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1.
  • Ahlgren, Kerstin. M, et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes mellitus in dog - : No evidence for a type-1-like phenotype
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in dogs, and is commonly proposed to be of autoimmune origin. Although the clinical symptoms of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) and canine DM are similar, the aetiologies may differ. The aim of this study was to investigate if autoimmune aetiology resembling human T1D is as prevalent in dogs as previously reported. Methods  Sera from 121 diabetic dogs representing 38 different breeds were tested for islet cell antibodies (ICA) and GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) and compared with sera from 133 healthy dogs from 40 breeds. ICA was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using both canine and human frozen sections. GADA was detected by in vitro transcription and translation (ITT) of human and canine GAD65, followed by immunoprecipitation. Results None of the canine sera analyzed tested positive for ICA on sections of frozen canine or human ICA pancreas. However, serum from one diabetic dog was weakly positive in the canine GADA assay and serum from one healthy dog was weakly positive in the human GADA assay. Conclusions/interpretations Based on sera from 121 diabetic dogs from 38 different breeds were tested for humoral autoreactivity using four different assays, contrary to previous observations, we find no support for an autoimmune aetiology  in canine diabetes.
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2.
  • Ahlgren, Kerstin M, et al. (författare)
  • Lack of evidence for a role of islet autoimmunity in the aetiology of canine diabetes mellitus
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 9:8, s. e105473-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in dogs and is commonly proposed to be of autoimmune origin. Although the clinical presentation of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) and canine diabetes are similar, the aetiologies may differ. The aim of this study was to investigate if autoimmune aetiology resembling human T1D is as prevalent in dogs as previously reported.METHODS:Sera from 121 diabetic dogs representing 40 different breeds were tested for islet cell antibodies (ICA) and GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) and compared with sera from 133 healthy dogs. ICA was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using both canine and human frozen sections. GADA was detected by in vitro transcription and translation (ITT) of human and canine GAD65, followed by immune precipitation. Sections of pancreata from five diabetic dogs and two control dogs were examined histopathologically including immunostaining for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreas polypeptide.RESULTS:None of the canine sera analysed tested positive for ICA on sections of frozen canine or human ICA pancreas. However, serum from one diabetic dog was weakly positive in the canine GADA assay and serum from one healthy dog was weakly positive in the human GADA assay. Histopathology showed marked degenerative changes in endocrine islets, including vacuolisation and variable loss of immune-staining for insulin. No sign of inflammation was noted.CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATIONS:Contrary to previous observations, based on results from tests for humoral autoreactivity towards islet proteins using four different assays, and histopathological examinations, we do not find any support for an islet autoimmune aetiology in canine diabetes mellitus.
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3.
  • Andersson, C, et al. (författare)
  • The three ZNT8 autoantibody variants together improve the diagnostic sensitivity of childhood and adolescent type 1 diabetes
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Autoimmunity. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0891-6934 .- 1607-842X. ; 44:5, s. 394-405
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: We tested whether autoantibodies to all three ZnT8RWQ variants, GAD65, insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2), insulin and autoantibodies to islet cell cytoplasm (ICA) in combination with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) would improve the diagnostic sensitivity of childhood type 1 diabetes by detecting the children who otherwise would have been autoantibody-negative.Methods: A total of 686 patients diagnosed in 1996–2005 in Skåne were analyzed for all the seven autoantibodies [arginin 325 zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8RA), tryptophan 325 zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8WA), glutamine 325 Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8QA), autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), Autoantibodies to islet-antigen-2 (IA-2A), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and ICA] in addition to HLA-DQ genotypes.Results: Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody to either one or all three amino acid variants at position 325 (ZnT8RWQA) was found in 65% (449/686) of the patients. The frequency was independent of age at diagnosis. The ZnT8RWQA reduced the frequency of autoantibody-negative patients from 7.5 to 5.4%—a reduction by 28%. Only 2 of 108 (2%) patients who are below 5 years of age had no autoantibody at diagnosis. Diagnosis without any islet autoantibody increased with increasing age at onset. DQA1-B1*X-0604 was associated with both ZnT8RA (p = 0.002) and ZnT8WA (p = 0.01) but not with ZnT8QA (p = 0.07). Kappa agreement analysis showed moderate (>0.40) to fair (>0.20) agreement between pairs of autoantibodies for all combinations of GADA, IA-2A, ZnT8RWQA and ICA but only slight ( < 0.19) agreement for any combination with IAA.Conclusions: This study revealed that (1) the ZnT8RWQA was common, independent of age; (2) multiple autoantibodies were common among the young; (3) DQA1-B1*X-0604 increased the risk for ZnT8RA and ZnT8WA; (4) agreement between autoantibody pairs was common for all combinations except IAA. These results suggest that ZnT8RWQA is a necessary complement to the classification and prediction of childhood type 1 diabetes as well as to randomize the subjects in the prevention and intervention of clinical trials.
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4.
  • Brorsson, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Correlations between islet autoantibody specificity and the SLC30A8 genotype with HLA-DQB1 and metabolic control in new onset type 1 diabetes
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Autoimmunity. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0891-6934 .- 1607-842X. ; 44:2, s. 107-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We hypothesised that the correlation between autoantibody specificity for the ZnT8 Arg325Trp isoforms and the type 2 diabetes-associated rs13266634 may affect beta-cell function at type 1 diabetes (T ID) onset. To study this, we tested 482 newly diagnosed diabetic probands and 478 healthy siblings from the Danish population-based T1D registry for autoantibodies to ZnT8 (ZnT8A) in addition to GAD65 and IA-2. The prevalence and titres of autoantibodies were correlated with genotypes for rs13266634 and HLA-DQB1, age at diagnosis (AAD) and insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c), as a proxy for residual beta-cell function. We replicated the correlation between rs13266634 genotypes and specificity for the ZnT8-Argenine (ZnT8R) and ZnT8-Tryptophan (ZnT8W) isoforms previously reported. ZnT8A overlapped substantially with autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GADA) and IA-2 (IA-2A) and correlated significantly with IA-2A prevalence (p < 2e-16). No effect on IDAA1c was demonstrated for ZnT8A or rs13266634. We found a correlation between ZnT8R positivity and HLA-DQB1*0302 genotypes (p = 0.016), which has not been shown previously. Furthermore, significantly lower ZnT8R and GADA prevalence and titres was found among probands with AAD < 5 years (prevalence: p = 0.004 and p = 0.0001; titres: p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). The same trend was observed for IA-2A and ZnT8W; however, the difference was non-significant. Our study confirms ZnT8 as a major target for autoantibodies at disease onset in our Danish T1D cohort of children and adolescents, and we have further characterised the relationship between autoantibody specificity for the ZnT8 Arg325Trp epitopes and rs13266634 in relation to established autoantibodies, AAD, measures of beta-cell function and HLA-DQB1 genotypes in T1D.
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5.
  • Daka, Bledar, 1976, et al. (författare)
  • Low agreement between radio binding assays in analyzing glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65Ab) autoantibodies in patients classified with type 2 diabetes.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Autoimmunity. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1607-842X .- 0891-6934. ; 42:6, s. 507-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65Ab) are used in the classification of diabetes in adults. We assessed the concordance in GAD65 autoantibody levels within subjects between three different GAD65Ab radio binding assays (RBA). Plasma samples from 112 diabetes patients (median age 50 years) initially classified with type 2 diabetes was randomly selected from a local diabetes registry. Coded samples were analyzed with two RBA employing (35)S-labeled GAD65. The first used the pEx9 plasmid (pEx9 RBA), the second employed the pThGAD65 plasmid (pThGAD65 RBA) to label GAD65 by in vitro transcription translation. We also used a commercial kit employing plasmid pGAD17 labelled with (125)I (pGAD17 RBA). Subsequent analyses followed standard procedures. Two different cut-offs for GAD65Ab positivity were used in all three assays. We calculated the correlation, concordance, and agreement between the assays. The proportion of GAD65Ab positivity differed between assays when low cut-offs were used (pEx9 RBA 25%, pThGAD65 RBA 17.9%, and pGAD17 RBA 12.5%, respectively). When high cut-offs were applied, the concordance between the pEx9 RBA and the pThGAD65 RBA was 97.3 while their concordance to the pGAD17 RBA was lower (88.4 and 87.4, respectively). There was a low agreement between both pEx9 RBA and pGAD17 RBA (0.45, 95% CI 0.20-0.70) and between pThGAD65 RBA and pGAD17 RBA (0.43, 95% CI 0.18-0.68). We found discrepancies in determining the GAD65Ab positivity, which constitutes a problem when GAD65Ab are used clinically. Further methodological GAD65Ab assays studies are warranted.
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6.
  • Haghighi, Mona, et al. (författare)
  • A Comparison of Rule-based Analysis with Regression Methods in Understanding the Risk Factors for Study Withdrawal in a Pediatric Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Regression models are extensively used in many epidemiological studies to understand the linkage between specific outcomes of interest and their risk factors. However, regression models in general examine the average effects of the risk factors and ignore subgroups with different risk profiles. As a result, interventions are often geared towards the average member of the population, without consideration of the special health needs of different subgroups within the population. This paper demonstrates the value of using rule-based analysis methods that can identify subgroups with heterogeneous risk profiles in a population without imposing assumptions on the subgroups or method. The rules define the risk pattern of subsets of individuals by not only considering the interactions between the risk factors but also their ranges. We compared the rule-based analysis results with the results from a logistic regression model in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. Both methods detected a similar suite of risk factors, but the rule-based analysis was superior at detecting multiple interactions between the risk factors that characterize the subgroups. A further investigation of the particular characteristics of each subgroup may detect the special health needs of the subgroup and lead to tailored interventions.
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7.
  • Jensen, Richard A., et al. (författare)
  • Multiple factors affect the loss of measurable C-peptide over 6 years in newly diagnosed 15- to 35-year-old diabetic subjects
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of diabetes and its complications. - : Elsevier BV. - 1056-8727 .- 1873-460X. ; 21:4, s. 205-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for the loss of measurable plasma C-peptide in newly diagnosed 15- to 35-year-old diabetic subjects. Methods: This Swedish study included 778 subjects. C-peptide levels were obtained each year for 6 years after diagnosis. Loss of measurable C-peptide was defined as a level at or below the lower detection limit of the local assay (0.13 nmol/l). In addition to C-peptide, other baseline covariates included gender, age, body mass index, HLA genotype, and autoantibody levels. Results: Compared with autoantibody-negative subjects, autoantibody-positive subjects had lower median baseline C-peptide (0.27 vs. 0.50, P<001), their levels declined over the study period, and the risk of losing measurable C-peptide was significantly higher when more than one autoantibody was present [odds ratio (OR), 4.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.13-7.54]. Among autoantibody-positive individuals, the presence of GAD65Ab (OR, 1.8; 95% Cl, 1.24-2.51) and islet cell antibodies (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.19-2.18) conferred a higher risk for loss of measurable C-peptide as did female gender (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.17-2.11) and time after diagnosis (OR, 1.5 for each additional year postdiagnosis; 95% CI, 1.41-1.57). Higher baseline C-peptide levels were protective (OR, 0.5 for each additional log nanomoles per liter; 95% CI, 0.36-0.58). Conclusions: This study identified autoantibody status, gender, and baseline C-peptide levels as factors that will be useful for predicting the disease course of 15- to 35-year-old diabetic individuals.
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8.
  • Jensen, R., et al. (författare)
  • Islet cell autoantibody levels after the diagnosis of young adult diabetic patients
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine. - : Wiley. - 0742-3071 .- 1464-5491. ; 24:11, s. 1221-1228
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims The aim was to determine the course of islet cell antibodies [glutamate decarboxylase (GADA), tyrosine phosphatase-like islet antigen 2 (IA-2A) and islet cell (ICA)] after the diagnosis of the diabetic patient. Methods The Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS) attempted to prospectively enrol all newly diagnosed diabetic patients aged 15–34 years during 1992 and 1993. C-peptide and autoantibody levels were determined from venous blood samples at diagnosis and again at yearly intervals for 6 years. Results After the first year, the odds of remaining GADA positive decreased by 9% per year [odds ratio (OR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.85–0.96] while the mean GADA index remained unchanged ( = 0.8, P = 0.37). There was no change in the percentage of subjects testing IA-2A positive after the first year ( = 0.1, P = 0.75). However, the mean index decreased 0.04 per year (95% CI: 0.03–0.05)—a 7.9% decline (95% CI: 5.4–10.4%). The odds of a subject testing positive for ICA decreased by 24% per year (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.70–0.82). The mean ICA levels decreased 0.75 per year (95% CI: 0.66–0.84)—a 16.4% decline (95% CI: 14.1–18.6%). The rate of change in titres for all three autoantibodies was independent of gender, human leucocyte antigen genotype and C-peptide status. Conclusions GADA levels remained high while ICA levels declined. In contrast to a previous study, we found that the proportion of IA-2A subjects remaining positive did not decrease after the first year, while the average index decreased slightly.
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9.
  • Kanatsuna, N, et al. (författare)
  • Doubly reactive INS-IGF2 autoantibodies in children with newly diagnosed autoimmune (type 1) diabetes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0300-9475 .- 1365-3083. ; 82:4, s. 361-369
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The splice variant INS-IGF2 entails the preproinsulin signal peptide, the insulin B-chain, eight amino acids of the C-peptide and 138 unique amino acids from an ORF in the IGF2 gene. The aim of this study was to determine whether levels of specific INS-IGF2 autoantibodies (INS-IGF2A) were related to age at diagnosis, islet autoantibodies, HLA-DQ or both, in patients and controls with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Patients (n = 676), 0-18 years of age, diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in 1996-2005 and controls (n = 363) were analysed for specific INS-IGF2A after displacement with both cold insulin and INS-IGF2 to correct for non-specific binding and identify double reactive sera. GADA, IA-2A, IAA, ICA, ZnT8RA, ZnT8WA, ZnT8QA and HLA-DQ genotypes were also determined. The median level of specific INS-IGF2A was higher in patients than in controls (P < 0.001). Irrespective of age at diagnosis, 19% (126/676) of the patients had INS-IGF2A when the cut-off was the 95th percentile of the controls (P < 0.001). The risk of INS-IGF2A was increased among HLA-DQ2/8 (OR = 1.509; 95th CI 1.011, 2.252; P = 0.045) but not in 2/2, 2/X, 8/8, 8/X or X/X (X is neither 2 nor 8) patients. The association with HLA-DQ2/8 suggests that this autoantigen may be presented on HLA-DQ trans-heterodimers, rather than cis-heterodimers. Autoantibodies reactive with both insulin and INS-IGF2A at diagnosis support the notion that INS-IGF2 autoimmunity contributes to type 1 diabetes.
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10.
  • Larsson, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Relationship between increased relative birthweight and infections during pregnancy in children with a high-risk diabetes HLA genotype.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1432-0428 .- 0012-186X. ; 50:6, s. 1161-1169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Children with high-risk type 1 diabetes HLA genotype have increased risk of high relative birthweight (HrBW), while cord blood islet autoantibodies decrease the risk. As gestational infections may affect offspring type 1 diabetes risk, the aims were to test whether: (1) children of mothers reporting gestational infections have increased HrBW; (2) gestational infections explain islet autoantibody reduction of HrBW; and (3) gestational infections affect the association between HLA and HrBW. Subjects and methods HLA genotypes and autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, insulinoma-associated protein 2 and insulin were determined in cord blood of children born to non-diabetic mothers in the Diabetes Prediction in Skane (DiPiS) study. Mothers reported gestational infections when the child was 2 months old. Results Fever or gastroenteritis during pregnancy was reported by 2,848/19,756 mothers (14%); 339 in more than one trimester. Children whose mothers reported infections had increased risk of HrBW (p=0.0003), particularly in the absence of cord blood islet autoantibodies (interaction between HrBW, islet autoantibodies and infections, p=0.0005). The effect on HrBW by high-risk HLA-DQ2/8 was aggravated by infections in more than one trimester (odds ratio [OR]=5.24; p=0.003) (interaction; p=0.022). When infections were reported, cord blood islet autoantibodies decreased HrBW (OR=0.34; p=0.0002). Conclusions/intrepretation This study revealed that: (1) gestational fever, gastroenteritis, or both, increased the risk of HrBW; (2) cord blood islet autoantibodies decreased the risk of HrBW only in combination with infections; and (3) infections aggravated the association between HLA-DQ2/8 and HrBW. These data suggest an interaction between HLA, gestational infections, islet autoantibodies and fetal growth.
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