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1.
  • Ahlgren, Kerstin. M, et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes mellitus in dog - : No evidence for a type-1-like phenotype
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in dogs, and is commonly proposed to be of autoimmune origin. Although the clinical symptoms of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) and canine DM are similar, the aetiologies may differ. The aim of this study was to investigate if autoimmune aetiology resembling human T1D is as prevalent in dogs as previously reported. Methods  Sera from 121 diabetic dogs representing 38 different breeds were tested for islet cell antibodies (ICA) and GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) and compared with sera from 133 healthy dogs from 40 breeds. ICA was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using both canine and human frozen sections. GADA was detected by in vitro transcription and translation (ITT) of human and canine GAD65, followed by immunoprecipitation. Results None of the canine sera analyzed tested positive for ICA on sections of frozen canine or human ICA pancreas. However, serum from one diabetic dog was weakly positive in the canine GADA assay and serum from one healthy dog was weakly positive in the human GADA assay. Conclusions/interpretations Based on sera from 121 diabetic dogs from 38 different breeds were tested for humoral autoreactivity using four different assays, contrary to previous observations, we find no support for an autoimmune aetiology  in canine diabetes.
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2.
  • Ahlgren, Kerstin M. (författare)
  • Immunological Studies using Human and Canine Model Disorders
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The studies presented in this thesis focus on human and canine models for autoimmune disease, with the main aim to gain new knowledge about disease mechanisms and to further evaluate the dog as a model for autoimmune disease. Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a hereditary human multiorgan disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. Hallmarks of APS-1 are chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis caused by Candida albicans, together with the autoimmune endocrine disorders hypoparathyroidism and adrenocortical failure. Many human diseases have an equivalent disease in dogs. Because humans share environment, and in part life style with the dogs they provide an interesting model for further genetic studies. Immune responses to Candida albicans in APS-1 patients displayed an increased secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17A and similar results were also found in AIRE deficient mice. Anticytokine autoantibodies to IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 were detected in APS-1 patients, and a radioligand binding assay for measuring these autoantibodies was developed and evaluated. In the canine studies we investigated whether canine diabetes mellitus could serve as a model for human autoimmune diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, we investigated type I IFN responses in Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever dogs with a systemic autoimmune disease resembling human SLE. Four assays were used in search for signs of humoral autoimmunity in diabetic dogs. However, no evidence for a type 1 diabetes-like phenotype in dogs was found. Sera from Nova Scotia duck tolling retrievers suffering from steroid-responsive meningitis arteritis elicited an increased expression of IFN-inducible genes in the canine MDCK cell line. This suggests that these dogs have an IFN signature, as seen in human SLE.
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3.
  • Ahlgren, Kerstin M, et al. (författare)
  • Lack of evidence for a role of islet autoimmunity in the aetiology of canine diabetes mellitus.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 9:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in dogs and is commonly proposed to be of autoimmune origin. Although the clinical presentation of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) and canine diabetes are similar, the aetiologies may differ. The aim of this study was to investigate if autoimmune aetiology resembling human T1D is as prevalent in dogs as previously reported.
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4.
  • Ahlgren, Kerstin, M., et al. (författare)
  • Type I Interferon signature in Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever dogs with steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objective: Dogs of the breed Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever (NSDTR) are prone to develop a disease complex in some aspects resembling human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human SLE patients have an increased mRNA expression type I interferon (IFN) regulated genes. However, it is unknown whether diseased dogs also display the typical type I IFN signature. Methods: To test canine sera for their capacity to induce type I IFN response Mardin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were cultured with sera from healthy dogs (n=25),  immune-mediated rheumatic disease (IMRD) dogs with anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA+) (n=30) or dogs with steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA) (n=25). mRNA expression of the genes MX1, IFIT1 and CXCL10 was measured by quantitative Real Time PCR. Results: A highly significant (p=0.0009) increase in mRNA expression of the type I IFN responsive gene MX1 was detected in cells stimulated by sera from dogs with SRMA, but not from IMRD ANA+ dogs. Expression of IFIT1 was twice as high in cells stimulated by sera from dogs with SRMA compared to both healthy dogs and ANA+ dogs. The mean expression of CXCL10 was nearly ten times higher in cells stimulated by sera from SRMA dogs than by ANA+ dogs and four times higher compared to cells stimulated by control dogs. Conclusion: Presence of type I IFN in sera from diseased NSDTR dogs was found in this study. This implies that this canine model can be used for identification of pathways of importance for autoimmune disorders in humans and for testing of novel therapeutic approaches. Our results can also be a step on the way towards personalized drugs in these dogs.
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5.
  • Ardesjö Lundgren, Brita, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of cellular location and expression of Plakophilin-2 in epidermal cells from nonlesional atopic skin and healthy skin in German shepherd dogs
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Veterinary Dermatology. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 0959-4493 .- 1365-3164. ; 28, s. 377-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background - Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is an inflammatory and pruritic allergic skin disease caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Previously, a genome-wide significant risk locus on canine chromosome 27 for CAD was identified in German shepherd dogs (GSDs) and Plakophilin-2 (PKP2) was defined as the top candidate gene. PKP2 constitutes a crucial component of desmosomes and also is important in signalling, metabolic and transcriptional activities.Objectives - The main objective was to evaluate the role of PKP2 in CAD by investigating PKP2 expression and desmosome structure in nonlesional skin from CAD-affected (carrying the top GWAS SNP risk allele) and healthy GSDs. We also aimed at defining the cell types in the skin that express PKP2 and its intracellular location.Animals/Methods - Skin biopsies were collected from nine CAD-affected and five control GSDs. The biopsies were frozen for immunofluorescence and fixed for electron microscopy immunolabelling and morphology.Results - We observed the novel finding of PKP2 expression in dendritic cells and T cells in dog skin. Moreover, we detected that PKP2 was more evenly expressed within keratinocytes compared to its desmosomal binding partner plakoglobin. PKP2 protein was located in the nucleus and on keratin filaments attached to desmosomes. No difference in PKP2 abundance between CAD cases and controls was observed.Conclusion - Plakophilin-2 protein in dog skin is expressed in both epithelial and immune cells; based on Its sub cellular location its functional role is implicated in both nuclear and structural processes.
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6.
  • Ardesjö-Lundgren, Brita, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of cellular location and expression of Plakophilin-2 in epidermal cells from nonlesional atopic skin and healthy skin in German shepherd dogs
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Veterinary dermatology (Print). - 0959-4493 .- 1365-3164. ; 28:4, s. 377-e88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundCanine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is an inflammatory and pruritic allergic skin disease caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Previously, a genome‐wide significant risk locus on canine chromosome 27 for CAD was identified in German shepherd dogs (GSDs) and Plakophilin‐2 (PKP2) was defined as the top candidate gene. PKP2 constitutes a crucial component of desmosomes and also is important in signalling, metabolic and transcriptional activities.ObjectivesThe main objective was to evaluate the role of PKP2 in CAD by investigating PKP2 expression and desmosome structure in nonlesional skin from CAD‐affected (carrying the top GWAS SNP risk allele) and healthy GSDs. We also aimed at defining the cell types in the skin that express PKP2 and its intracellular location.Animals/MethodsSkin biopsies were collected from nine CAD‐affected and five control GSDs. The biopsies were frozen for immunofluorescence and fixed for electron microscopy immunolabelling and morphology.ResultsWe observed the novel finding of PKP2 expression in dendritic cells and T cells in dog skin. Moreover, we detected that PKP2 was more evenly expressed within keratinocytes compared to its desmosomal binding‐partner plakoglobin. PKP2 protein was located in the nucleus and on keratin filaments attached to desmosomes. No difference in PKP2 abundance between CAD cases and controls was observed.ConclusionPlakophilin‐2 protein in dog skin is expressed in both epithelial and immune cells; based on its subcellular location its functional role is implicated in both nuclear and structural processes.
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7.
  • Fall, Tove, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes Mellitus in Elkhounds Is Associated with Diestrus and Pregnancy
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. - : Wiley Open Access: Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial / Wiley. - 0891-6640 .- 1939-1676. ; 24:6, s. 1322-1328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Female Elkhounds are shown to be at increased risk for diabetes mellitus, and occurrence of diabetes during pregnancy has been described in several cases. Hypothesis: Onset of diabetes mellitus in Elkhounds is associated with diestrus. Animals: Sixty-three Elkhounds with diabetes mellitus and 26 healthy controls. Methods: Medical records from 63 Elkhounds with diabetes were reviewed and owners were contacted for follow-up information. Blood samples from the day of diagnosis were available for 26 dogs. Glucose, fructosamine, C-peptide, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1, progesterone, and glutamate decarboxylase isoform 65-autoantibodies were analyzed and compared with 26 healthy dogs. Logistic models were used to evaluate the association of clinical variables with the probability of diabetes and with permanent diabetes mellitus after ovariohysterectomy (OHE). Results: All dogs in the study were intact females and 7 dogs (11%) were pregnant at diagnosis. The 1st clinical signs of diabetes mellitus occurred at a median of 30 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3-45) after estrus, and diagnosis was made at a median of 46 days (IQR, 27-62) after estrus. Diabetes was associated with higher concentrations of GH and lower concentrations of progesterone compared with controls matched for time after estrus. Forty-six percent of dogs that underwent OHE recovered from diabetes with a lower probability of remission in dogs with higher glucose concentrations (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; P = .03) at diagnosis and longer time (weeks) from diagnosis to surgery (OR, 1.5; P = .05). Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus in Elkhounds develops mainly during diestrus and pregnancy. Immediate OHE improves the prognosis for remission of diabetes.
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8.
  • Lawniczak, Mara K. N., et al. (författare)
  • Standards recommendations for the Earth BioGenome Project
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 119:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A global international initiative, such as the Earth BioGenome Project (EBP), requires both agreement and coordination on standards to ensure that the collective effort generates rapid progress toward its goals. To this end, the EBP initiated five technical standards committees comprising volunteer members from the global genomics scientific community: Sample Collection and Processing, Sequencing and Assembly, Annotation, Analysis, and IT and Informatics. The current versions of the resulting standards documents are available on the EBP website, with the recognition that opportunities, technologies, and challenges may improve or change in the future, requiring flexibility for the EBP to meet its goals. Here, we describe some highlights from the proposed standards, and areas where additional challenges will need to be met.
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9.
  • Olsson, Mia, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest Mechanisms Involving Early B-cell Development in Canine IgA Deficiency
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 10:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immune deficiency disorder in both humans and dogs, characterized by recurrent mucosal tract infections and a predisposition for allergic and other immune mediated diseases. In several dog breeds, low IgA levels have been observed at a high frequency and with a clinical resemblance to human IgAD. In this study, we used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genomic regions associated with low IgA levels in dogs as a comparative model for human IgAD. We used a novel percentile groups-approach to establish breed-specific cut-offs and to perform analyses in a close to continuous manner. GWAS performed in four breeds prone to low IgA levels (German shepherd, Golden retriever, Labrador retriever and Shar-Pei) identified 35 genomic loci suggestively associated (p <0.0005) to IgA levels. In German shepherd, three genomic regions (candidate genes include KIRREL3 and SERPINA9) were genome-wide significantly associated (p <0.0002) with IgA levels. A ~20kb long haplotype on CFA28, significantly associated (p = 0.0005) to IgA levels in Shar-Pei, was positioned within the first intron of the gene SLIT1. Both KIRREL3 and SLIT1 are highly expressed in the central nervous system and in bone marrow and are potentially important during B-cell development. SERPINA9 expression is restricted to B-cells and peaks at the time-point when B-cells proliferate into antibody-producing plasma cells. The suggestively associated regions were enriched for genes in Gene Ontology gene sets involving inflammation and early immune cell development.
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10.
  • Olsson, Mia, et al. (författare)
  • The dog as a genetic model for immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency : Identification of several breeds with low serum IgA concentrations
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. - 0165-2427 .- 1873-2534. ; 60:3-4, s. 255-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) serves as the basis of the secretory immune system by protecting the lining of mucosal sites from pathogens. In both humans and dogs, IgA deficiency (IgAD) is associated with recurrent infections of mucosal sites and immune-mediated diseases. Low concentrations of serum IgA have previously been reported to occur in a number of dog breeds but no generally accepted cut-off value has been established for canine IgAD. The current study represents the largest screening to date of IgA in dogs in terms of both number of dogs (n = 1267) and number of breeds studied (n = 22). Serum IgA concentrations were quantified by using capture ELISA and were found to vary widely between breeds. We also found IgA to be positively correlated with age (p < 0.0001). Apart from the two breeds previously reported as predisposed to low IgA (Shar-Pei and German shepherd), we identified six additional breeds in which > 10% of all tested dogs had very low (<0.07 g/l) IgA concentrations (Hovawart, Norwegian elkhound, Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever, Bullterrier, Golden retriever and Labrador retriever). In addition, we discovered low IgA concentrations to be significantly associated with canine atopic dermatitis (CAD, p < 0.0001) and pancreatic acinar atrophy (PAA, p = 0.04) in German shepherds.
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