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1.
  • Jerdén, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of a personal health document in different distribution settings
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Health Promotion Journal of Australia. - 1036-1073 .- 2201-1617. ; 19:2, s. 125-131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Issue addressed: The aim was to compare the cost-effectiveness of different ways to distribute a personal health document that was primarily aimed at supporting behaviour change. Personal health documents have been widely used in health-promoting efforts but their effective use is rather sparsely studied. Methods: Four types of distribution were tested in Sweden: primary health care centres (n=418); work site meetings (n=164); at an occupational health examination (n=279); by mail (n=445). Participant behaviour changes were measured by a questionnaire. Cost calculations were made based on the results of the study. Results: Between 10% and 26% of participants reported behaviour changes as a result of reading the booklet. A change in health situation was less likely using postal distribution. There were no significant differences between the other types of distribution. Cost-effective distribution at work sites and in occupational health was superior to distribution in primary health care when direct costs were used. Distribution at work sites was the least cost-effective when indirect costs, i.e. productivity losses of participants, were included. Conclusions: Cost-effectiveness analyses support distribution of personal health documents in occupational health. In primary health care, high training costs in combination with low distribution rates might be problematic. Providing information during distribution at work sites is time-consuming and might therefore be a problem if productivity losses are taken into account.
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2.
  • Philipson, Anna, 1978- (författare)
  • Health economic aspects of emotional problems and pain symptoms in childhood and adolescence : Long-term outcomes, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of interventions
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Emotional problems and pain symptoms among children and adolescents are a global public health challenge that imposes a great burden on the individuals affected and on society. Because resources are limited, allocation and prioritization are needed. Health economic analysis can constitute a foundation for such decisions.The overall aim of this thesis is to estimate long-term outcomes associated with adolescent depression and to evaluate interventions for emotional problems and pain symptoms in childhood and adolescence from a health economic perspective. The thesis is based on four papers: paper I is a longitudinal cohort study of 539 participants, showing that adolescent depression is associated with reduced earnings in adulthood, papers II, III, and IV are based on two randomized controlled trials of interventions. In paper II, a dance intervention for 112 adolescent females with internalizing symptoms were evaluated. A cost–utility analysis was performed, indicating that the intervention was costeffective given a willingness-to-pay threshold of USD 50,000 with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of USD 3830/quality-adjusted life year. Papers III and IV evaluated a dance and yoga intervention for 121 girls, 9–13 years old, with functional abdominal pain disorders. Paper III showed that the intervention group decreased their abdominal pain more than did the control group. In paper IV, the cost–utility analysis of the trial indicated a negative incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, investigated from a societal perspective, over both one and ten years.In conclusion, this thesis identifies a need for preventive as well as treatment interventions for emotional problems in adolescence, to decrease the prevalence of emotional problems and mitigate negative outcomes. Dance or dance and yoga combined can be effective and cost-effective early treatment interventions for emotional problems and pain symptoms among females in childhood and adolescence. These findings may assist decision-makers in resource allocation within this area
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3.
  • Arvidsson, Eva, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Vägen framåt
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Att välja rättvist. - Lund : Studentlitteratur AB. ; , s. 207-214
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Som vi visat har utvecklingen av metoder och strukturer för öppna prioriteringar i Sverige kommit långt. Många frågor återstår likväl. Under vårt arbete med denna bok har vi identifierat ett antal förbättringsområden och utmaningar som vi avslutningsvis vill lyfta fram. Det rör sig om vilka som ska delta i prioriteringarna, tydliggörande av värdegrunden, behov av bättre kunskap, baserad på både vetenskaplig metod och erfarenhet, och fortsatt utveckling av prioriteringsprocesser på olika nivåer och i olika sammanhang. Även om vi i Sverige skulle nå en god enighet kring principer och kriterier för prioriteringar så kommer vi alltid finna många olika sätt att praktiskt lösa specifika prioriteringsproblem.
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4.
  • Brunström, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Association of education and feedback on hypertension management with risk for stroke and cardiovascular disease
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Blood Pressure. - : Informa UK Limited. - 0803-7051 .- 1651-1999. ; 31:1, s. 31-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Education and feedback on hypertension management has been associated with improved hypertension control. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of such interventions to reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular events. Materials and Methods Individuals >= 18 years with a blood pressure (BP) recording in Vasterbotten or Sodermanland County during the study period 2001 to 2009 were included in 108 serial cohort studies, each with 24 months follow-up. The primary outcome was risk of first-ever stroke in Vasterbotten County (intervention) compared with Sodermanland County (control). Secondary outcomes were first-ever major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), myocardial infarction, and heart failure, as well as all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. All outcomes were analysed using time-to-event data included in a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, systolic BP at inclusion, marital status, and disposable income. Results A total of 121 365 individuals (mean [SD] age at inclusion 61.7 [16.3] years; 59.9% female; mean inclusion BP 142.3/82.6 mmHg) in the intervention county were compared to 131 924 individuals (63.6 [16.2] years; 61.2% female; 144.1/81.1 mmHg) in the control county. A first-ever stroke occurred in 2 823 (2.3%) individuals in the intervention county, and 3 584 (2.7%) individuals in the control county (adjusted hazard ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.03). No differences were observed for MACE, myocardial infarction or heart failure, whereas all-cause mortality (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.95) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.98) were lower in the intervention county. Conclusions This study does not support an association between education and feedback on hypertension management to primary care physicians and the risk for stroke or cardiovascular outcomes. The observed differences for mortality outcomes should be interpreted with caution.
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5.
  • Brunström, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Association of physician education and feedback on hypertension management with patient blood pressure and hypertension control
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA Network Open. - : American Medical Association (AMA). - 2574-3805. ; 3:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) is the most important risk factor for premature death worldwide. However, hypertension detection and control rates continue to be suboptimal.To assess the association of education and feedback to primary care physicians with population-level SBP and hypertension control rates.This pooled series of 108 population-based cohort studies involving 283 079 patients used data from primary care centers in 2 counties (Västerbotten and Södermanland) in Sweden from 2001 to 2009. Participants were individuals aged 18 years or older who had their blood pressure (BP) measured and recorded in either county during the intervention period. All analyses were performed in February 2019.An intervention comprising education and feedback for primary care physicians in Västerbotten County (intervention group) compared with usual care in Södermanland County (control group).Difference in mean SBP levels between counties and likelihood of hypertension control in the intervention county compared with the control county during 24 months of follow-up.A total of 136 541 unique individuals (mean [SD] age at inclusion, 64.6 [16.1] years; 57.0% female; mean inclusion BP, 142/82 mm Hg) in the intervention county were compared with 146 538 individuals (mean [SD] age at inclusion, 65.7 [15.9] years; 58.3% female; mean inclusion BP, 144/80 mm Hg) in the control county. Mean SBP difference between counties during follow-up, adjusted for inclusion BP and other covariates, was 1.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.0-1.1 mm Hg). Hypertension control improved by 8.4 percentage points, and control was achieved in 37.8% of participants in the intervention county compared with 29.4% in the control county (adjusted odds ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.29-1.31). Differences between counties increased during the intervention period and were more pronounced in participants with higher SBP at inclusion. Results were consistent across all subgroups.This study suggests that SBP levels and hypertension control rates in a county population may be improved by educational approaches directed at physicians and other health care workers. Similar strategies may be adopted to reinforce the implementation of clinical practice guidelines for hypertension management.
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6.
  • Brunström, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • From efficacy in trials to effectiveness in clinical practice : The Swedish Stroke Prevention Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Blood Pressure. - : Informa UK Limited. - 0803-7051 .- 1651-1999. ; 25:4, s. 206-211
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Blood pressure treatment has shown great efficacy in reducing cardiovascular events in randomized controlled trials. If this is effective in reducing cardiovascular disease in the general population, is less studied. Between 2001 and 2009 we performed an intervention to improve blood pressure control in the county of Vasterbotten, using Sodermanland County as a control. The intervention was directed towards primary care physicians and included lectures on blood pressure treatment, a computerized decision support system with treatment recommendations, and yearly feed back on hypertension control. Each county had approximately 255000 inhabitants. Differences in age and incidence of cardiovascular disease were small. During follow-up, more than 400000 patients had their blood pressure recorded. The mean number of measurements was eight per patient, yielding a total of 3.4 million blood pressure recordings. The effect of the intervention will be estimated combining the blood pressure data collected from the electronic medical records, with data on stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality from Swedish health registers. Additional variables, from health registers and Statistics Sweden, will be collected to address for confounders. The blood pressure data collected within this study will be an important asset for future epidemiological studies within the field of hypertension.
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7.
  • Emmelin, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Pol-ethical considerations in public health. : The views of Swedish health care politicians
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1101-1262 .- 1464-360X. ; 9:2, s. 124-130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Public health policy is often concerned with the conflicting values emanating from the individually formulated ethics for curative care and more collectively oriented ethics. In this study we have focused on the pol-ethical considerations involved in Swedish health care politicians' assessment of public health measures. Methods: We described a hypothetical situation in a questionnaire, where a community has a 50% excess mortality for disease X, compared to the national average. Scientific disagreements were identified and discussed. The respondents gave their preference for a specific intervention strategy and considered, on a graded scale, 17 different value statements related to ethical principles and intervention strategies. Results: Only one out of 451 politicians preferred the alternative ‘no intervention’. The majority preferred an intervention including active involvement of primary health care. There was overall strong support for equity and beneficence. A factor analysis gave a model for the association between ethical values, political affiliation and choice of intervention strategies. The relative weights of autonomy and equity were strongly related to political affiliation. Conclusions: Among Swedish health care politicians there is consensus about the value of performing interventions in public health when the problem is large, even if there is some uncertainty about the consequences. Their overall strong support for equity and beneficence implies that these principles are crucial when formulating policies for interventions. Politicians need to state their ethical standpoint explicitly so that we as citizens can judge their decisions and actions based on our own political ideology and support for basic ethical principles.
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8.
  • Eriksson, Kerstin Margareta, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of life and cost-effectiveness of a 3-year trial of lifestyle intervention in primary health care
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Archives of Internal Medicine. - Chicago : American Medical Association. - 0003-9926 .- 1538-3679. ; 170:16, s. 1470-1479
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Lifestyle interventions reduce cardiovascular risk and diabetes but reports on long term effects on quality of life (QOL) and health care utilization are rare. The aim was to investigate the impact of a primary health care based lifestyle intervention program on QOL and cost-effectiveness over 3 years.Methods: 151 men and women, age 18-65 yr, at moderate-to-high risk for cardiovascular disease, were randomly assigned to either lifestyle intervention with standard care or standard care alone. Intervention consisted of supervised exercise sessions and diet counseling for 3 months, followed by regular group meetings during 3years. Change in QOL was measured with EuroQol (EQ-5D, EQ VAS), the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the SF-6D.  The health economic evaluation was performed from a societal view and a treatment perspective. In a cost-utility analysis the costs, gained quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and savings in health care were considered. Cost-effectiveness was also described using the Net Monetary Benefit Method.Results: Significant differences between groups over the 3-yr period were shown in EQ VAS, SF-6D and SF-36 physical component summary but not in EQ-5D or SF-36 mental component summary. There was a net saving of 47 USD per participant. Costs per gained QALY, savings not counted, were 1,668 – 4,813 USD. Probabilities of cost-effectiveness were 89 – 100 %, when 50 000 USD was used as stakeholder’s threshold of willingness to pay for a gained QALY.Conclusion: Lifestyle intervention in primary care improves QOL and is highly cost-effective in relation to standard care.
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9.
  • Hagberg, Lars A, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of healthcare-based interventions aimed at improving physical activity.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - : SAGE Publications. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 34:6, s. 641-653
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: This article aims to review current knowledge concerning the cost-effectiveness of healthcare-based interventions aimed at improving physical activity. Method: A search was performed for economic evaluations containing the terms ``physical activity'', ``exercise'', or ``fitness''. Cost-effectiveness for the articles found was described based on a model for evaluating interventions intended to promote physical activity. Results: A total of 26 articles were found in the search. Nine of them concern a general population, 7 evaluated older people, and 10 studied disease-specific populations. A preventive perspective is most common, but some have a treatment perspective. Around 20 of the interventions studied were cost-effective according to their authors, but all analyses had some shortcomings in their evaluation methods. Conclusion: This review found many examples of cost-effective interventions. There is a lack of evidence for the cost-effectiveness of interventions aimed at those whose only risk factor for illness is a sedentary lifestyle. There is more evidence, although it is limited, for the cost-effectiveness of interventions aimed at high-risk groups or those who manifest poor health related to physical inactivity. Most of the evidence for cost-effectiveness is for older people and those with heart failure. Promotion of physical activity can be cost-effective with different methods and in different settings, but there remains a lack of evidence for specific methods in specific populations.
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