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  • Bellander, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Lower baseline performance but greater plasticity of working memory for carriers of the val allele of the comt val158met polymorphism
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychology. - 0894-4105 .- 1931-1559. ; 29:2, s. 247-254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Little is known about genetic contributions to individual differences in cognitive plasticity. Given that the neurotransmitter dopamine is critical for cognition and associated with cognitive plasticity, we investigated the effects of 3 polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes (LMX1A, DRD2, COMT) on baseline performance and plasticity of working memory (WM), perceptual speed, and reasoning. Method: One hundred one younger and 103 older adults underwent approximately 100 days of cognitive training, and extensive testing before and after training. We analyzed the baseline and posttest data using latent change score models. Results: For working memory, carriers of the val allele of the COMT polymorphism had lower baseline performance and larger performance gains from training than carriers of the met allele. There was no significant effect of the other genes or on other cognitive domains. Conclusions: We relate this result to available evidence indicating that met carriers perform better than val carriers in WM tasks taxing maintenance, whereas val carriers perform better at updating tasks. We suggest that val carriers may show larger training gains because updating operations carry greater potential for plasticity than maintenance operations.
  • Binnewies, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Associations of depression and regional brain structure across the adult lifespan : Pooled analyses of six population-based and two clinical cohort studies in the European Lifebrain consortium
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 0353-8842 .- 2213-1582. ; 36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Major depressive disorder has been associated with lower prefrontal thickness and hippocampal volume, but it is unknown whether this association also holds for depressive symptoms in the general population. We investigated associations of depressive symptoms and depression status with brain structures across population-based and patient-control cohorts, and explored whether these associations are similar over the lifespan and across sexes.Methods: We included 3,447 participants aged 18–89 years from six population-based and two clinical patient-control cohorts of the European Lifebrain consortium. Cross-sectional meta-analyses using individual person data were performed for associations of depressive symptoms and depression status with FreeSurfer-derived thickness of bilateral rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), and hippocampal and total grey matter volume (GMV), separately for population-based and clinical cohorts.Results: Across patient-control cohorts, depressive symptoms and presence of mild-to-severe depression were associated with lower mOFC thickness (rsymptoms = −0.15/ rstatus = −0.22), rACC thickness (rsymptoms = −0.20/ rstatus = −0.25), hippocampal volume (rsymptoms = −0.13/ rstatus = 0.13) and total GMV (rsymptoms = −0.21/ rstatus = −0.25). Effect sizes were slightly larger for presence of moderate-to-severe depression. Associations were similar across age groups and sex. Across population-based cohorts, no associations between depression and brain structures were observed.Conclusions: Fitting with previous meta-analyses, depressive symptoms and depression status were associated with lower mOFC, rACC thickness, and hippocampal and total grey matter volume in clinical patient-control cohorts, although effect sizes were small. The absence of consistent associations in population-based cohorts with mostly mild depressive symptoms, suggests that significantly lower thickness and volume of the studied brain structures are only detectable in clinical populations with more severe depressive symptoms.
  • Brehmer, Yvonne, et al. (författare)
  • Training-induced changes in subsequent-memory effects : No major differences among children, younger adults, and older adults
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 131, s. 214-225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The neural correlates of encoding mode, or the state of forming new memory episodes, have been found to change with age and mnemonic training. However, it is unclear whether neural correlates of encoding success, termed subsequent-memory (SM) effects, also differ by age and mnemonic skill. In a multi-session training study, we investigated whether SM effects are altered by instruction and training in a mnemonic skill, and whether such alterations differ among children, younger adults, and older adults. Before and after strategy training, fMRI data were collected while participants were memorizing word pairs. In all age groups, participants receiving training showed greater performance gains than control group participants. Analysis of task-relevant regions showed training-induced reductions in SM effects in left frontal regions. Reductions in SM effects largely generalized across age and primarily reflected greater training-induced activation increases for omissions than for remembered items, indicating that training resulted in more consistent use of the mnemonic strategy. The present results reveal no major age differences in SM effects in children, younger adults, and older adults.
  • Brose, Annette, et al. (författare)
  • Adult Age Differences in Covariation of Motivation and Working Memory Performance: Contrasting Between-Person and Within-Person Findings
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Research in Human Development. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1542-7609. ; 7:1, s. 61-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Developmental theorists have proposed for a long time that the prevailing focus on stable individual differences has obstructed the discovery of short-term covariations between cognitive performance and contextual influences within individuals that may help to uncover mechanisms underlying long-term change. As an initial step to overcome this imbalance, we observed measures of motivation and working memory (WM) in 101 younger and 103 older adults across 100 occasions. Our main goals were to (1) investigate day-to-day relations between motivation and WM, (2) show that these relations differ between groups of younger and older adults, and (3) test whether the within-person and between-person structures linking motivational variables to WM are equivalent (i.e., the ergodicity assumption). The covariation between motivation and WM was generally positive in younger adults. In contrast, older adults showed reduced variability in motivation, increased variability across trials, and small reliability-adjusted correlations between motivation and WM. Within-person structures differed reliably across individuals, defying the ergodicity assumption. We discuss the implications of our findings for developmental theory and design, stressing the need to explore the effects of between-person differences in short-term covariations on long-term developmental change.
  • Brose, Annette, et al. (författare)
  • Daily Variability in Working Memory is Coupled With Negative Affect: The Role of Attention and Motivation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Emotion. - : American Psychological Association (APA). - 1528-3542 .- 1931-1516. ; 12:3, s. 605-617
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Across days, individuals experience varying levels of negative affect, control of attention, and motivation. We investigated whether this intraindividual variability was coupled with daily fluctuations in working memory (WM) performance. In 100 days, 101 younger individuals worked on a spatial N-back task and rated negative affect, control of attention, and motivation. Results showed that individuals differed in how reliably WM performance fluctuated across days, and that subjective experiences were primarily linked to performance accuracy. WM performance was lower on days with higher levels of negative affect, reduced control of attention, and reduced task-related motivation. Thus, variables that were found to predict WM in between-subjects designs showed important relationships to WM at the within-person level. In addition, there was shared predictive variance among predictors of WM. Days with increased negative affect and reduced performance were also days with reduced control of attention and reduced motivation to work on tasks. These findings are in line with proposed mechanisms linking negative affect and cognitive performance.
  • Brose, Annette, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in the Between-Person and Within-Person Structures of Affect Are a Matter of Degree
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Personality. - 0890-2070 .- 1099-0984. ; 29:1, s. 55-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study tested whether the structure of affect observed on the basis of between-person (BP) differences is equivalent to the affect structures that organize the variability of affective states within persons (WP) over time. Further aims were to identify individual differences in the degree of divergence between the WP and BP structure and examine its association to dispositional and contextual variables (neuroticism, extraversion, well-being and stress). In 100 daily sessions, 101 younger adults rated their mood on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Variability of five negative affect items across time was so low that they were excluded from the analyses. We thus worked with a modified negative affect subscale. WP affect structures diverged reliably from the BP structure, with individual differences in the degree of divergence. Differences in the WP structural characteristics and the degree of divergence could be predicted by well-being and stress. We conclude that BP and WP structures of affect are not equivalent and that BP and WP variation should be considered as distinct phenomena. It would be wrong, for example, to conceive of positive and negative affect as independent at the WP level, as suggested by BP findings. Yet, individual differences in WP structural characteristics are related to stable BP differences, and the degree to which individuals' affect structures diverge from the BP structure can provide important insights into intraindividual functioning.
  • Brose, Annette, et al. (författare)
  • Normal aging dampens the link between intrusive thoughts and negative affect in reaction to daily stressors
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Psychology and aging. - Arlington, VA : American Psychological Association (APA). - 0882-7974 .- 1939-1498. ; 26:2, s. 488-502
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We charted daily variations in intrusive thoughts to gain access to adult age differences in affective reactivity to daily stressors. On 100 days, 101 younger and 103 older adults reported stressors, intrusive thoughts, and negative affect. Although increments in intrusive thoughts were similar in both age groups on days with stressors, older adults' negative affect increased less than younger adults' on such days. In addition, (a) levels of intrusive thoughts and negative affect across study time were positively associated; (b) days with increased thoughts were days with increased negative affect; and (c) experiencing above-average intrusive thoughts about stressors strengthened affective reactions to stress. Relative to younger adults, all three associations were reduced in older adults. We tentatively conclude that normal aging dampens the stress-induced link between intrusive thoughts and affect. This dampening may contribute to preserved affective well-being and reduced affective reactivity to daily stress in old age.
  • Burzynska, Agnieszka Z., et al. (författare)
  • A Scaffold for Efficiency in the Human Brain
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience. - 0270-6474 .- 1529-2401. ; 33:43, s. 17150-17159
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The comprehensive relations between healthy adult human brain white matter(WM) microstructure and gray matter (GM) function, and their joint relations to cognitive performance, remain poorly understood. We investigated these associations in 27 younger and 28 older healthy adults by linking diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected during an n-back working memory task. We present a novel application of multivariate Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis that permitted the simultaneous modeling of relations between WM integrity values from all major WM tracts and patterns of condition-related BOLD signal across all GM regions. Our results indicate that greater microstructural integrity of the major WM tracts was negatively related to condition-related blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in task-positive GM regions. This negative relationship suggests that better quality of structural connections allows for more efficient use of task-related GM processing resources. Individuals with more intact WM further showed greater BOLD signal increases in typical task-negative regions during fixation, and notably exhibited a balanced magnitude of BOLD response across task-positive and-negative states. Structure-function relations also predicted task performance, including accuracy and speed of responding. Finally, structure-function behavior relations reflected individual differences over and above chronological age. Our findings provide evidence for the role of WM microstructure as a scaffold for the context-relevant utilization of GM regions.
  • Burzynska, Agnieszka Z., et al. (författare)
  • Cortical thickness is linked to executive functioning in adulthood and aging
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 33:7, s. 1607-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Executive functions that are dependent upon the frontal-parietal network decline considerably during the course of normal aging. To delineate neuroanatomical correlates of age-related executive impairment, we investigated the relation between cortical thickness and executive functioning in 73 younger (20-32 years) and 56 older (60-71 years) healthy adults. Executive functioning was assessed using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Cortical thickness was measured at each location of the cortical mantle using surface-based segmentation procedures on high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. For regions involved in WCST performance, such as the lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, we found that thicker cortex was related to higher accuracy. Follow-up ROI-based analyses revealed that these associations were stronger in older than in younger adults. Moreover, among older adults, high and low performers differed in cortical thickness within regions generally linked to WCST performance. Our results indicate that the structural cortical correlates of executive functioning largely overlap with previously identified functional patterns. We conclude that structural preservation of relevant brain regions is associated with higher levels of executive performance in old age, and underscore the need to consider the heterogeneity of brain aging in relation to cognitive functioning.
  • Bäckman, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Linking cognitive aging to alterations in dopamine neurotransmitter functioning : Recent data and future avenues
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. - 0149-7634 .- 1873-7528. ; 34:5, s. 670-677
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Molecular-imaging studies of dopaminergic neurotransmission measure biomarkers of dopamine (DA), such as the DA transporter and D(1) and D(2) receptor densities in the living brain. These studies indicate that individual differences in DA functions are linked to cognitive performance irrespective of age, and serve as powerful mediators of age-related decline in executive functioning, episodic memory, and perceptual speed. This focused review targets several recent findings pertaining to these relationships. Specifically, we discuss novel evidence concerning (a) the role of DA in within-person cognitive variability; (b) age-related differences in DA release during cognitive processing; (c) DA release following cognitive training in younger and older adults; and (d) the relationship between DA and task-induced functional brain activity. Based on these lines of empirical inquiry, we outline a series of avenues for future research on aging, DA, and cognition.
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