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Sökning: WFRF:(Leitzmann M)

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1.
  • Heid, Iris M, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 42:11, s. 949-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10(-9) to P = 1.8 × 10(-40)) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10(-3) to P = 1.2 × 10(-13)). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions.
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2.
  • Baumeister, Sebastian E., et al. (författare)
  • Association between physical activity and risk of hepatobiliary cancers : A multinational cohort study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 0168-8278 .- 1600-0641. ; 70:5, s. 885-892
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims: To date, evidence on the association between physical activity and risk of hepatobiliary cancers has been inconclusive. We examined this association in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (EPIC).Methods: We identified 275 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, 93 intrahepatic bile duct cancers (IHBCs), and 164 non-gallbladder extrahepatic bile duct cancers (NGBCs) among 467,336 EPIC participants (median follow-up 14.9 years). We estimated cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for total physical activity and vigorous physical activity and performed mediation analysis and secondary analyses to assess robustness to confounding (e.g. due to hepatitis virus infection).Results: In the EPIC cohort, the multivariable-adjusted HR of HCC was 0.55 (95% CI 0.38–0.80) comparing active and inactive individuals. Regarding vigorous physical activity, for those reporting >2 hours/week compared to those with no vigorous activity, the HR for HCC was 0.50 (95% CI 0.33–0.76). Estimates were similar in sensitivity analyses for confounding. Total and vigorous physical activity were unrelated to IHBC and NGBC. In mediation analysis, waist circumference explained about 40% and body mass index 30% of the overall association of total physical activity and HCC.Conclusions: These findings suggest an inverse association between physical activity and risk of HCC, which is potentially mediated by obesity.Lay summary: In a pan-European study of 467,336 men and women, we found that physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of developing liver cancers over the next decade. This risk was independent of other liver cancer risk factors, and did not vary by age, gender, smoking status, body weight, and alcohol consumption.
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3.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity, mediating factors and risk of colon cancer : insights into adiposity and circulating biomarkers from the EPIC cohort
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 46:6, s. 1823-1835
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is convincing evidence that high physical activity lowers the risk of colon cancer; however, the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. We aimed to determine the extent to which body fatness and biomarkers of various biologically plausible pathways account for the association between physical activity and colon cancer. We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 519 978 men and women aged 25 to 70 years followed from 1992 to 2003. A total of 713 incident colon cancer cases were matched, using risk-set sampling, to 713 controls on age, sex, study centre, fasting status and hormonal therapy use. The amount of total physical activity during the past year was expressed in metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-h/week. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected at study baseline. High physical activity was associated with a lower risk of colon cancer: relative risk a parts per thousand91 MET-h/week vs < 91 MET-h/week = 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57 to 0.96]. In mediation analyses, this association was accounted for by waist circumference: proportion explained effect (PEE) = 17%; CI: 4% to 52%; and the biomarkers soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R): PEE = 15%; 95% CI: 1% to 50% and 5-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D): PEE = 30%; 95% CI: 12% to 88%. In combination, these factors explained 45% (95% CI: 20% to 125%) of the association. Beyond waist circumference, sOB-R and 25[OH]D additionally explained 10% (95% CI: 1%; 56%) and 23% (95% CI: 6%; 111%) of the association, respectively. Promoting physical activity, particularly outdoors, and maintaining metabolic health and adequate vitamin D levels could represent a promising strategy for colon cancer prevention.
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4.
  • Genkinger, J M, et al. (författare)
  • A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies of dietary fat, cholesterol and egg intake and ovarian cancer
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Harvard Ctr Canc Prevent, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA. Loma Linda Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Hlth Res, Loma Linda, CA USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY 14260 USA. : SPRINGER. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 17:3, s. 273-285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fat and cholesterol are theorized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by increasing circulating estrogen levels. Although case-control studies have reported positive associations between total and saturated fat intake and ovarian cancer risk, two cohort studies have observed null associations. Dietary cholesterol and eggs have been positively associated with ovarian cancer risk. A pooled analysis was conducted on 12 cohort studies. Among 523,217 women, 2,132 incident epithelial ovarian cancer cases were identified. Study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, and then pooled using a random effects model. Total fat intake was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (pooled multivariate RR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.86-1.34 comparing >= 45 to 30-< 35% of calories). No association was observed for monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, trans-unsaturated, animal and vegetable fat, cholesterol and egg intakes with ovarian cancer risk. A weakly positive, but non-linear association, was observed for saturated fat intake (pooled multivariate RR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.01-1.66 comparing highest versus lowest decile). Results for histologic subtypes were similar. Overall, fat, cholesterol and egg intakes were not associated with ovarian cancer risk. The positive association for saturated fat intake at very high intakes merits further investigation.
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5.
  • Koushik, A, et al. (författare)
  • Fruits and vegetables and ovarian cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Ctr Canc Prevent, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA. NYU, Sch Med, Div Epidemiol, Dept Environm Med, New York, NY USA. NYU, Sch Med, Div Biostat, Dept Environm Med, New York, NY USA. Loma Linda Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Hlth Res, Loma Linda, CA USA. Maastricht Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. Mayo Clin & Mayo Fdn, Dept Hlth Sci Res, Coll Med, Rochester, MN 55905 USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY 14260 USA. TNO, Nutr & Food Res Inst, Dept Epidemiol, Zeist, Netherlands. Karolinska Inst, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Natl Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. Amer Canc Soc, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. : AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 14:9, s. 2160-2167
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Because fruits and vegetables are rich in bioactive compounds with potential cancer-preventive actions, increased consumption may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. Evidence on the association between fruit and vegetable intake and ovarian cancer risk has not been consistent. We analyzed and pooled the primary data from 12 prospective studies in North America and Europe. Fruit and vegetable intake was measured at baseline in each study using a validated food frequency questionnaire. To summarize the association between fruit and vegetable intake and ovarian cancer, study-specific relative risks (RR) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model, and then combined using a random-effects model. Among 560,441 women, 2,130 cases of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer occurred during a maximum follow-up of 7 to 22 years across studies. Total fruit intake was not associated with ovarian cancer risk-the pooled multivariate RR for the highest versus the lowest quartile of intake was 1.06 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.92-1.21; P value, test for trend = 0.73; P value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.741. Similarly, results for total vegetable intake indicated no significant association (pooled multivariate RR, 0.90; 95% Cl, 0.78-1.04, for the highest versus the lowest quartile; P value, test for trend = 0.06; P value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.31). Intakes of botanically defined fruit and vegetable groups and individual fruits and vegetables were also not associated with ovarian cancer risk. Associations for total fruits and vegetables were similar for different histologic types. These results suggest that fruit and vegetable consumption in adulthood has no important association with the risk of ovarian cancer.
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6.
  • Ward, Heather A., et al. (författare)
  • Gallstones and incident colorectal cancer in a large pan-European cohort study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 145:6, s. 1510-1516
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gallstones, a common gastrointestinal condition, can lead to several digestive complications and can result in inflammation. Risk factors for gallstones include obesity, diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity, all of which are known risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), as is inflammation. However, it is unclear whether gallstones are a risk factor for CRC. We examined the association between history of gallstones and CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, a prospective cohort of over half a million participants from ten European countries. History of gallstones was assessed at baseline using a self‐reported questionnaire. The analytic cohort included 334,986 participants; a history of gallstones was reported by 3,917 men and 19,836 women, and incident CRC was diagnosed among 1,832 men and 2,178 women (mean follow‐up: 13.6 years). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between gallstones and CRC were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models, stratified by sex, study centre and age at recruitment. The models were adjusted for body mass index, diabetes, alcohol intake and physical activity. A positive, marginally significant association was detected between gallstones and CRC among women in multivariable analyses (HR = 1.14, 95%CI 0.99–1.31, p = 0.077). The relationship between gallstones and CRC among men was inverse but not significant (HR = 0.81, 95%CI 0.63–1.04, p = 0.10). Additional adjustment for details of reproductive history or waist circumference yielded minimal changes to the observed associations. Further research is required to confirm the nature of the association between gallstones and CRC by sex.
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7.
  • Genkinger, J M, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk : a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol, Minneapolis, MN USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY USA. TNO, Dept Food & Chem Risk Anal, Zeist, Netherlands. Natl Inst Environm Med, Karolinska Inst, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. Amer Canc Soc, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA. Univ Toronto, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Fac Med, Toronto, ON, Canada. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. Maastricht Univ, NUTRIM, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 94:5, s. 757-762
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alcohol has been hypothesized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by its potential to increase circulating levels of estrogen and other hormones; through its oxidation byproduct, acetaldehyde, which may act as a cocarcinogen; and by depletion of folate and other nutrients. Case-control and cohort studies have reported conflicting results relating alcohol intake to ovarian cancer risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of the primary data from ten prospective cohort studies. The analysis included 529 638 women among whom 2001 incident epithelial ovarian cases were documented. After study-specific relative risks ( RR) and 95% confidence intervals ( CI) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, and then were pooled using a random effects model; no associations were observed for intakes of total alcohol ( pooled multivariate RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.86-1.44 comparing >= 30 to 0 g day(-1) of alcohol) or alcohol from wine, beer or spirits and ovarian cancer risk. The association with alcohol consumption was not modified by oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, parity, menopausal status, folate intake, body mass index, or smoking. Associations for endometrioid, mucinous, and serous ovarian cancer were similar to the overall findings. This pooled analysis does not support an association between moderate alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk.
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8.
  • Genkinger, J M, et al. (författare)
  • Dairy products and ovarian cancer : A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA USA. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA. NYU, Dept Environm Med, Div Epidemiol, New York, NY 10016 USA. Loma Linda Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Hlth Res, Loma Linda, CA USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY 14260 USA. Netherlands Org Appl Sci Res Qual Life, Dept Food & Chem Risk Anal, Zeist, Netherlands. Univ Oslo, Dept Nutr, Oslo, Norway. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, NIH, Dept Hlth & Human Serv, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. Natl Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden. Amer Canc Soc, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. Maastricht Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Nutr & Toxicol Res Inst, Maastricht, Netherlands. : AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 15:2, s. 364-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Dairy foods and their constituents (lactose and calcium) have been hypothesized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis. Although case-control studies have reported conflicting results for dairy foods and lactose, several cohort studies have shown positive associations between skim milk, lactose, and ovarian cancer. Methods: A pooled analysis of the primary data from 12 prospective cohort studies was conducted. The study population consisted of 553,217 women among whom 2,132 epithelial ovarian cases were identified. Study-specific relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled by a random-effects model. Results: No statistically significant associations were observed between intakes of milk, cheese, yogurt, ice cream, and dietary and total calcium intake and risk of ovarian cancer. Higher lactose intakes comparing >= 30 versus < 10 g/d were associated with a statistically significant higher risk of ovarian cancer, although the trend was not statistically significant (pooled multivariate relative risk, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.40; P-trend = 0.19). Associations for endometrioid, mucinous, and serous ovarian cancer were similar to the overall findings. Discussion: Overall, no associations were observed for intakes of specific dairy foods or calcium and ovarian cancer risk. A modest elevation in the risk of ovarian cancer was seen for lactose intake at the level that was equivalent to three or more servings of milk per day. Because a new dietary guideline recommends two to three servings of dairy products per day, the relation between dairy product consumption and ovarian cancer risk at these consumption levels deserves further examination.
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9.
  • Augustsson, Katarina, et al. (författare)
  • A prospective study of intake of fish and marine fatty acids and prostate cancer
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 12:1, s. 64-67
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Experimental studies suggest that marine fatty acids have an antitumor effect on prostate tumor cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high consumption of fish and marine fatty acids reduces the risk of prostate cancer in humans. We followed 47,882 men participating in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Dietary intake was assessed in 1986, 1990, and 1994, using a validated food frequency questionnaire. During 12 years of follow-up, 2,482 cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed, of which 617 were diagnosed as advanced prostate cancer including 278 metastatic prostate cancers. Eating fish more than three times per week was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer, and the strongest association was for metastatic cancer (multivariate relative risk, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.86, compared with infrequent consumption, i.e., less than twice per month). Intake of marine fatty acids from food showed a similar but weaker association. Each additional daily intake of 0.5 g of marine fatty acid from food was associated with a 24% decreased risk of metastatic cancer. We found that men with high consumption of fish had a lower risk of prostate cancer, especially for metastatic cancer. Marine fatty acids may account for part of the effect, but other factors in fish may also play a role.
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10.
  • Genkinger, Jeanine M., et al. (författare)
  • A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies of anthropometric factors and pancreatic cancer risk
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : WILEY. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 129:7, s. 1708-1717
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiologic studies of pancreatic cancer risk have reported null or nonsignificant positive associations for obesity, while associations for height have been null. Waist and hip circumference have been evaluated infrequently. A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies on 846,340 individuals was conducted; 2,135 individuals were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer during follow-up. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, and then pooled using a random effects model. Compared to individuals with a body mass index (BMI) at baseline between 21-22.9 kg/m(2), pancreatic cancer risk was 47% higher (95% CI:23-75%) among obese (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) individuals. A positive association was observed for BMI in early adulthood (pooled multivariate [MV]RR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.09-1.56 comparing BMI >= 25 kg/m(2) to a BMI between 21 and 22.9 kg/m(2)). Compared to individuals who were not overweight in early adulthood (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) and not obese at baseline (BMI < 30 kg/m(2)), pancreatic cancer risk was 54% higher (95%CI = 24-93%) for those who were overweight in early adulthood and obese at baseline. We observed a 40% higher risk among individuals who had gained BMI >= 10 kg/m(2) between BMI at baseline and younger ages compared to individuals whose BMI remained stable. Results were either similar or slightly stronger among never smokers. A positive association was observed between waist to hip ratio (WHR) and pancreatic cancer risk (pooled MVRR = 1.35 comparing the highest versus lowest quartile, 95%CI = 1.03-1.78). BMI and WHR were positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Maintaining normal body weight may offer a feasible approach to reducing morbidity and mortality from pancreatic cancer.
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