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Sökning: WFRF:(Leynaert B.)

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1.
  • Newson, R. B., et al. (författare)
  • The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 44:2, s. 250-260
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional and longitudinal reports show that obese adults have more asthma than non-obese adults. A proposed mechanism is via effects of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) on the immune system.OBJECTIVE: We wished to measure the associations of asthma and other atopic diseases with serum adipokine levels and to find whether the associations with asthma were strong enough to rule out the possibility that they are secondary to the association of fatness measures with asthma.METHODS: The Global Asthma and Allergy Network of Excellence (GA(2) LEN) clinical follow-up survey is a clinical survey, embedded in a larger multi-centre cross-sectional postal survey, involving, with a case/control design, enrichment of the sample with subjects with asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We recorded serum leptin or adiponectin in 845 men and 1110 women in 15 centres and also anthropometric measures of fatness including body mass index and waist/hip ratio, current asthma, and specific skin prick and IgE sensitisation. We used inverse sampling-probability-weighted rank and regression statistics to measure population associations of disease outcomes with adipokines in males and females, adjusting for confounders (area, age, smoking history, and number of elder siblings) and also mutually adjusting associations with adipokines and fatness measures.RESULTS: One thousand nine hundred and fifty-five subjects aged 16-77 years had information on leptin or adiponectin levels. Leptin and leptin/adiponectin ratio were positively associated with the level of asthma, especially in females (Somers' D of leptin by asthma score, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08-0.30; P = 0.00079). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for confounders and became non-significant after additionally adjusting for fatness measures and multiple comparisons.CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Asthma levels are positively associated with serum leptin. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that this association is secondary to associations of both with fatness measures.
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2.
  • Accordini, S., et al. (författare)
  • A three-generation study on the association of tobacco smoking with asthma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 47:4, s. 1106-1117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mothers' smoking during pregnancy increases asthma risk in their offspring. There is some evidence that grandmothers' smoking may have a similar effect, and biological plausibility that fathers' smoking during adolescence may influence offspring's health through transmittable epigenetic changes in sperm precursor cells. We evaluated the three-generation associations of tobacco smoking with asthma. Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, at the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III clinical interview, 2233 mothers and 1964 fathers from 26 centres reported whether their offspring (aged <= 51 years) had ever had asthma and whether it had coexisted with nasal allergies or not. Mothers and fathers also provided information on their parents' (grandparents) and their own asthma, education and smoking history. Multilevel mediation models within a multicentre three-generation framework were fitted separately within the maternal (4666 offspring) and paternal (4192 offspring) lines. Results: Fathers' smoking before they were 15 [relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.01] and mothers' smoking during pregnancy (RRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59) were associated with asthma without nasal allergies in their offspring. Grandmothers' smoking during pregnancy was associated with asthma in their daughters [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.06] and with asthma with nasal allergies in their grandchildren within the maternal line (RRR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55). Conclusions: Fathers' smoking during early adolescence and grandmothers' and mothers' smoking during pregnancy may independently increase asthma risk in offspring. Thus, risk factors for asthma should be sought in both parents and before conception.
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3.
  • Lytras, T., et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative Occupational Exposures and Lung-Function Decline in Two Large General-Population Cohorts
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Annals of the American Thoracic Society. - New York : American Thorax Society. - 1546-3222 .- 2329-6933 .- 2325-6621 .- 1943-5665. ; 18:2, s. 238-246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Few longitudinal studies have assessed the relationship between occupational exposures and lung-function decline in the general population with a sufficiently long follow-up. Objectives: To examine the potential association in two large cohorts: the ECRHS (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) and the SAPALDIA (Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults). Methods: General-population samples of individuals aged 18 to 62 were randomly selected in 1991-1993 and followed up approximately 10 and 20 years later. Spirometry (without bronchodilation) was performed at each visit. Coded complete job histories during follow-up visits were linked to a job-exposure matrix, generating cumulative exposure estimates for 12 occupational exposures. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were jointly modeled in linear mixed-effects models, fitted in a Bayesian framework, taking into account age and smoking. Results: A total of 40,024 lung-function measurements from 17,833 study participants were analyzed. We found accelerated declines in FEV1 and the FEV1/FVC ratio for exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and metals (FEV1 = -15.1 ml, -14.4 ml, and -18.7 ml, respectively; and FEV1/FVC ratio = -0.52%, -0.43%, and -0.36%, respectively; per 25 intensity-years of exposure). These declines were comparable in magnitude with those associated with long-term smoking. No effect modification by sex or smoking status was identified. Findings were similar between the ECRHS and the SAPALDIA cohorts. Conclusions: Our results greatly strengthen the evidence base implicating occupation, independent of smoking, as a risk factor for lung-function decline. This highlights the need to prevent or control these exposures in the workplace.
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4.
  • Lytras, T., et al. (författare)
  • Occupational exposures and 20-year incidence of COPD: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BioMed Central. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 73:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Occupational exposures have been associated with an increased risk of COPD. However, few studies have related objectively assessed occupational exposures to prospectively assessed incidence of COPD, using postbronchodilator lung function tests. Our objective was to examine the effect of occupational exposures on COPD incidence in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Methods General population samples aged 20-44 were randomly selected in 1991-1993 and followed up 20 years later (2010-2012). Spirometry was performed at baseline and at follow-up, with incident COPD defined using a lower limit of normal criterion for postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC. Only participants without COPD and without current asthma at baseline were included. Coded job histories during follow-up were linked to a Job-Exposure Matrix, generating occupational exposure estimates to 12 categories of agents. Their association with COPD incidence was examined in log-binomial models fitted in a Bayesian framework. Findings 3343 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 89 of them had COPD at follow-up (1.4 cases/1000 person-years). Participants exposed to biological dust had a higher incidence of COPD compared with those unexposed (relative risk (RR) 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.3), as did those exposed to gases and fumes (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.2) and pesticides (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.8). The combined population attributable fraction for these exposures was 21.0%. Interpretation These results substantially strengthen the evidence base for occupational exposures as an important risk factor for COPD.
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5.
  • Lytras, T., et al. (författare)
  • Occupational exposures and incidence of chronic bronchitis and related symptoms over two decades: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Occupational and environmental medicine. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1351-0711 .- 1470-7926. ; 76:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Chronic bronchitis (CB) is an important chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related phenotype, with distinct clinical features and prognostic implications. Occupational exposures have been previously associated with increased risk of CB but few studies have examined this association prospectively using objective exposure assessment. We examined the effect of occupational exposures on CB incidence in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Methods: Population samples aged 20-44 were randomly selected in 1991-1993, and followed up twice over 20 years. Participants without chronic cough or phlegm at baseline were analysed. Coded job histories during follow-up were linked to the ALOHA Job Exposure Matrix, generating occupational exposure estimates to 12 categories of chemical agents. Their association with CB incidence over both follow-ups was examined with Poisson models using generalised estimating equations. Results: 8794 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria, contributing 13 185 observations. Only participants exposed to metals had a higher incidence of CB (relative risk (RR) 1.70, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.50) compared with non-exposed to metals. Mineral dust exposure increased the incidence of chronic phlegm (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.06). Incidence of chronic phlegm was increased in men exposed to gases/fumes and to solvents and in women exposed to pesticides. Conclusions: Occupational exposures are associated with chronic phlegm and CB, and the evidence is strongest for metals and mineral dust exposure. The observed differences between men and women warrant further investigation. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019.
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6.
  • Triebner, Kai, et al. (författare)
  • Exogenous female sex steroids may reduce lung ageing after menopause : A 20-year follow-up study of a general population sample (ECRHS)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Maturitas. - : ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 0378-5122 .- 1873-4111. ; 120, s. 29-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Menopause involves hypoestrogenism, which is associated with numerous detrimental effects, including on respiratory health. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is often used to improve symptoms of menopause. The effects of HRT on lung function decline, hence lung ageing, have not yet been investigated despite the recognized effects of HRT on other health outcomes. Study design: The population-based multi-centre European Community Respiratory Health Survey provided complete data for 275 oral HRT users at two time points, who were matched with 383 nonusers and analysed with a two-level linear mixed effects regression model. Main outcome measures: We studied whether HRT use was associated with the annual decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Results: Lung function of women using oral HRT for more than five years declined less rapidly than that of nonusers. The adjusted difference in FVC decline was 5.6 mL/y (95%CI: 1.8 to 9.3, p = 0.01) for women who had taken HRT for six to ten years and 8.9 mL/y (3.5 to 14.2, p = 0.003) for those who had taken it for more than ten years. The adjusted difference in FEV1 decline was 4.4 mL/y (0.9 to 8.0, p = 0.02) with treatment from six to ten years and 5.3 mL/y (0.4 to 10.2, p = 0.048) with treatment for over ten years. Conclusions: In this longitudinal population-based study, the decline in lung function was less rapid in women who used HRT, following a dose-response pattern, and consistent when adjusting for potential confounding factors. This may signify that female sex hormones are of importance for lung ageing.
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7.
  • Triebner, K., et al. (författare)
  • Menopause Is Associated with Accelerated Lung Function Decline
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. - : AMER THORACIC SOC. - 1073-449X .- 1535-4970. ; 195:8, s. 1058-1065
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Menopause is associated with changes in sex hormones, which affect immunity, inflammation, and osteoporosis and may impair lung function. Lung function decline has not previously been investigated in relation to menopause. Objectives: To study whether lung function decline, assessed by FVC and FEV1, is accelerated in women who undergo menopause. Methods: The population-based longitudinal European Community Respiratory Health Survey provided serum samples, spirometry, and questionnaire data about respiratory and reproductive health from three study waves (n = 1,438). We measured follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and added information on menstrual patterns to determine menopausal status using latent class analysis. Associations with lung function decline were investigated using linear mixed effects models, adjusting for age, height, weight, pack-years, current smoking, age at completed full-time education, spirometer, and including study center as random effect. Measurements and Main Results: Menopausal status was associated with accelerated lung function decline. The adjusted mean FVC decline was increased by -10.2 ml/yr (95% confidence interval [CI], -13.1 to -7.2) in transitional women and -12.5 ml/yr (95% CI, -16.2 to -8.9) in post-menopausal women, compared with women menstruating regularly. The adjusted mean FEV1 decline increased by -3.8 ml/yr (95% CI, -6.3 to -2.9) in transitional women and -5.2 ml/yr (95% CI, -8.3 to -2.0) in post-menopausal women. Conclusions: Lung function declined more rapidly among transitional and post-menopausal women, in particular for FVC, beyond the expected age change. Clinicians should be aware that respiratory health often deteriorates during reproductive aging.
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8.
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9.
  • Nerpin, E., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in healthy men and women from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 49:7, s. 969-979
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction The fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a marker for type 2 inflammation used in diagnostics and management of asthma. In order to use FENO as a reliable biomarker, it is important to investigate factors that influence FENO in healthy individuals. Men have higher levels of FENO than women, but it is unclear whether determinants of FENO differ by sex. Objective To identify determinants of FENO in men and women without lung diseases. Method Fractional exhaled nitric oxide was validly measured in 3881 healthy subjects that had answered the main questionnaire of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III without airways or lung disease. Results Exhaled NO levels were 21.3% higher in men compared with women P < 0.001. Being in the upper age quartile (60.3-67.6 years), men had 19.2 ppb (95% CI: 18.3, 20.2) higher FENO than subjects in the lowest age quartile (39.7-48.3 years) P = 0.02. Women in the two highest age quartiles (54.6-60.2 and 60.3-67.6 years) had 15.4 ppb (14.7, 16.2), P = 0.03 and 16.4 ppb (15.6, 17.1), P = FENO, compared with the lowest age quartile. Height was related to 8% higher FENO level in men (P < 0.001) and 5% higher FENO levels in women (P = 0.008). Men who smoked had 37% lower FENO levels and women had 30% lower levels compared with never-smokers (P < 0.001 for both). Men and women sensitized to both grass and perennial allergens had higher FENO levels compared with non-sensitized subjects 26% and 29%, P Fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels were higher in men than women. Similar effects of current smoking, height, and IgE sensitization were found in both sexes. FENO started increasing at lower age in women than in men, suggesting that interpretation of FENO levels in adults aged over 50 years should take into account age and sex.
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10.
  • Olivieri, M., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of smoking bans on passive smoking exposure at work and at home. The European Community respiratory health survey
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Indoor Air. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0905-6947 .- 1600-0668. ; 29:4, s. 670-679
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This longitudinal study investigated whether smoking bans influence passive smoking at work and/or at home in the same subjects. Passive smoking at work and/or at home was investigated in random population samples (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) in 1990-1995, with follow-up interviews in 1998-2003 and 2010-2014. National smoking bans were classified as partial (restricted to public workplaces) or global (extended to private workplaces). Multivariable analysis was accomplished by three-level logistic regression models, where level-1, level-2, and level-3 units were, respectively, questionnaire responses, subjects, and centers. Passive smoking at work was reported by 31.9% in 1990-1995, 17.5% in 1998-2003, and 2.5% in 2010-2014. Concurrently, passive smoking at home decreased from 28.9% to 18.2% and 8.8%. When controlling for sex, age, education, smoking status, and ECHRS wave, the odds of passive smoking at work was markedly reduced after global smoking bans (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.25-0.81), particularly among non-smokers, while the protective effect of global smoking bans on passive smoking at home was only detected in non-smokers. Smoking bans both in public and private workplaces were effective in reducing passive smoking at work in Europe. However, given the inefficacy of smoking bans in current smokers' dwellings, better strategies are needed to avoid smoking indoors.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 47
  • [1]2345Nästa

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