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1.
  • Bengtsson, Anna, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • The beneficial effect over 3 years by pictorial information to patients and their physician about subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk : results from the VIPVIZA randomized clinical trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Preventive Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 2666-6677. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Non-adherence to guidelines and preventive measures is a major challenge, particularly so to ob- tain long-term adherence to lifestyle changes and recommended medication. The objective was to investigate if pictorial information regarding subclinical carotid atherosclerosis provided to individuals and physicians gave sustained effects on cardiovascular risk beyond the previously reported effect after 1 year and up to 3 years. Methods: A Prospective Randomized Open Blinded End-point (PROBE) trial. Within a CVD prevention program in Västerbotten County, Sweden, 3532 healthy individuals aged 40, 50 or 60 years were enrolled and 1:1 ran- domized to intervention ( n = 1749; pictorial information with additional prevention materials to participants and physicians) or control group ( n = 1783; no pictorial information to participants and physicians). Preventive measures were managed within primary care. Participants were investigated at baseline during 2013–2016 and at follow-up after 1 and 3 years. Results: A beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk was observed at 3-year follow-up; Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was 13.38 for the intervention group and 14.08 for the control group ( p = 0.047) and SCORE was 1.69 vs. 1.82 ( p = 0.022). The effect observed at 1-year was sustained over 3 years after adjustment for sex and education and more pronounced among participants with a severe atherosclerotic picture at baseline.Conclusions: This study provides evidence of sustained beneficial effects on the adherence to prevention guidelines over 3 years of pictorial information about subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, resulting in lower cardiovascular risk regardless of sex and educational level. Direct visualization of the underlying still subclinical atherosclerotic disease, rather than just indirect information about risk factors and statistical risk of future myocardial infarction, stroke and death, is one way to tackle the problem of non-adherence to prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
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2.
  • Christersson, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Screening for Biomarkers Associated with Left Ventricular Function During Follow-up After Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research. - : Springer Nature. - 1937-5387 .- 1937-5395. ; 16:1, s. 244-254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A proportion of patients with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) will suffer progressive remodeling of the left ventricular (LV). The aim was to screen for important biomarkers from a large-scale protein profiling in 420 ACS patients and define biomarkers associated with reduced LV function early and 1 year after the ACS. Transferrin receptor protein 1 and NT-proBNP were associated with LV function early and after 1 year, whereas osteopontin and soluble ST2 were associated with LV function in the early phase and, tissue-type plasminogen activator after 1 year. Fatty-acid-binding protein and galectin 3 were related to worse GLS but not to LVEF 1 year after the ACS. Proteins involved in remodeling and iron transport in cardiomyocytes were related to worse LV function after ACS. Biomarkers for energy metabolism and fibrosis were exclusively related to worse LV function by GLS. Studies on the functions of these proteins might add knowledge to the biological processes involved in heart failure in long term after ACS.
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3.
  • Jönelid, Birgitta, 1965- (författare)
  • Importance of peripheral arterial disease as a risk marker in patients with myocardial infarction
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this thesis was to describe the true prevalence of widespread arterial disease in a cohort with patients with a recent myocardial infarction (MI) to find valuable clinical methods to detect these patients. Our aim was also to investigate biomarker relationships with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and the importance of PAD in patients’ long-term outcomes.We studied patients with a recent MI in a prospective observational study, the REBUS ((Relevance of Biomarkers for Future Risk of Thromboembolic Events in Unselected Post-myocardial Infarction Patients) trial. A total of 421 patients were included in the study, 390 of whom had their ankle-brachial index (ABI) measured and a mean-time follow up of 5.5 years. Atherosclerotic changes were assessed in three arterial beds by coronary angiography, measuring the ABI and carotid ultrasound. Ninety-two biochemical biomarkers were assessed at baseline by a proximity extension assay (PEA) chip. 263 out of 421 filled in a self-administered Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ). Polyvascular (PvD) disease was defined as pathological findings in all three arterial beds.We found that PAD and PvD are underdiagnosed in patients who suffered a recent MI. We also found the ABI to be a strong and useful method to identify patients with PAD as well as patients with more widespread arterial disease, such as PvD (paper I).The results of the scoring system, the WIQ, showed it is useful for finding patients with PAD and PvD, even when completed soon after an acute MI event (paper II).We also found that biochemical biomarkers associated with the inflammatory pathway – tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR-1), tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR-2) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) – were able to predict pathological ABI, i.e. PAD, in these MI patients. These results could also be validated in another observational study and cohort of MI patients, the VaMIS cohort (paper III). Pathological ABI was also found to be a strong predictor for cardiovascular events of all-cause mortality, new ACS, and a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, new ACS, new stroke/TIA or new PAD event. When evaluating the three inflammatory biomarkers as a surrogate marker for ABI, they showed a similar association with all-cause death and the composite endpoint (paper IV).
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4.
  • Jönelid, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Low Walking Impairment Questionnaire score after a recent myocardial infarction identifies patients with polyvascular disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease. - : SAGE Publications. - 2048-0040. ; 8, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To evaluate whether the Walking Impairment Questionnaire score could identify patients with polyvascular disease in a population with recent myocardial infarction and their association with cardiovascular events during two-year follow-up.Design: A prospective observational study.Setting: Patients admitted to the acute coronary care unit, the Department of Cardiology, Uppsala University Hospital.Participants: Patients admitted with acute Non-STEMI- or STEMI-elevation myocardial infarction.Main outcome measures: The Walking Impairment Questionnaire, developed as a self-administered instrument to assess walking distance, speed, and stair climbing in patients with peripheral artery disease, predicts future cardiovascular events and mortality. Two hundred and sixty-three patients with recent myocardial infarction answered Walking Impairment Questionnaire. Polyvascular disease was defined as abnormal findings in the coronary- and carotid arteries and an abnormal ankle-brachial index. The calculated score for each of all three categories were divided into quartiles with the lowest score in first quartile.Results: The lowest (worst) quartile in all three Walking Impairment Questionnaire categories was associated with polyvascular disease, fully adjusted; distance, odds ratio (OR) 5.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-16.1); speed, OR 7.4 (95% CI 1.5-36.5); stair climbing, OR 8.4 (95% CI 1.0-73.6). In stair climbing score, patients with the lowest (worst) score had a higher risk for the composite cardiovascular endpoint compared to the highest (best) score; hazard ratio 5.3 (95% CI 1.5-19.0). The adherence to medical treatment was high (between 81.7% and 99.2%).Conclusions: The Walking Impairment Questionnaire is a simple tool to identify myocardial infarction patients with more widespread atherosclerotic disease and although well treated medically, stair climbing predicts cardiovascular events.
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5.
  • Katus, Hugo, et al. (författare)
  • Early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 38:41, s. 3049-3055
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The diagnostic evaluation of acute chest pain has been augmented in recent years by advances in the sensitivity and precision of cardiac troponin assays, new biomarkers, improvements in imaging modalities, and release of new clinical decision algorithms. This progress has enabled physicians to diagnose or rule-out acute myocardial infarction earlier after the initial patient presentation, usually in emergency department settings, which may facilitate prompt initiation of evidence-based treatments, investigation of alternative diagnoses for chest pain, or discharge, and permit better utilization of healthcare resources. A non-trivial proportion of patients fall in an indeterminate category according to rule-out algorithms, and minimal evidence-based guidance exists for the optimal evaluation, monitoring, and treatment of these patients. The Cardiovascular Round Table of the ESC proposes approaches for the optimal application of early strategies in clinical practice to improve patient care following the review of recent advances in the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The following specific 'indeterminate' patient categories were considered: (i) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin <99th percentile; (ii) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin <99th percentile but above the limit of detection; (iii) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin >99th percentile but without dynamic change; and (iv) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin >99th percentile and dynamic change but without coronary plaque rupture/erosion/dissection. Definitive evidence is currently lacking to manage these patients whose early diagnosis is 'indeterminate' and these areas of uncertainty should be assigned a high priority for research.
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6.
  • Näslund, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA) : a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 393:10167, s. 133-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease often fails because of poor adherence among practitioners and individuals to prevention guidelines. We aimed to investigate whether ultrasound-based pictorial information about subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, targeting both primary care physicians and individuals, improves prevention.METHODS: Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA) is a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial that was integrated within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, an ongoing population-based cardiovascular disease prevention programme in northern Sweden. Individuals aged 40, 50, or 60 years with one or more conventional risk factors were eligible to participate. Participants underwent clinical examination, blood sampling, and ultrasound assessment of carotid intima media wall thickness and plaque formation. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 with a computer-generated randomisation list to an intervention group (pictorial representation of carotid ultrasound plus a nurse phone call to confirm understanding) or a control group (not informed). The primary outcomes, Framingham risk score (FRS) and European systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE), were assessed after 1 year among participants who were followed up. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01849575.FINDINGS: 3532 individuals were enrolled between April 29, 2013, and June 7, 2016, of which 1783 were randomly assigned to the control group and 1749 were assigned to the intervention group. 3175 participants completed the 1-year follow-up. At the 1-year follow-up, FRS and SCORE differed significantly between groups (FRS 1·07 [95% CI 0·11 to 2·03, p=0·0017] and SCORE 0·16 [0·02 to 0·30, p=0·0010]). FRS decreased from baseline to the 1-year follow-up in the intervention group and increased in the control group (-0·58 [95% CI -0·86 to -0·30] vs 0·35 [0·08 to 0·63]). SCORE increased in both groups (0·13 [95% CI 0·09 to 0·18] vs 0·27 [0·23 to 0·30]).INTERPRETATION: This study provides evidence of the contributory role of pictorial presentation of silent atherosclerosis for prevention of cardiovascular disease. It supports further development of methods to reduce the major problem of low adherence to medication and lifestyle modification.
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7.
  • Alabas, Oras A., et al. (författare)
  • Sex Differences in Treatments, Relative Survival, and Excess Mortality Following Acute Myocardial Infarction : National Cohort Study Using the SWEDEHEART Registry
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : WILEY. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 6:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background - This study assessed sex differences in treatments, all-cause mortality, relative survival, and excess mortality following acute myocardial infarction.Methods and Results - A population-based cohort of all hospitals providing acute myocardial infarction care in Sweden (SWEDEHEART [Swedish Web System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies]) from 2003 to 2013 was included in the analysis. Excess mortality rate ratios (EMRRs), adjusted for clinical characteristics and guideline-indicated treatments after matching by age, sex, and year to background mortality data, were estimated. Although there were no sex differences in all-cause mortality adjusted for age, year of hospitalization, and comorbidities for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI at 1 year (mortality rate ratio: 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.05] and 0.97 [95% CI, 0.95-.99], respectively) and 5 years (mortality rate ratio: 1.03 [95% CI, 0.99-1.07] and 0.97 [95% CI, 0.95-.99], respectively), excess mortality was higher among women compared with men for STEMI and non-STEMI at 1 year (EMRR: 1.89 [95% CI, 1.66-2.16] and 1.20 [95% CI, 1.16-1.24], respectively) and 5 years (EMRR: 1.60 [95% CI, 1.48-1.72] and 1.26 [95% CI, 1.21-1.32], respectively). After further adjustment for the use of guideline-indicated treatments, excess mortality among women with non-STEMI was not significant at 1 year (EMRR: 1.01 [95% CI, 0.97-1.04]) and slightly higher at 5 years (EMRR: 1.07 [95% CI, 1.02-1.12]). For STEMI, adjustment for treatments attenuated the excess mortality for women at 1 year (EMRR: 1.43 [95% CI, 1.26-1.62]) and 5 years (EMRR: 1.31 [95% CI, 1.19-1.43]).Conclusions - Women with acute myocardial infarction did not have statistically different all-cause mortality, but had higher excess mortality compared with men that was attenuated after adjustment for the use of guideline-indicated treatments. This suggests that improved adherence to guideline recommendations for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction may reduce premature cardiovascular death among women.
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8.
  • Alabas, Oras A., et al. (författare)
  • Statistics on mortality following acute myocardial infarction in 842 897 Europeans
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular Research. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0008-6363 .- 1755-3245. ; 116:1, s. 149-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To compare ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) mortality between Sweden and the UK, adjusting for background population rates of expected death, case mix, and treatments.Methods and results: National data were collected from hospitals in Sweden [n = 73 hospitals, 180 368 patients, Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART)] and the UK [n = 247, 662 529 patients, Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP)] between 2003 and 2013. There were lower rates of revascularization [STEMI (43.8% vs. 74.9%); NSTEMI (27.5% vs. 43.6%)] and pharmacotherapies at time of hospital discharge including [aspirin (82.9% vs. 90.2%) and (79.9% vs. 88.0%), beta-blockers (73.4% vs. 86.4%) and (65.3% vs. 85.1%)] in the UK compared with Sweden, respectively. Standardized net probability of death (NPD) between admission and 1 month was higher in the UK for STEMI [8.0 (95% confidence interval 7.4-8.5) vs. 6.7 (6.5-6.9)] and NSTEMI [6.8 (6.4-7.2) vs. 4.9 (4.7-5.0)]. Between 6 months and 1 year and more than 1 year, NPD remained higher in the UK for NSTEMI [2.9 (2.5-3.3) vs. 2.3 (2.2-2.5)] and [21.4 (20.0-22.8) vs. 18.3 (17.6-19.0)], but was similar for STEMI [0.7 (0.4-1.0) vs. 0.9 (0.7-1.0)] and [8.4 (6.7-10.1) vs. 8.3 (7.5-9.1)].Conclusion: Short-term mortality following STEMI and NSTEMI was higher in the UK compared with Sweden. Mid- and longer-term mortality remained higher in the UK for NSTEMI but was similar for STEMI. Differences in mortality may be due to differential use of guideline-indicated treatments.
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9.
  • Alfredsson, Joakim, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Randomized comparison of early supplemental oxygen versus ambient air in patients with confirmed myocardial infarction : Sex-related outcomes from DETO2X-AMI
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Mosby Inc.. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 237, s. 13-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of oxygen therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in relation to sex in patients with confirmed myocardial infarction (MI).Methods: The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction trial randomized 6,629 patients to oxygen at 6 L/min for 6-12 hours or ambient air. In the present subgroup analysis including 5,010 patients (1,388 women and 3,622 men) with confirmed MI, we report the effect of supplemental oxygen on the composite of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, or heart failure at long-term follow-up, stratified according to sex.Results: Event rate for the composite endpoint was 18.1% in women allocated to oxygen, compared to 21.4% in women allocated to ambient air (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.05). In men, the incidence was 13.6% in patients allocated to oxygen compared to 13.3% in patients allocated to ambient air (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86-1.23). No significant interaction in relation to sex was found (P=.16). Irrespective of allocated treatment, the composite endpoint occurred more often in women compared to men (19.7 vs 13.4%, HR 1.51; 95% CI, 1.30-1.75). After adjustment for age alone, there was no difference between the sexes (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.91-1.24), which remained consistent after multivariate adjustment.Conclusion: Oxygen therapy in normoxemic MI patients did not significantly affect all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for MI or heart failure in women or men. The observed worse outcome in women was explained by differences in baseline characteristics, especially age
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