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1.
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2.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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3.
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4.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • A search for high-mass resonances decaying to tau(+)tau(-) in pp collisions at root s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479 .- 1126-6708. ; :7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search for high-mass resonances decaying into tau(+)tau(-) final states using proton-proton collisions at root s = 8 TeV produced by the Large Hadron Collider is presented. The data were recorded with the ATLAS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.5-20.3 fb(-1). No statistically significant excess above the Standard Model expectation is observed; 95% credibility upper limits are set on the cross section times branching fraction of Z' resonances decaying into tau(+)tau(-) pairs as a function of the resonance mass. As a result, Z' bosons of the Sequential Standard Model with masses less than 2.02 TeV are excluded at 95% credibility. The impact of the fermionic couplings on the Z' acceptance is investigated and limits are also placed on a Z' model that exhibits enhanced couplings to third-generation fermions.
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5.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Determination of the top-quark pole mass using t(t)over-bar+1-jet events collected with the ATLAS experiment in 7 TeV pp collisions
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479 .- 1126-6708. ; :10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The normalized differential cross section for top-quark pair production in association with at least one jet is studied as a function of the inverse of the invariant mass of the t (t) over bar + 1-jet system. This distribution can be used for a precise determination of the top-quark mass since gluon radiation depends on the mass of the quarks. The experimental analysis is based on proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb(-1). The selected events were identified using the lepton+jets top-quark-pair decay channel, where lepton refers to either an electron or a muon. The observed distribution is compared to a theoretical prediction at next-to-leading-order accuracy in quantum chromodynamics using the pole-mass scheme. With this method, the measured value of the top-quark pole mass, m(t)(pole), is: m(t)(pole) t = 173.7 +/- 1.5 (stat.) +/- 1.4 (syst.)(-0.5)(+1.0) (theory) GeV. This result represents the most precise measurement of the top-quark pole mass to date.
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6.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Differential top-antitop cross-section measurements as a function of observables constructed from final-state particles using pp collisions at root s=7 TeV in the ATLAS detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479 .- 1126-6708. ; :6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Various differential cross-sections are measured in top-quark pair (t (t) over bar) events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of root s = 7 TeV at the LHC with the ATLAS detector. These differential cross-sections are presented in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb(-1). The differential cross-sections are presented in terms of kinematic variables, such as momentum, rapidity and invariant mass, of a top-quark proxy referred to as the pseudo-top-quark as well as the pseudo-top-quark pair system. The dependence of the measurement on theoretical models is minimal. The measurements are performed on tt events in the lepton+jets channel, requiring exactly one charged lepton and at least four jets with at least two of them tagged as originating from a b-quark. The hadronic and leptonic pseudo-top-quarks are defined via the leptonic or hadronic decay mode of the W boson produced by the top-quark decay in events with a single charged lepton. Differential cross-section measurements of the pseudo-top-quark variables are compared with several Monte Carlo models that implement next-to-leading order or leading-order multi-leg matrix-element calculations.
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7.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for the Higgs-boson Yukawa coupling to tau leptons with the ATLAS detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479 .- 1126-6708. ; :4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results of a search for H -> tau tau decays are presented, based on the full set of proton-proton collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC during 2011 and 2012. The data correspond to integrated luminosities of 4.5 fb(-1) and 20.3 fb(-1) at centre-of-mass energies of root s = 7TeV and root s = 8 TeV respectively. All combinations of leptonic (tau -> l nu(nu) over bar with l = e, mu) and hadronic (tau -> hadrons nu) tau decays are considered. An excess of events over the expected background from other Standard Model processes is found with an observed (expected) significance of 4.5 (3.4) standard deviations. This excess provides evidence for the direct coupling of the recently discovered Higgs boson to fermions. The measured signal strength, normalised to the Standard Model expectation, of mu = 1.43(-0.37)(+0.43) is consistent with the predicted Yukawa coupling strength in the Standard Model.
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8.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Evidence of W gamma gamma Production in pp Collisions at root s=8 TeV and Limits on Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings with the ATLAS Detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114 .- 0031-9007. ; 115:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This Letter reports evidence of triple gauge boson production pp -> W(l nu)gamma gamma + X, which is accessible for the first time with the 8 TeV LHC data set. The fiducial cross section for this process is measured in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb(-1), collected by the ATLAS detector in 2012. Events are selected using the W boson decay to e nu or mu nu as well as requiring two isolated photons. The measured cross section is used to set limits on anomalous quartic gauge couplings in the high diphoton mass region.
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9.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of charged-particle spectra in Pb plus Pb collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479 .- 1126-6708. ; :9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Charged-particle spectra obtained in Pb+Pb interactions at root s(NN) = 2.76TeV and pp interactions at root s(NN) = 2.76TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented, using data with integrated luminosities of 0.15 nb(-1) and 4.2 pb(-1), respectively, in a wide transverse momentum (0.5 < p(T) < 150 GeV) and pseudorapidity (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 2) range. For Pb+Pb collisions, the spectra are presented as a function of collision centrality, which is determined by the response of the forward calorimeters located on both sides of the interaction point. The nuclear modification factors R-AA and R-CP are presented in detail as a function of centrality, p(T) and eta. They show a distinct p(T)-dependence with a pronounced minimum at about 7 GeV. Above 60 GeV, R-AA is consistent with a plateau at a centrality-dependent value, within the uncertainties. The value is 0.55 +/- 0.01(stat.) +/- 0.04(syst.) in the most central collisions. The R-AA distribution is consistent with flat vertical bar eta vertical bar dependence over the whole transverse momentum range in all centrality classes.
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10.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of differential J/psi production cross sections and forward-backward ratios in p plus Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813 .- 1089-490X. ; 92:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurements of differential cross sections for J/psi production in p + Pb collisions at root S-NN= 5.02 TeV at the CERN Large Hadron Collider with the ATLAS detector are presented. The data set used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 28.1 nb(-1). The J/psi mesons are reconstructed in the dimuon decay channel over the transverse momentum range 8 < PT < 30 GeV and over the center-of-mass rapidity range -2.87 < y* < 1.94. Prompt J/psi are separated from J/psi resulting from b-hadron decays through an analysis of the distance between the J/psi decay vertex and the event primary vertex. The differential cross section for production of nonprompt J/psi is compared to a FONLL calculation that does not include nuclear effects. Forward-backward production ratios are presented and compared to theoretical predictions. These results complement previously published results by covering a region of higher transverse momentum and more central rapidity. They thus constrain the kinematic dependence of nuclear modifications of charmonium and b-quark production in p + Pb collisions.
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