  • [1]23Nästa
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1.
  • Giddaluru, Sudheer, et al. (författare)
  • Genetics of structural connectivity and information processing in the brain
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Brain Structure and Function. - 1863-2653 .- 1863-2661. ; 221:9, s. 4643-4661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the genetic factors underlying brain structural connectivity is a major challenge in imaging genetics. Here, we present results from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of whole-brain white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of microstructural coherence measured using diffusion tensor imaging. Data from independent GWASs of 355 Swedish and 250 Norwegian healthy adults were integrated by meta-analysis to enhance power. Complementary GWASs on behavioral data reflecting processing speed, which is related to microstructural properties of WM pathways, were performed and integrated with WM FA results via multimodal analysis to identify shared genetic associations. One locus on chromosome 17 (rs145994492) showed genome-wide significant association with WM FA (meta P value = 1.87 × 10(-08)). Suggestive associations (Meta P value <1 × 10(-06)) were observed for 12 loci, including one containing ZFPM2 (lowest meta P value = 7.44 × 10(-08)). This locus was also implicated in multimodal analysis of WM FA and processing speed (lowest Fisher P value = 8.56 × 10(-07)). ZFPM2 is relevant in specification of corticothalamic neurons during brain development. Analysis of SNPs associated with processing speed revealed association with a locus that included SSPO (lowest meta P value = 4.37 × 10(-08)), which has been linked to commissural axon growth. An intergenic SNP (rs183854424) 14 kb downstream of CSMD1, which is implicated in schizophrenia, showed suggestive evidence of association in the WM FA meta-analysis (meta P value = 1.43 × 10(-07)) and the multimodal analysis (Fisher P value = 1 × 10(-07)). These findings provide novel data on the genetics of WM pathways and processing speed, and highlight a role of ZFPM2 and CSMD1 in information processing in the brain.
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2.
  • Grasby, KL, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science (New York, N.Y.). - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 367:6484, s. 1340-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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3.
  • Athanasiu, L., et al. (författare)
  • A genetic association study of CSMD1 and CSMD2 with cognitive function
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Brain Behavior and Immunity. - 0889-1591 .- 1090-2139. ; 61, s. 209-216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The complement cascade plays a role in synaptic pruning and synaptic plasticity, which seem to be involved in cognitive functions and psychiatric disorders. Genetic variants in the closely related CSMD1 and CSMD2 genes, which are implicated in complement regulation, are associated with schizophrenia. Since patients with schizophrenia often show cognitive impairments, we tested whether variants in CSMD1 and CSMD2 are also associated with cognitive functions per se. We took a discovery-replication approach, using well-characterized Scandinavian cohorts. A total of 1637 SNPs in CSMD1 and 206 SNPs in CSMD2 were tested for association with cognitive functions in the NCNG sample (Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics; n = 670). Replication testing of SNPs with p-value < 0.001 (7 in CSMD1 and 3 in CSMD2) was carried out in the TOP sample (Thematically Organized Psychosis; n =1025) and the BETULA sample (Betula Longitudinal Study on aging, memory and dementia; n = 1742). Finally, we conducted a meta-analysis of these SNPs using all three samples. The previously identified schizophrenia marker in CSMD1 (SNP rs10503253) was also included. The strongest association was observed between the CSMDI SNP rs2740931 and performance in immediate episodic memory (p-value = 5 Chi 10(-6), minor allele A, MAF 0.48-0.49, negative direction of effect). This association reached the study-wide significance level (p <= 1.2 Chi 10(-5)). SNP rs10503253 was not significantly associated with cognitive functions in our samples. In conclusion, we studied n = 3437 individuals and found evidence that a variant in CSMD1 is associated with cognitive function. Additional studies of larger samples with cognitive phenotypes will be needed to further clarify the role of CSMD1 in cognitive phenotypes in health and disease. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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4.
  • Davies, G., et al. (författare)
  • Study of 300,486 individuals identifies 148 independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • General cognitive function is a prominent and relatively stable human trait that is associated with many important life outcomes. We combine cognitive and genetic data from the CHARGE and COGENT consortia, and UK Biobank (total N = 300,486; age 16-102) and find 148 genome-wide significant independent loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with general cognitive function. Within the novel genetic loci are variants associated with neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, physical and psychiatric illnesses, and brain structure. Gene-based analyses find 709 genes associated with general cognitive function. Expression levels across the cortex are associated with general cognitive function. Using polygenic scores, up to 4.3% of variance in general cognitive function is predicted in independent samples. We detect significant genetic overlap between general cognitive function, reaction time, and many health variables including eyesight, hypertension, and longevity. In conclusion we identify novel genetic loci and pathways contributing to the heritability of general cognitive function.
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5.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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6.
  • Duarte Fernandes, Carla Patricia, et al. (författare)
  • Lack of association of the rs1344706 ZNF804A variant with cognitive functions and DTI indices of white matter microstructure in two independent healthy populations
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry Research. - : Elsevier. - 0925-4927 .- 1872-7506. ; 222:1-2, s. 60-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The rs1344706 single nucleotide polymorphism with in intron 2 of the ZNF804A gene is strongly associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This variant has also been associated in some studies with a range of cognitive and neuro imaging phenotypes, but several studies have reported no effect on the same phenotypes in other samples. Here, we genotyped 670 healthy adult Norwegian subjects and 1753 healthy adult Swedish subjects for rs1344706, and tested for associations with cognitive phenotypes including general intellectual abilities, memory functions and cognitive inhibition. We also tested whether rs1344706 is associated with white matter microstructural properties using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 250 to 340 of the Norwegian and Swedish subjects, respectively. Whole-brain voxel-wise statistical modeling of the effect of the ZNF804A variant on two DTI indices, fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD), was performed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), and commonly reported effect sizes were calculated within several large-scale white matter pathways based on neuroanatomic atlases. No significant associations were found between rs1344706 and the cognitive traits or white matter microstructure. We conclude that the rs1344706 SNP has no significant effect on these phenotypes in our two reasonably powered samples.
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7.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r(g) = -0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
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8.
  • Satizabal, Claudia L., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:11, s. 1624-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.
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9.
  • Thompson, Paul M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - 1931-7557 .- 1931-7565. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
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10.
  • Appel, Silke, et al. (författare)
  • Potential association of muscarinic receptor 3 gene variants with primary Sjogren's syndrome
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1468-2060 .- 0003-4967. ; 70:7, s. 1327-1329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) is characterised by a chronic inflammation of exocrine glands. Salivary gland infiltrates, however, do not correlate well with disease symptoms, and a primary role for the salivary gland parenchyma in disease development has been suggested. Specifically, dysfunction of exocrine pathways involving the muscarinic receptor 3 (CHRM3) has been indicated. Objective To investigate possible genetic divergence in the CHRM3 gene in patients with pSS. Methods 530 patients with pSS and 532 controls from a combined Swedish and Norwegian cohort were genotyped for 84 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed throughout CHRM3. Results Genetic association was observed with five SNPs localised in intron 3 and 4 of CHRM3, the strongest being rs7548522 (minor allele frequency = 0.06, OR=1.93, 95% CI (1.24 to 3.01); p=0.0033). In addition, clinical parameters, including focus score, abnormal Schirmer's test and presence of autoantibodies, were associated with different SNPs in CHRM3. Conclusion The study demonstrates a novel association of CHRM3 polymorphisms with pSS, suggesting a functional role for CHRM3 and the salivary gland parenchyma in the pathogenesis of pSS.
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