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1.
  • Chapuis, Julien, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide, high-content siRNA screening identifies the Alzheimer's genetic risk factor FERMT2 as a major modulator of APP metabolism.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica. - 1432-0533. ; 133:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified 19 susceptibility loci for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, understanding how these genes are involved in the pathophysiology of AD is one of the main challenges of the "post-GWAS" era. At least 123 genes are located within the 19 susceptibility loci; hence, a conventional approach (studying the genes one by one) would not be time- and cost-effective. We therefore developed a genome-wide, high-content siRNA screening approach and used it to assess the functional impact of gene under-expression on APP metabolism. We found that 832 genes modulated APP metabolism. Eight of these genes were located within AD susceptibility loci. Only FERMT2 (a β3-integrin co-activator) was also significantly associated with a variation in cerebrospinal fluid Aβ peptide levels in 2886 AD cases. Lastly, we showed that the under-expression of FERMT2 increases Aβ peptide production by raising levels of mature APP at the cell surface and facilitating its recycling. Taken as a whole, our data suggest that FERMT2 modulates the AD risk by regulating APP metabolism and Aβ peptide production.
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2.
  • Chapuis, Julien, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide, high-content siRNA screening identifies the Alzheimer’s genetic risk factor FERMT2 as a major modulator of APP metabolism
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - : Springer. - 0001-6322. ; 133:6, s. 955-966
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified 19 susceptibility loci for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, understanding how these genes are involved in the pathophysiology of AD is one of the main challenges of the “post-GWAS” era. At least 123 genes are located within the 19 susceptibility loci; hence, a conventional approach (studying the genes one by one) would not be time- and cost-effective. We therefore developed a genome-wide, high-content siRNA screening approach and used it to assess the functional impact of gene under-expression on APP metabolism. We found that 832 genes modulated APP metabolism. Eight of these genes were located within AD susceptibility loci. Only FERMT2 (a β3-integrin co-activator) was also significantly associated with a variation in cerebrospinal fluid Aβ peptide levels in 2886 AD cases. Lastly, we showed that the under-expression of FERMT2 increases Aβ peptide production by raising levels of mature APP at the cell surface and facilitating its recycling. Taken as a whole, our data suggest that FERMT2 modulates the AD risk by regulating APP metabolism and Aβ peptide production.
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3.
  • Deming, Yuetiva, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies four novel loci associated with Alzheimer's endophenotypes and disease modifiers.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica. - 1432-0533. ; 133:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • More than 20 genetic loci have been associated with risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but reported genome-wide significant loci do not account for all the estimated heritability and provide little information about underlying biological mechanisms. Genetic studies using intermediate quantitative traits such as biomarkers, or endophenotypes, benefit from increased statistical power to identify variants that may not pass the stringent multiple test correction in case-control studies. Endophenotypes also contain additional information helpful for identifying variants and genes associated with other aspects of disease, such as rate of progression or onset, and provide context to interpret the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We conducted GWAS of amyloid beta (Aβ42), tau, and phosphorylated tau (ptau181) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 3146 participants across nine studies to identify novel variants associated with AD. Five genome-wide significant loci (two novel) were associated with ptau181, including loci that have also been associated with AD risk or brain-related phenotypes. Two novel loci associated with Aβ42 near GLIS1 on 1p32.3 (β = -0.059, P = 2.08 × 10(-8)) and within SERPINB1 on 6p25 (β = -0.025, P = 1.72 × 10(-8)) were also associated with AD risk (GLIS1: OR = 1.105, P = 3.43 × 10(-2)), disease progression (GLIS1: β = 0.277, P = 1.92 × 10(-2)), and age at onset (SERPINB1: β = 0.043, P = 4.62 × 10(-3)). Bioinformatics indicate that the intronic SERPINB1 variant (rs316341) affects expression of SERPINB1 in various tissues, including the hippocampus, suggesting that SERPINB1 influences AD through an Aβ-associated mechanism. Analyses of known AD risk loci suggest CLU and FERMT2 may influence CSF Aβ42 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively) and the INPP5D locus may affect ptau181 levels (P = 0.009); larger studies are necessary to verify these results. Together the findings from this study can be used to inform future AD studies.
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4.
  • Deming, Yuetiva, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies four novel loci associated with Alzheimer’s endophenotypes and disease modifiers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - : Springer. - 0001-6322. ; 133:5, s. 839-856
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • More than 20 genetic loci have been associated with risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but reported genome-wide significant loci do not account for all the estimated heritability and provide little information about underlying biological mechanisms. Genetic studies using intermediate quantitative traits such as biomarkers, or endophenotypes, benefit from increased statistical power to identify variants that may not pass the stringent multiple test correction in case–control studies. Endophenotypes also contain additional information helpful for identifying variants and genes associated with other aspects of disease, such as rate of progression or onset, and provide context to interpret the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We conducted GWAS of amyloid beta (Aβ42), tau, and phosphorylated tau (ptau181) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 3146 participants across nine studies to identify novel variants associated with AD. Five genome-wide significant loci (two novel) were associated with ptau181, including loci that have also been associated with AD risk or brain-related phenotypes. Two novel loci associated with Aβ42 near GLIS1 on 1p32.3 (β = −0.059, P = 2.08 × 10−8) and within SERPINB1 on 6p25 (β = −0.025, P = 1.72 × 10−8) were also associated with AD risk (GLIS1: OR = 1.105, P = 3.43 × 10−2), disease progression (GLIS1: β = 0.277, P = 1.92 × 10−2), and age at onset (SERPINB1: β = 0.043, P = 4.62 × 10−3). Bioinformatics indicate that the intronic SERPINB1 variant (rs316341) affects expression of SERPINB1 in various tissues, including the hippocampus, suggesting that SERPINB1 influences AD through an Aβ-associated mechanism. Analyses of known AD risk loci suggest CLU and FERMT2 may influence CSF Aβ42 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively) and the INPP5D locus may affect ptau181 levels (P = 0.009); larger studies are necessary to verify these results. Together the findings from this study can be used to inform future AD studies.
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5.
  • Thakur, Poonam, et al. (författare)
  • Modeling Parkinson’s disease pathology by combination of fibril seeds and α-synuclein overexpression in the rat brain
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Acad Sciences. - 0027-8424. ; 114:39, s. 8284-8293
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although a causative role of α-synuclein (α-syn) is well established in Parkinson’s disease pathogenesis, available animal models of synucleinopathy do not replicate the full range of cellular and behavioral changes characteristic of the human disease. This study was designed to generate a more faithful model of Parkinson’s disease by injecting human α-syn fibril seeds into the rat substantia nigra (SN), in combination with adenoassociated virus (AAV)-mediated overexpression of human α-syn, at levels that, by themselves, are unable to induce acute dopamine (DA) neurodegeneration. We show that the ability of human α-syn fibrils to trigger Lewy-like α-synuclein pathology in the affected DA neurons is dramatically enhanced in the presence of elevated levels of human α-syn. This synucleinopathy was fully developed already 10 days after fibril injection, accompanied by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in SN, neuritic swelling, reduced striatal DA release, and impaired motor behavior. Moreover, a prominent inflammatory response involving both activation of resident microglia and infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes was observed. Hypertrophic microglia were found to enclose or engulf cells and processes containing Lewy-like α-syn aggregates. α-Syn aggregates were also observed inside these cells, suggesting transfer of phosphorylated α-syn from the affected nigral neurons. The nigral pathology triggered by fibrils in combination with AAV-mediated overexpression of α-syn reproduced many of the cardinal features of the human disease. The short time span and the distinct sequence of pathological and degenerative changes make this combined approach attractive as an experimental model for the assessment of neuroprotective and disease-modifying strategies.
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