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Sökning: WFRF:(Linnell John D. C.)

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2.
  • Mills, James A, et al. (författare)
  • Archiving Primary Data: Solutions for Long-Term Studies.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Trends in Ecology & Evolution. - : Elsevier. - 1872-8383 .- 0169-5347. ; 30:10, s. 581-589
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (Pls) with long-term studies revealed positive attitudes towards sharing data with the agreement or involvement of the PI, and 93% of PIs have historically shared data. Only 8% were in favor of uncontrolled, open access to primary data while 63% expressed serious concern. We present here their viewpoint on an issue that can have non-trivial scientific consequences. We discuss potential costs of public data archiving and provide possible solutions to meet the needs of journals and researchers.
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4.
  • Andrén, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Harvest models of small populations of a large carnivore using Bayesian forecasting
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Ecological Applications. - 1051-0761 .- 1939-5582. ; 30:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Harvesting large carnivores can be a management tool for meeting politically set goals for their desired abundance. However, harvesting carnivores creates its own set of conflicts in both society and among conservation professionals, where one consequence is a need to demonstrate that management is sustainable, evidence-based, and guided by science. Furthermore, because large carnivores often also have high degrees of legal protection, harvest quotas have to be carefully justified and constantly adjusted to avoid damaging their conservation status. We developed a Bayesian state-space model to support adaptive management of Eurasian lynx harvesting in Scandinavia. The model uses data from the annual monitoring of lynx abundance and results from long-term field research on lynx biology, which has provided detailed estimates of key demographic parameters. We used the model to predict the probability that the forecasted population size will be below or above the management objectives when subjected to different harvest quotas. The model presented here informs decision makers about the policy risks of alternative harvest levels. Earlier versions of the model have been available for wildlife managers in both Sweden and Norway to guide lynx harvest quotas and the model predictions showed good agreement with observations. We combined monitoring data with data on vital rates and were able to estimate unobserved additional mortality rates, which are most probably due to poaching. In both countries, the past quota setting strategy suggests that there has been a de facto threshold strategy with increasing proportion, which means that there is no harvest below a certain population size, but above this threshold there is an increasing proportion of the population harvested as the population size increases. The annual assessment of the monitoring results, the use of forecasting models, and a threshold harvest approach to quota setting will all reduce the risk of lynx population sizes moving outside the desired goals. The approach we illustrate could be adapted to other populations of mammals worldwide.
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5.
  • López-Bao, José Vicente, et al. (författare)
  • Eurasian lynx fitness shows little variation across Scandinavian human-dominated landscapes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite extensive research on the ecology and behavioural adaptations of large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes, information about the fitness consequences of sharing landscapes is still limited. We assessed the variation in three consecutive components of female fitness: the probability of reproduction, litter size and juvenile survival in relation to environmental and human factors in a solitary carnivore, the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), occurring in human-dominated landscapes in Scandinavia. We used demographic data from 57 radio-collared adult females between 1995-2011 (126 radio-years). Overall, the yearly probability of female reproduction was 0.80, mean litter size was 2.34 (range 1-4) and the probability to find a female that reproduced in the spring being accompanied by at least one offspring during the subsequent winter was 0.70. We did not find evidence that food availability was a key factor influencing female fitness. Female lynx may adapt to food availability when establishing their home ranges by adopting an obstinate strategy, ensuring a minimum amount of prey necessary for survival and reproduction even during periods of prey scarcity. In human-dominated landscapes, where sufficient prey are available for lynx, mortality risk may have a larger influence on lynx population dynamics compared to food availability. Our results suggest that lynx population dynamics in human-dominated landscapes may be mainly driven by human impacts on survival.
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6.
  • López-Bao, José Vicente, et al. (författare)
  • Eurasian lynx fitness shows little variation across Scandinavian human-dominated landscapes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group: Open Access Journals - Option C / Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite extensive research on the ecology and behavioural adaptations of large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes, information about the fitness consequences of sharing landscapes is still limited. We assessed the variation in three consecutive components of female fitness: the probability of reproduction, litter size and juvenile survival in relation to environmental and human factors in a solitary carnivore, the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), occurring in human-dominated landscapes in Scandinavia. We used demographic data from 57 radio-collared adult females between 1995-2011 (126 radio-years). Overall, the yearly probability of female reproduction was 0.80, mean litter size was 2.34 (range 1-4) and the probability to find a female that reproduced in the spring being accompanied by at least one offspring during the subsequent winter was 0.70. We did not find evidence that food availability was a key factor influencing female fitness. Female lynx may adapt to food availability when establishing their home ranges by adopting an obstinate strategy, ensuring a minimum amount of prey necessary for survival and reproduction even during periods of prey scarcity. In human-dominated landscapes, where sufficient prey are available for lynx, mortality risk may have a larger influence on lynx population dynamics compared to food availability. Our results suggest that lynx population dynamics in human-dominated landscapes may be mainly driven by human impacts on survival.
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7.
  • Gervasi, Vincenzo, et al. (författare)
  • Compensatory immigration counteracts contrasting conservation strategies of wolverines (Gulo gulo) within Scandinavia
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biological Conservation. - 0006-3207 .- 1873-2917. ; 191, s. 632-639
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In wide ranging species, portions of the same population often fall within different administrative jurisdictions; where different regulations apply. The same species can be fully protected or heavily harvested on different sides of a border. This can generate a source-sink dynamic from the areas with lower to those with higher mortality, a process known as compensatory immigration. We tested this hypothesis on the wolverine (Gulo o gulo) population of southern Scandinavia, which is shared between two countries: Sweden and Norway. Wolverines are fully protected in Sweden, but subject to intensive population regulation in Norway. Using non-invasive genetic sampling and capture-recapture modeling, we analyzed the dynamics of wolverine survival and emigration patterns between 2002 and 2013. Wolverines in Norway experienced a lower survival than in Sweden. Migration across the national border was directed towards movements from Sweden to Norway. There was a functional relationship between harvest rate in Norway and emigration rates across the national border, both at the individual and population level, thus confirming the compensatory immigration hypothesis. Contrasting management regimes within the same population can generate undesired demographic and spatial dynamics, jeopardize conservation goals on the two sides of a border, and reduce the efficiency of management actions. This calls for the adoption of a coordinate population approach in large carnivore conservation and management. Failing to do so can cause a waste of the already limited resources allocated for large carnivore conservation, and it might hinder effective conflict mitigation.
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8.
  • Herfindal, Ivar, et al. (författare)
  • Population persistence in a landscape context : the case of endangered arctic fox populations in Fennoscandia
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Ecography. - 0906-7590 .- 1600-0587. ; 33:5, s. 932-941
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anthropogenic fragmentation of habitat and populations is recognized as one of the most important factors influencing loss of biodiversity. Since it is difficult to quantify demographic parameters in small populations, we need alternative methods to elucidate important factors affecting the viability of local populations. The Fennoscandian arctic fox inhabits a naturally fragmented alpine tundra environment, but historic anthropogenic impacts have further fragmented its distribution. After almost 80 yr of protection, the population remains critically endangered. Both intrinsic factors (related to the isolation and size of sub-populations) and extrinsic factors (related to environmental conditions influencing patch quality and interspecific competition) have been proposed as explanations for the lack of population growth. To distinguish between these hypotheses, we conducted a spatially explicit analysis that compares areas where the species has persisted with areas where it has become locally extinct. We used characteristics of the fragments of alpine tundra habitat and individual arctic fox breeding dens (including both currently active dens and historically active dens) within the fragments to evaluate the importance of habitat characteristics and connectivity in explaining variation in persistence within a fragment. The number of reproductive events in a fragment was related to the size of the fragment, but not more than expected following a 1:1 relationship, suggesting little effect of fragment size on the relative number of reproductions. The likelihood of a den being used for breeding was positively associated with factors minimising interspecific competition as well as increasing within-fragment connectivity. These results support the idea that the failure of Fennoscandian arctic fox to recover is caused by demographic factors that can be related to fine-scale Allee or Allee-like effects, as well as environmental influences related to increased competition and exclusion by red foxes
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9.
  • Peters, Wibke, et al. (författare)
  • Large herbivore migration plasticity along environmental gradients in Europe : life-history traits modulate forage effects
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Oikos. - Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0030-1299 .- 1600-0706. ; 128:3, s. 416-429
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The most common framework under which ungulate migration is studied predicts that it is driven by spatio–temporal variation in plant phenology, yet other hypotheses may explain differences within and between species. To disentangle more complex patterns than those based on single species/ single populations, we quantified migration variability using two sympatric ungulate species differing in their foraging strategy, mating system and physiological constraints due to body size. We related observed variation to a set of hypotheses. We used GPS-collar data from 537 individuals in 10 roe Capreolus capreolus and 12 red deer Cervus elaphus populations spanning environmental gradients across Europe to assess variation in migration propensity, distance and timing. Using time-to-event models, we explored how the probability of migration varied in relation to sex, landscape (e.g. topography, forest cover) and temporally-varying environmental factors (e.g. plant green-up, snow cover). Migration propensity varied across study areas. Red deer were, on average, three times more migratory than roe deer (56% versus 18%). This relationship was mainly driven by red deer males which were twice as migratory as females (82% versus 38%). The probability of roe deer migration was similar between sexes. Roe deer (both sexes) migrated earliest in spring. While territorial male roe deer migrated last in autumn, male and female red deer migrated around the same time in autumn, likely due to their polygynous mating system. Plant productivity determined the onset of spring migration in both species, but if plant productivity on winter ranges was sufficiently high, roe deer were less likely to leave. In autumn, migration coincided with reduced plant productivity for both species. This relationship was stronger for red deer. Our results confirm that ungulate migration is influenced by plant phenology, but in a novel way, that these effects appear to be modulated by species-specific traits, especially mating strategies. © 2018 The Authors. Oikos © 2018 Nordic Society Oikos
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10.
  • Redpath, Steve M., et al. (författare)
  • Don't forget to look down - collaborative approaches to predator conservation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biological Reviews. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 1464-7931 .- 1469-185X. ; 92:4, s. 2157-2163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: Finding effective ways of conserving large carnivores is widely recognised as a priority in conservation. However, there is disagreement about the most effective way to do this, with some favouring top-down 'command and control' approaches and others favouring collaboration. Arguments for coercive top-down approaches have been presented elsewhere; here we present arguments for collaboration. In many parts of the developed world, flexibility of approach is built into the legislation, so that conservation objectives are balanced with other legitimate goals. In the developing world, limited resources, poverty and weak governance mean that collaborative approaches are likely to play a particularly important part in carnivore conservation. In general, coercive policies may lead to the deterioration of political legitimacy and potentially to non-compliance issues such as illegal killing, whereas collaborative approaches may lead to psychological ownership, enhanced trust, learning, and better social outcomes. Sustainable hunting/trapping plays a crucial part in the conservation and management of many large carnivores. There are many different models for how to conserve carnivores effectively across the world, research is now required to reduce uncertainty and examine the effectiveness of these approaches in different contexts.
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