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Sökning: WFRF:(Liao Shu Fen)

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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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2.
  • Chatziioannou, Aristotelis, et al. (författare)
  • Blood-based omic profiling supports female susceptibility to tobacco smoke-induced cardiovascular diseases
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We recently reported that differential gene expression and DNA methylation profiles in blood leukocytes of apparently healthy smokers predicts with remarkable efficiency diseases and conditions known to be causally associated with smoking, suggesting that blood-based omic profiling of human populations may be useful for linking environmental exposures to potential health effects. Here we report on the sex-specific effects of tobacco smoking on transcriptomic and epigenetic features derived from genome-wide profiling in white blood cells, identifying 26 expression probes and 92 CpG sites, almost all of which are affected only in female smokers. Strikingly, these features relate to numerous genes with a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, especially thrombin signaling, including the thrombin receptors on platelets F2R (coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor; PAR1) and GP5 (glycoprotein 5), as well as HMOX1 (haem oxygenase 1) and BCL2L1 (BCL2-like 1) which are involved in protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis, respectively. These results are in concordance with epidemiological evidence of higher female susceptibility to tobacco-induced cardiovascular disease and underline the potential of blood-based omic profiling in hazard and risk assessment.
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3.
  • Liao, Shih-Fen, et al. (författare)
  • Immunization of fucose-containing polysaccharides from Reishi mushroom induces antibodies to tumor-associated Globo H-series epitopes.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 110:34, s. 13809-13814
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carbohydrate-based vaccines have shown therapeutic efficacy for infectious disease and cancer. The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) containing complex polysaccharides has been used as antitumor supplement, but the mechanism of immune response has rarely been studied. Here, we show that the mice immunized with a l-fucose (Fuc)-enriched Reishi polysaccharide fraction (designated as FMS) induce antibodies against murine Lewis lung carcinoma cells, with increased antibody-mediated cytotoxicity and reduced production of tumor-associated inflammatory mediators (in particular, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). The mice showed a significant increase in the peritoneal B1 B-cell population, suggesting FMS-mediated anti-glycan IgM production. Furthermore, the glycan microarray analysis of FMS-induced antisera displayed a high specificity toward tumor-associated glycans, with the antigenic structure located in the nonreducing termini (i.e., Fucα1-2Galβ1-3GalNAc-R, where Gal, GalNAc, and R represent, respectively, D-galactose, D-N-acetyl galactosamine, and reducing end), typically found in Globo H and related tumor antigens. The composition of FMS contains mainly the backbone of 1,4-mannan and 1,6-α-galactan and through the Fucα1-2Gal, Fucα1-3/4Man, Fucα1-4Xyl, and Fucα1-2Fuc linkages (where Man and Xyl represent d-mannose and d-xylose, respectively), underlying the molecular basis of the FMS-induced IgM antibodies against tumor-specific glycans.
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4.
  • Vermeulen, Roel, et al. (författare)
  • Pre-diagnostic blood immune markers, incidence and progression of B-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma : univariate and functionally informed multivariate analyses
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 143:6, s. 1335-1347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent prospective studies have shown that dysregulation of the immune system may precede the development of B‐cell lymphomas (BCL) in immunocompetent individuals. However, to date, the studies were restricted to a few immune markers, which were considered separately. Using a nested case–control study within two European prospective cohorts, we measured plasma levels of 28 immune markers in samples collected a median of 6 years before diagnosis (range 2.01–15.97) in 268 incident cases of BCL (including multiple myeloma [MM]) and matched controls. Linear mixed models and partial least square analyses were used to analyze the association between levels of immune marker and the incidence of BCL and its main histological subtypes and to investigate potential biomarkers predictive of the time to diagnosis. Linear mixed model analyses identified associations linking lower levels of fibroblast growth factor‐2 (FGF‐2 p = 7.2 × 10−4) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF‐α, p = 6.5 × 10−5) and BCL incidence. Analyses stratified by histological subtypes identified inverse associations for MM subtype including FGF‐2 (p = 7.8 × 10−7), TGF‐α (p = 4.08 × 10−5), fractalkine (p = 1.12 × 10−3), monocyte chemotactic protein‐3 (p = 1.36 × 10−4), macrophage inflammatory protein 1‐alpha (p = 4.6 × 10−4) and vascular endothelial growth factor (p = 4.23 × 10−5). Our results also provided marginal support for already reported associations between chemokines and diffuse large BCL (DLBCL) and cytokines and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Case‐only analyses showed that Granulocyte‐macrophage colony stimulating factor levels were consistently higher closer to diagnosis, which provides further evidence of its role in tumor progression. In conclusion, our study suggests a role of growth‐factors in the incidence of MM and of chemokine and cytokine regulation in DLBCL and CLL.
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