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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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2.
  • Abelev, B., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of electrons from semileptonic heavy-flavor hadron decays in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D (Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology). - : American Physical Society. - 1550-2368. ; 86:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The differential production cross section of electrons from semileptonic heavy-flavor hadron decays has been measured at midrapidity (\y\ < 0.5) in proton-proton collisions at root s = 7 TeV with ALICE at the LHC. Electrons were measured in the transverse momentum range 0.5 < p(t) < 8 GeV/c. Predictions from a fixed-order perturbative QCD calculation with next-to-leading-log resummation agree with the data within the theoretical and experimental uncertainties. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.112007
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3.
  • Abelev, B., et al. (författare)
  • Net-Charge Fluctuations in Pb-Pb Collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 110:15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the first measurement of the net-charge fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV, measured with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The dynamical fluctuations per unit entropy are observed to decrease when going from peripheral to central collisions. An additional reduction in the amount of fluctuations is seen in comparison to the results from lower energies. We examine the dependence of fluctuations on the pseudorapidity interval, which may account for the dilution of fluctuations during the evolution of the system. We find that the fluctuations at the LHC are smaller compared to the measurements at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and as such, closer to what has been theoretically predicted for the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.152301
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4.
  • Abelev, B., et al. (författare)
  • Heavy flavour decay muon production at forward rapidity in proton-proton collisions at root s=7 TeV
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 708:3-5, s. 265-275
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The production of muons from heavy flavour decays is measured at forward rapidity in proton-proton collisions at root s = 7 TeV collected with the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The analysis is carried out on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity L-int = 16.5 nb(-1). The transverse momentum and rapidity differential production cross sections of muons from heavy flavour decays are measured in the rapidity range 2.5 < y <4, over the transverse momentum range 2 < p(t) < 12 GeV/c. The results are compared to predictions based on perturbative QCD calculations. (C) 2012 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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5.
  • Abelev, B., et al. (författare)
  • Inclusive J/psi production in pp collisions at root s=2.76 TeV
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 718:2, s. 295-306
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ALICE Collaboration has measured inclusive J/psi production in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy root s = 2.76 TeV at the LHC. The results presented in this Letter refer to the rapidity ranges vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.9 and 2.5 < y <4 and have been obtained by measuring the electron and muon pair decay channels, respectively. The integrated luminosities for the two channels are L-int(e) = 1.1 nb(-1) and L-int(mu) = 19.9 nb(-1), and the corresponding signal statistics are N-J/psi(e+e-) = 59 +/- 14 and N-J/psi(mu+mu-) = 1364 +/- 53. We present d sigma(J/psi)/dy for the two rapidity regions under study and, for the forward-y range, d(2)sigma(J/psi)/dydp(t) in the transverse momentum domain 0 < p(t) < 8 GeV/c. The results are compared with previously published results at root s = 7 TeV and with theoretical calculations. (C) 2012 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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6.
  • Abelev, B., et al. (författare)
  • J/psi production as a function of charged particle multiplicity in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 712:3, s. 165-175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ALICE Collaboration reports the measurement of the relative J/psi yield as a function of charged particle pseudorapidity density dN(ch)/d eta in pp collisions at root s = 7 TeV at the LHC. J/psi particles are detected for p(t) > 0, in the rapidity interval vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.9 via decay into e(+)e(-), and in the interval 2.5 < y < 4.0 via decay into mu(+)/mu(-) pairs. An approximately linear increase of the J/psi yields normalized to their event average (dN(J/psi)/dy)/(dN(J/psi)/dy) with (dN(ch)/c eta)/(dN(ch)/d eta) is observed in both rapidity ranges, where dN(ch)/d eta is measured within vertical bar eta vertical bar < 1 and p(t) > 0. In the highest multiplicity interval with (dN(ch)/d eta)(bin)) = 24.1, corresponding to four times the minimum bias multiplicity density, an enhancement relative to the minimum bias J/psi yield by a factor of about 5 at 2.5 < y <4 (8 at vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.9) is observed. (C) 2012 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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7.
  • Abelev, B., et al. (författare)
  • J/psi Suppression at Forward Rapidity in Pb-Pb Collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 109:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ALICE experiment has measured the inclusive J/psi production in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV down to zero transverse momentum in the rapidity range 2.5 < y < 4. A suppression of the inclusive J/psi yield in Pb-Pb is observed with respect to the one measured in pp collisions scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. The nuclear modification factor, integrated over the 0%-80% most central collisions, is 0.545 +/- 0.032(stat) +/- 0.083dsyst_ and does not exhibit a significant dependence on the collision centrality. These features appear significantly different from measurements at lower collision energies. Models including J/psi production from charm quarks in a deconfined partonic phase can describe our data.
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8.
  • Abelev, B., et al. (författare)
  • (KsKs0)-K-0 correlations in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV from the LHC ALICE experiment
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 717:1-3, s. 151-161
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identical neutral kaon pair correlations are measured in root s = 7 TeV pp collisions in the ALICE experiment. One-dimensional (KsKs0)-K-0 correlation functions in terms of the invariant momentum difference of kaon pairs are formed in two multiplicity and two transverse momentum ranges. The femtoscopic parameters for the radius and correlation strength of the kaon source are extracted. The fit includes quantum statistics and final-state interactions of the a(0)/f(0) resonance. (KsKs0)-K-0 correlations show an increase in radius for increasing multiplicity and a slight decrease in radius for increasing transverse mass, mT, as seen in pi pi correlations in pp collisions and in heavy-ion collisions. Transverse mass scaling is observed between the (KsKs0)-K-0 and pi pi radii. Also, the first observation is made of the decay of the f(2)'(1525) meson into the (KsKs0)-K-0 channel in pp collisions. (C) 2012 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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9.
  • Abelev, B., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of event background fluctuations for charged particle jet reconstruction in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of event background fluctuations on charged particle jet reconstruction in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV has been measured with the ALICE experiment. The main sources of non-statistical fluctuations are characterized based purely on experimental data with an unbiased method, as well as by using single high p(t) particles and simulated jets embedded into real Pb-Pb events and reconstructed with the anti-k(t) jet finder. The influence of a low transverse momentum cut-off on particles used in the jet reconstruction is quantified by varying the minimum track p(t) between 0.15 GeV/c and 2 GeV/c. For embedded jets reconstructed from charged particles with p(t) > 0.15 GeV/c, the uncertainty in the reconstructed jet transverse momentum due to the heavy-ion background is measured to be 11.3 GeV/c (standard deviation) for the 10% most central Pb-Pb collisions, slightly larger than the value of 11.0 GeV/c measured using the unbiased method. For a higher particle transverse momentum threshold of 2 GeV/c, which will generate a stronger bias towards hard fragmentation in the jet finding process, the standard deviation of the fluctuations in the reconstructed jet transverse momentum is reduced to 4.8-5.0 GeV/c for the 10% most central events. A non-Gaussian tail of the momentum uncertainty is observed and its impact on the reconstructed jet spectrum is evaluated for varying particle momentum thresholds, by folding the measured fluctuations with steeply falling spectra.
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10.
  • Abelev, B., et al. (författare)
  • Multi-strange baryon production in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV with ALICE
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 712:4-5, s. 309-318
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A measurement of the multi-strange Xi(-) and Omega(-) baryons and their antiparticles by the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is presented for inelastic proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The transverse momentum (p(T)) distributions were studied at mid-rapidity (vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.5) in the range of 0.6 < p(T) < 8.5 GeV/c Xi(-) for and Xi(+) baryons, and in the range of 0.8 < P-T < 5 GeV/c for Omega(-) and<(Omega)over bar>(+). Baryons and antibaryons were measured as separate particles and we find that the baryon to antibaryon ratio of both particle species is consistent with unity over the entire range of the measurement. The statistical precision of the current data has allowed us to measure a difference between the mean p(T) of Xi(-) ((Xi) over bar)(+) and Omega(-) ((Omega) over bar (+)). Particle yields, mean pi, and the spectra in the intermediate pi range are not well described by the PYTHIA Perugia 2011 tune Monte Carlo event generator, which has been tuned to reproduce the early LHC data. The discrepancy is largest for Omega(-)((Omega) over bar (+)). This PYTHIA tune approaches the pi spectra of Xi(-) and Xi(+) baryons below p(T) <0.85 GeV/c and describes the Xi(-) and Xi(+) spectra above p(T) > 6.0 GeV/c. We also illustrate the difference between the experimental data and model by comparing the corresponding ratios of (Omega(-) +(Omega) over bar (+))/(Xi(-) + Xi(+)) as a function of transverse mass. (C) 2012 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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