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Sökning: WFRF:(Leitzmann Michael)

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1.
  • Heid, Iris M, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 42:11, s. 949-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10(-9) to P = 1.8 × 10(-40)) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10(-3) to P = 1.2 × 10(-13)). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions.
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2.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity, mediating factors and risk of colon cancer : insights into adiposity and circulating biomarkers from the EPIC cohort
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 46:6, s. 1823-1835
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is convincing evidence that high physical activity lowers the risk of colon cancer; however, the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. We aimed to determine the extent to which body fatness and biomarkers of various biologically plausible pathways account for the association between physical activity and colon cancer. We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 519 978 men and women aged 25 to 70 years followed from 1992 to 2003. A total of 713 incident colon cancer cases were matched, using risk-set sampling, to 713 controls on age, sex, study centre, fasting status and hormonal therapy use. The amount of total physical activity during the past year was expressed in metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-h/week. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected at study baseline. High physical activity was associated with a lower risk of colon cancer: relative risk a parts per thousand91 MET-h/week vs < 91 MET-h/week = 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57 to 0.96]. In mediation analyses, this association was accounted for by waist circumference: proportion explained effect (PEE) = 17%; CI: 4% to 52%; and the biomarkers soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R): PEE = 15%; 95% CI: 1% to 50% and 5-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D): PEE = 30%; 95% CI: 12% to 88%. In combination, these factors explained 45% (95% CI: 20% to 125%) of the association. Beyond waist circumference, sOB-R and 25[OH]D additionally explained 10% (95% CI: 1%; 56%) and 23% (95% CI: 6%; 111%) of the association, respectively. Promoting physical activity, particularly outdoors, and maintaining metabolic health and adequate vitamin D levels could represent a promising strategy for colon cancer prevention.
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3.
  • Baumeister, Sebastian E., et al. (författare)
  • Association between physical activity and risk of hepatobiliary cancers : A multinational cohort study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 0168-8278 .- 1600-0641. ; 70:5, s. 885-892
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims: To date, evidence on the association between physical activity and risk of hepatobiliary cancers has been inconclusive. We examined this association in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (EPIC).Methods: We identified 275 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, 93 intrahepatic bile duct cancers (IHBCs), and 164 non-gallbladder extrahepatic bile duct cancers (NGBCs) among 467,336 EPIC participants (median follow-up 14.9 years). We estimated cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for total physical activity and vigorous physical activity and performed mediation analysis and secondary analyses to assess robustness to confounding (e.g. due to hepatitis virus infection).Results: In the EPIC cohort, the multivariable-adjusted HR of HCC was 0.55 (95% CI 0.38–0.80) comparing active and inactive individuals. Regarding vigorous physical activity, for those reporting >2 hours/week compared to those with no vigorous activity, the HR for HCC was 0.50 (95% CI 0.33–0.76). Estimates were similar in sensitivity analyses for confounding. Total and vigorous physical activity were unrelated to IHBC and NGBC. In mediation analysis, waist circumference explained about 40% and body mass index 30% of the overall association of total physical activity and HCC.Conclusions: These findings suggest an inverse association between physical activity and risk of HCC, which is potentially mediated by obesity.Lay summary: In a pan-European study of 467,336 men and women, we found that physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of developing liver cancers over the next decade. This risk was independent of other liver cancer risk factors, and did not vary by age, gender, smoking status, body weight, and alcohol consumption.
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4.
  • Genkinger, Jeanine M., et al. (författare)
  • A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies of anthropometric factors and pancreatic cancer risk
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : WILEY. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 129:7, s. 1708-1717
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiologic studies of pancreatic cancer risk have reported null or nonsignificant positive associations for obesity, while associations for height have been null. Waist and hip circumference have been evaluated infrequently. A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies on 846,340 individuals was conducted; 2,135 individuals were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer during follow-up. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, and then pooled using a random effects model. Compared to individuals with a body mass index (BMI) at baseline between 21-22.9 kg/m(2), pancreatic cancer risk was 47% higher (95% CI:23-75%) among obese (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) individuals. A positive association was observed for BMI in early adulthood (pooled multivariate [MV]RR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.09-1.56 comparing BMI >= 25 kg/m(2) to a BMI between 21 and 22.9 kg/m(2)). Compared to individuals who were not overweight in early adulthood (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) and not obese at baseline (BMI < 30 kg/m(2)), pancreatic cancer risk was 54% higher (95%CI = 24-93%) for those who were overweight in early adulthood and obese at baseline. We observed a 40% higher risk among individuals who had gained BMI >= 10 kg/m(2) between BMI at baseline and younger ages compared to individuals whose BMI remained stable. Results were either similar or slightly stronger among never smokers. A positive association was observed between waist to hip ratio (WHR) and pancreatic cancer risk (pooled MVRR = 1.35 comparing the highest versus lowest quartile, 95%CI = 1.03-1.78). BMI and WHR were positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Maintaining normal body weight may offer a feasible approach to reducing morbidity and mortality from pancreatic cancer.
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5.
  • Genkinger, Jeanine M., et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol Intake and Pancreatic Cancer Risk : A Pooled Analysis of Fourteen Cohort Studies
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 18:3, s. 765-776
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Few risk factors have been implicated in pancreatic cancer etiology. Alcohol has been theorized to promote carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results relating alcohol intake to pancreatic cancer risk. Methods: We conducted a pooled analysis of the primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies. The study sample consisted of 862,664 individuals among whom 2,187 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified. Study-specific relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. Results: A slight positive association with pancreatic cancer risk was observed for alcohol intake (pooled multivariate relative risk, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.45 comparing >= 30 to 0 grams/day of alcohol; P value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.80). For this comparison, the positive association was only statistically significant among women although the difference in the results by gender was not statistically significant (P value, test for interaction = 0.19). Slightly stronger results for alcohol intake were observed when we limited the analysis to cases with adenocarcinomas of the pancreas. No statistically significant associations were observed for alcohol from wine, beer, and spirits comparing intakes of >= 5 to 0 grams/day. A stronger positive association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk was observed among normal weight individuals compared with overweight and obese individuals (P value, test for interaction = 0.01). Discussion: Our findings are consistent with a modest increase in risk of pancreatic cancer with consumption of 30 or more grams of alcohol per day. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(3):765-76)
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6.
  • Kim, Dong-Hyun, et al. (författare)
  • Pooled analyses of 13 prospective cohort studies on folate intake and colon cancer
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : SPRINGER. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 21:11, s. 1919-1930
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies of folate intake and colorectal cancer risk have been inconsistent. We examined the relation with colon cancer risk in a series of 13 prospective studies. Study- and sex-specific relative risks (RRs) were estimated from the primary data using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 725,134 participants, 5,720 incident colon cancers were diagnosed during follow-up. The pooled multivariate RRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.92 (95% CI 0.84-1.00, p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.85) for dietary folate and 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-0.95, p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.42) for total folate. Results for total folate intake were similar in analyses using absolute intake cutpoints (pooled multivariate RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.98, comparing a parts per thousand yen560 mcg/days vs. < 240 mcg/days, p-value, test for trend = 0.009). When analyzed as a continuous variable, a 2% risk reduction (95% CI 0-3%) was estimated for every 100 mu g/day increase in total folate intake. These data support the hypothesis that higher folate intake is modestly associated with reduced risk of colon cancer.
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7.
  • Koushik, Anita, et al. (författare)
  • Fruits, vegetables, and colon cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Univ Montreal, CHUM, Ctr Rech, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ H2W 1V1, Canada. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Loma Linda Univ, Ctr Hlth Res, Loma Linda, CA 92350 USA. Maastricht Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. Amer Canc Soc, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Univ Buffalo State Univ New York, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY 14222 USA. Roswell Pk Canc Inst, Dept Canc Prevent & Populat Sci, Buffalo, NY 14263 USA. Dana Farber Canc Inst, Dept Adult Oncol, Boston, MA USA. TNO, Dept Food & Chem Risk Anal, Zeist, Netherlands. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pathol, Karmanos Canc Inst, Detroit, MI 48201 USA. Natl Canc Inst, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, I-20133 Milan, Italy. Karolinska Inst, Natl Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Promot, Helsinki, Finland. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. AZJ, Div Epidemiol, Dept Environm Med, New York, NY USA. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 99:19, s. 1471-1483
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Fruit and vegetable intakes have been associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer; however, in more recent studies associations have been less consistent. Statistical power to examine associations by colon site has been limited in previous studies. Methods Fruit and vegetable intakes in relation to colon cancer risk were examined in the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (Cis) were estimated separately in 14 studies using Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a randomeffects model. Intakes of total fruits and vegetables, total fruits, and total vegetables were categorized according to quintiles and absolute cutpoints. Analyses were conducted for colon cancer overall and for proximal and distal colon cancer separately. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Among 756217 men and women followed for up to 6 to 20 years, depending on the study, 5838 were diagnosed with colon cancer. The pooled multivariable RRs (95% Cis) of colon cancer for the highest versus lowest quintiles of intake were 0.91 (0.82 to 1-01 1 P-trend =.19) for total fruits and vegetables, 0.93 (0.85 to 1.02, P-trend =.28) for total fruits, and 0.94 (0.86 to 1.02, P-trend =.17) for total vegetables. Similar results were observed when intakes were categorized by identical absolute cut points across studies (pooled multivariable FIR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.77 to 1.05 for 800 or more versus <200 g/day of total fruits and vegetables, P-trend =.06). The age-standardized incidence rates of colon cancer for these two intake categories were 54 and 61 per 100000 person-years, respectively. When analyzed by colon site, the pooled multivariable RRs (95% Cis) comparing total fruit and vegetable intakes of 800 or more versus less than 200 g/day were 0.74 (0.57 to 0.95, P-trend =.02) for distal colon cancers and 1.02 (0.82 to 1.27, P-trend =.57) for proximal colon cancers. Similar site-specific associations were observed for total fruits and total vegetables. Conclusion Fruit and vegetable intakes were not strongly associated with colon cancer risk overall but may be associated with a lower risk of distal colon cancer.
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8.
  • Koushik, Anita, et al. (författare)
  • Intake of the major carotenoids and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Ctr Canc Prevent, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY USA. TNO, Qual Life, Dept Food & Chem Risk Anal, NL-3700 AJ Zeist, Netherlands. Karolinska Inst, Natl Inst Environm Med, Div Nutrit Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. Amer Canc Soc, Epidemiol & Surveillance Res, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. Maastricht Univ, NUTRIM, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. : WILEY. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 119:9, s. 2148-2154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carotenoids, found in fruits and vegetables, have the potential to protect against cancer because of their properties, including their functions as precursors to vitamin A and as antioxidants. We examined the associations between intakes of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin and lycopene and the risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. The primary data from 10 prospective cohort studies in North America and Europe were analyzed and then pooled. Carotenoid intakes were estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline in each study. Study-specific relative risks (RR) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then combined using a random-effects model. Among 521,911 women, 2,012 cases of ovarian cancer occurred during a follow-up of 7-22 years across studies. The major carotenoids were not significantly associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. The pooled multivariate RRs (95% confidence intervals) were 1.00 (0.95-1.05) for a 600 mu g/day increase in alpha-carotene intake, 0.96 (0.93-1.03) for a 2,500 mu g/day increase in beta-carotene intake, 0.99 (0.97-1.02) for a 100 mu g/day increase in beta-cryptoxanthin intake, 0.98 (0.94-1.03) for a 2,500 mu g/day increase in lutein/zeaxanthin intake and 1.01 (0.97-1.05) for a 4,000 mu g/day increase in lycopene intake. These associations did not appreciably differ by study (p-values, tests for between-studies heterogeneity > 0.17). Also, the observed associations did not vary substantially by subgroups of the population or by histological type of ovarian cancer. These results suggest that consumption of the major carotenoids during adulthood does not play a major role in the incidence of ovarian cancer. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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9.
  • Lee, Jung Eun, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol intake and renal cell cancer in a pooled analysis of 12 prospective studies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Lab, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA USA. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Natl Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Dept Hlth & Hlth Serv, NIH, Bethesda, MD USA. Univ So Calif, Dept Prevent Med, Los Angeles, CA USA. Univ So Calif, Norriss Comprehens Canc Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA. Maastricht Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Nutr & Toxicol Res Inst, Maastricht, Netherlands. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY 14260 USA. No Calif Canc Ctr, Fremont, CA USA. Amer Canc Soc, Epidemiol & Surveillance Res, Atlanta, GA USA. Univ Toronto, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Mayo Clin, Coll Med, Dept Urol, Jacksonville, FL USA. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Hlth Promot & Chron Dis Prevent, Helsinki, Finland. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 99:10, s. 801-810
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The association between alcohol intake and risk of renal cell cancer has been inconsistent in case-control studies. An inverse association between alcohol intake and risk of renal cell cancer has been suggested in a few prospective studies, but each of these studies included a small number of cases. Methods We performed a pooled analysis of 12 prospective studies that included 530469 women and 229575 men with maximum follow-up times of 7-20 years. All participants had completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data from each study, the study-specific relative risks (RRs) for renal cell cancer were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results A total of 1430 (711 women and 719 men) cases of incident renal cell cancer were identified. The study-standardized incidence rates of renal cell cancer were 23 per 100000 person-years among nondrinkers and 15 per 100000 person-years among those who drank 15 g/day or more of alcohol. Compared with non-drinking, alcohol consumption (>= 15 g/day, equivalent to slightly more than one alcoholic drink per day) was associated with a decreased risk of renal cell cancer (pooled multivariable RR = 0.72, 95% confidence interval = 0.60 to 0.86; P-trend <.001); statistically significant inverse trends with increasing intake were seen in both women and men. No difference by sex was observed (P-heterogeneity = .89). Associations between alcohol intake and renal cell cancer were not statistically different across alcoholic beverage type (beer versus wine versus liquor) (P = .40). Conclusion Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of renal cell cancer among both women and men in this pooled analysis.
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10.
  • Lee, Jung Eun, et al. (författare)
  • Fat, Protein, and Meat Consumption and Renal Cell Cancer Risk : A Pooled Analysis of 13 Prospective Studies
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 100:23, s. 1695-1706
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results of several case-control studies suggest that high consumption of meat (all meat, red meat, or processed meat) is associated with an increased risk of renal cell cancer, but only a few prospective studies have examined the associations of intakes of meat, fat, and protein with renal cell cancer. We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies that included 530 469 women and 244 483 men and had follow-up times of up to 7-20 years to examine associations between meat, fat, and protein intakes and the risk of renal cell cancer. All participants had completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at study entry. Using the primary data from each study, we calculated the study-specific relative risks (RRs) for renal cell cancer by using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled these RRs by using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. A total of 1478 incident cases of renal cell cancer were identified (709 in women and 769 in men). We observed statistically significant positive associations or trends in pooled age-adjusted models for intakes of total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, total protein, and animal protein. However, these associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjusting for body mass index, fruit and vegetable intake, and alcohol intake. For example, the pooled age-adjusted RR of renal cell cancer for the highest vs the lowest quintile of intake for total fat was 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 1.56; P-trend = .001) and for total protein was 1.17 (95% CI = 0.99 to 1.38; P-trend = .02). By comparison, the pooled multivariable RR for the highest vs the lowest quintile of total fat intake was 1.10 (95% CI = 0.92 to 1.32; P-trend = .31) and of total protein intake was 1.06 (95% CI = 0.89 to 1.26; P-trend = .37). Intakes of red meat, processed meat, poultry, or seafood were not associated with the risk of renal cell cancer. Intakes of fat and protein or their subtypes, red meat, processed meat, poultry, and seafood are not associated with risk of renal cell cancer.
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