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Sökning: WFRF:(Lehto Mika)

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1.
  • Wachtell, K., et al. (författare)
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockade reduces new-onset atrial fibrillation and subsequent stroke compared to atenolol: the Losartan Intervention For End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: J Am Coll Cardiol. - 0735-1097. ; 45:5, s. 712-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate whether different antihypertensive treatment regimens with similar blood pressure reduction have different effects on new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF). BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether angiotensin II receptor blockade is better than beta-blockade in preventing new-onset AF. METHODS: In the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study 9,193 hypertensive patients and patients with electrocardiogram-documented left ventricular hypertrophy were randomized to once-daily losartan- or atenolol-based antihypertensive therapy. Electrocardiograms were Minnesota coded centrally, and 8,851 patients without AF by electrocardiogram or history, who were thus at risk of developing AF, were followed for 4.8 +/- 1.0 years. RESULTS: New-onset AF occurred in 150 patients randomized to losartan versus 221 to atenolol (6.8 vs. 10.1 per 1,000 person-years; relative risk 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55 to 0.83, p < 0.001) despite similar blood pressure reduction. Patients receiving losartan tended to stay in sinus rhythm longer (1,809 +/- 225 vs. 1,709 +/- 254 days from baseline, p = 0.057) than those receiving atenolol. Moreover, patients with new-onset AF had two-, three- and fivefold increased rates, respectively, of cardiovascular events, stroke, and hospitalization for heart failure. There were fewer composite end points (n = 31 vs. 51, hazard ratio = 0.60, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.94, p = 0.03) and strokes (n = 19 vs. 38, hazard ratio = 0.49, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.86, p = 0.01) in patients who developed new-onset AF in the losartan compared to the atenolol treatment arm of the study. Furthermore, Cox regression analysis showed that losartan (21% risk reduction) and new-onset AF both independently predicted stroke even when adjusting for traditional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel finding is that new-onset AF and associated stroke were significantly reduced by losartan- compared to atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment with similar blood pressure reduction.
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2.
  • Wachtell, K., et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients with a history of atrial fibrillation: The Losartan Intervention For End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: J Am Coll Cardiol. - 0735-1097. ; 45:5, s. 705-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: We assessed the impact of antihypertensive treatment in hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic (ECG) left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and a history of atrial fibrillation (AF). BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment of hypertensive patients with AF to reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains unclear. METHODS: As part of the Losartan Intervention For End point reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study, 342 hypertensive patients with AF and LV hypertrophy were assigned to losartan- or atenolol-based therapy for 1,471 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: The primary composite end point (cardiovascular mortality, stroke, and myocardial infarction) occurred in 36 patients in the losartan group versus 67 in the atenolol group (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39 to 0.88, p = 0.009). Cardiovascular deaths occurred in 20 versus 38 patients in the losartan and atenolol groups, respectively (HR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.99, p = 0.048). Stroke occurred in 18 versus 38 patients (HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.97, p = 0.039), and myocardial infarction in 11 versus 8 patients (p = NS). Losartan-based treatment led to trends toward lower all-cause mortality (30 vs. 49, HR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.06, p = 0.090) and fewer pacemaker implantations (5 vs. 15, p = 0.065), whereas hospitalization for heart failure took place in 15 versus 26 patients and sudden cardiac death in 9 versus 17, respectively (both p = NS). The benefit of losartan was greater in patients with AF than those with sinus rhythm for the primary composite end point (p = 0.019) and cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Losartan is more effective than atenolol-based therapy in reducing the risk of the primary composite end point of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as stroke and cardiovascular death in hypertensive patients with ECG LV hypertrophy and AF.
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3.
  • Jönsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Microwave Ablation in Mitral Valve Surgery for Atrial Fibrillation (MAMA)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation. - : Cardiofront. - 1941-6911. ; 5:2, s. 13-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Microwave ablation in conjunction with open heart surgery is effective in restoring sinus rhythm (SR) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In patients assigned for isolated mitral valve surgery no prospective randomized trial has reported its efficacy.Methods: 70 patients with longlasting AF where included from 5 different centres. They were randomly assigned to mitral valve surgery and atrial microwave ablation or mitral valve surgery alone.Results: Out of 70 randomized, 66 and 64 patients were available for evaluation at 6 and 12 months. At 12 months SR was restored and preserved in 71.0 % in the ablation group vs 36.4 % in the control group (P=0.006), corresponding figures at 6 months was 62.5 % vs 26.5 % (P=0.003). The 30-day mortality rate was 1.4 %, with one death in the ablation group vs zero deaths in the control group. At 12 months the mortality rate was 7,1 % (Ablation n=3 vs Control n=2). No significant differences existed between the groups with regard to the overall rate of serious adverse events (SAE) during the perioperative period or at the end of the study. 16 % of patients randomized to ablation were on antiarrhytmic drugs compared to 6 % in the control group after 1 year (p=0.22).Conclusion: Microwave ablation of left and right atrium in conjunction with mitral valve surgery is safe and effectively restores sinus rhythm in patients with longlasting AF as compared to mitral valve surgery alone.
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4.
  • Pirinen, Jani, et al. (författare)
  • Are 12-lead ECG findings associated with the risk of cardiovascular events after ischemic stroke in young adults?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Annals of medicine. - 1365-2060. ; 48:7, s. 532-540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ischemic stroke (IS) in a young patient is a disaster and recurrent cardiovascular events could add further impairment. Identifying patients with high risk of such events is therefore important. The prognostic relevance of ECG for this population is unknown.A total of 690 IS patients aged 15-49 years were included. A 12-lead ECG was obtained 1-14 d after the onset of stroke. We adjusted for demographic factors, comorbidities, and stroke characteristics, Cox regression models were used to identify independent ECG parameters associated with long-term risks of (1) any cardiovascular event, (2) cardiac events, and (3) recurrent stroke.Median follow-up time was 8.8 years. About 26.4% of patients experienced a cardiovascular event, 14.5% had cardiac events, and 14.6% recurrent strokes. ECG parameters associated with recurrent cardiovascular events were bundle branch blocks, P-terminal force, left ventricular hypertrophy, and a broader QRS complex. Furthermore, more leftward P-wave axis, prolonged QTc, and P-wave duration >120 ms were associated with increased risks of cardiac events. No ECG parameters were independently associated with recurrent stroke.A 12-lead ECG can be used for risk prediction of cardiovascular events but not for recurrent stroke in young IS patients. KEY MESSAGES ECG is an easy, inexpensive, and useful tool for identifying young ischemic stroke patients with a high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events and it has a statistically significant association with these events even after adjusting for confounding factors. Bundle branch blocks, P-terminal force, broader QRS complex, LVH according to Cornell voltage duration criteria, more leftward P-wave axis, prolonged QTc, and P-wave duration >120 ms are predictors for future cardiovascular or cardiac events in these patients. No ECG parameters were independently associated with recurrent stroke.
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5.
  • Pirinen, Jani, et al. (författare)
  • Twelve-lead electrocardiogram and mortality in young adults after ischaemic stroke
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Stroke Journal. ; 2:1, s. 77-86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Ischaemic stroke at young age carries an increased risk for mortality in comparison to the general population, but factors associated with mortality have been poorly studied. We studied the role of electrocardiogram in mortality risk stratification in young stroke patients. Patients and methods: The Helsinki Young Stroke Registry encompasses 1008 patients aged <50 years with ischaemic stroke. We included 690 patients for this electrocardiogram substudy. Our endpoints were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Cox regression models – adjusted for clinical and demographic characteristics – were used to identify the electrocardiogram parameters associated with these endpoints. Results: At a mean follow-up of 8.8 years, cumulative all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 16.1 and 9.1%, respectively. Factors associated with both endpoints included diabetes (type 1 for all-cause, type 2 for cardiovascular mortality), heavy drinking, malignancy, as well as stroke severity and aetiology. Of the electrocardiogram parameters, higher heart rate (hazard ratio 1.35 per 10/min, 95% confidence interval 1.21–1.49), a shorter P-wave (hazard ratio 0.78 per 10 ms decrement, 0.64–0.92) and longer QTc interval (1.09 per 10 ms, 1.03–1.16) were associated with increased all-cause mortality. Only a higher heart rate (1.42 per 10/min, 1.24–1.60) was associated with death from cardiovascular causes. Conclusions: A higher heart rate during the subacute phase after stroke is associated with an elevated risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in young adults. A longer QTc interval is associated only with higher all-cause mortality. P-wave characteristics and their possible association with mortality need further studies.
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6.
  • Putaala, Jukka, et al. (författare)
  • Searching for Explanations for Cryptogenic Stroke in the Young: Revealing the Triggers, Causes, and Outcome (SECRETO): Rationale and design
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Stroke Journal. - : SAGE Publications. - 2396-9873. ; 2:2, s. 116-125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Worldwide, about 1.3 million annual ischaemic strokes (IS) occur in adults aged <50 years. Of theseearly-onset strokes, up to 50% can be regarded as cryptogenic or associated with conditions with poorly documented causality like patent foramen ovale and coagulopathies. Key hypotheses/aims: (1) Investigate transient triggers and clinical/sub-clinical chronic risk factors associated with cryptogenic IS in the young; (2) use cardiac imaging methods exceeding state-of-the-art to reveal novel sources for embolism; (3) search for covert thrombosis and haemostasis abnormalities; (4) discover new disease pathways using next-generation sequencing and RNA gene expression studies; (5) determine patient prognosis by use of phenotypic and genetic data; and (6) adapt systems medicine approach to investigate complex risk-factor interactions. Design: Searching for Explanations for Cryptogenic Stroke in the Young: Revealing the Etiology, Triggers, and Outcome (SECRETO; NCT01934725) is a prospective multi-centre case–control study enrolling patients aged 18–49 years hospitalised due to first-ever imaging-proven IS of undetermined etiology. Patients are examined according to a standardised protocol and followed up for 10 years. Patients are 1:1 age- and sex-matched to stroke-free controls. Key study elements include centralised reading of echocardiography, electrocardiography, and neurovascular imaging, as well as blood samples for genetic, gene-expression, thrombosis and haemostasis and biomarker analysis. We aim to have 600 patient–control pairs enrolled by the end of 2018. Summary: SECRETO is aiming to establish novel mechanisms and prognosis of cryptogenic IS in the young and will provide new directions for therapy development for these patients. First results are anticipated in 2019.
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7.
  • van Dongen, Myrna Marita Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Use of Statins After Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults and Its Association With Long-Term Outcome.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 1524-4628. ; 50:12, s. 3385-3392
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose- Knowledge of the use of secondary preventive medication in young adults is limited. We studied the use of statins and its association with subsequent vascular events in young adults with ischemic stroke-a patient group with a known low burden of atherosclerosis. Methods- The study population included 935 first-ever 30-day ischemic stroke survivors aged 15 to 49 years from the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, 1994 to 2007. Follow-up data until 2012 were obtained from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Drug Prescription Register), the Finnish Care Register, and Statistics Finland. The association of the use of statins (defined as at least 2 purchases) with all-cause mortality, recurrent stroke, and other recurrent vascular events was assessed through adjusted Cox regression analyses. We further compared propensity score-matched statin users with nonusers. Results- Of our 935 patients, 46.8% used statins at some point during follow-up. Higher age, dyslipidemia, heavy alcohol use, and hypertension were significantly associated with purchasing statins. Statin users exhibited lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.25-0.58]) and recurrent stroke (hazard ratio, 0.29 [95% CI, 0.19-0.44]) than nonusers, after adjustment for dyslipidemia, stroke subtype, and other confounders. These results remained unchanged after propensity score-matched comparison. Conclusions- Less than half of young ischemic stroke patients used statins; use was affected by age and risk factor profile. Statin use was independently associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent stroke.
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