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Sökning: WFRF:(Lovlie H)

  • Resultat 1-7 av 7
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1.
  • Cauchoix, M., et al. (författare)
  • The repeatability of cognitive performance : a meta-analysis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences. - : ROYAL SOC. - 0962-8436 .- 1471-2970. ; 373:1756
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Behavioural and cognitive processes play important roles in mediating an individual's interactions with its environment. Yet, while there is a vast literature on repeatable individual differences in behaviour, relatively little is known about the repeatability of cognitive performance. To further our understanding of the evolution of cognition, we gathered 44 studies on individual performance of 25 species across six animal classes and used meta-analysis to assess whether cognitive performance is repeatable. We compared repeatability (R) in performance (1) on the same task presented at different times (temporal repeatability), and (2) on different tasks that measured the same putative cognitive ability (contextual repeatability). We also addressed whether R estimates were influenced by seven extrinsic factors (moderators): type of cognitive performance measurement, type of cognitive task, delay between tests, origin of the subjects, experimental context, taxonomic class and publication status. We found support for both temporal and contextual repeatability of cognitive performance, with mean R estimates ranging between 0.15 and 0.28. Repeatability estimates were mostly influenced by the type of cognitive performance measures and publication status. Our findings highlight the widespread occurrence of consistent inter-individual variation in cognition across a range of taxa which, like behaviour, may be associated with fitness outcomes. This article is part of the theme issue 'Causes and consequences of individual differences in cognitive abilities'.
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2.
  • Birks, HH, et al. (författare)
  • The Krakenes late-glacial palaeoenvironmental project
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: JOURNAL OF PALEOLIMNOLOGY. - : KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL. ; 15:3
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Krakenes is the site of a small lake on the west coast of Norway that contains a long sequence of late-glacial sediments. The Younger Dryas is well represented, as a cirque glacier developed in the catchment at this time. This site offers unique opportuni
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  • Hayward, A., et al. (författare)
  • Evolutionary associations between host traits and parasite load : insights from Lake Tanganyika cichlids
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology. - : WILEY. - 1010-061X .- 1420-9101. ; 30:6, s. 1056-1067
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Parasite diversity and abundance (parasite load) vary greatly among host species. However, the influence of host traits on variation in parasitism remains poorly understood. Comparative studies of parasite load have largely examined measures of parasite species richness and are predominantly based on records obtained from published data. Consequently, little is known about the relationships between host traits and other aspects of parasite load, such as parasite abundance, prevalence and aggregation. Meanwhile, understanding of parasite species richness may be clouded by limitations associated with data collation from multiple independent sources. We conducted a field study of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes and their helminth parasites. Using a Bayesian phylogenetic comparative framework, we tested evolutionary associations between five key host traits (body size, gut length, diet breadth, habitat complexity and number of sympatric hosts) predicted to influence parasitism, together with multiple measures of parasite load. We find that the number of host species that a particular host may encounter due to its habitat preferences emerges as a factor of general importance for parasite diversity, abundance and prevalence, but not parasite aggregation. In contrast, body size and gut size are positively related to aspects of parasite load within, but not between species. The influence of host phylogeny varies considerably among measures of parasite load, with the greatest influence exerted on parasite diversity. These results reveal that both host morphology and biotic interactions are key determinants of host-parasite associations and that consideration of multiple aspects of parasite load is required to fully understand patterns in parasitism.
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  • Zidar, Josefina, et al. (författare)
  • Scent of the enemy: behavioural responses to predator faecal odour in the fowl
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Animal Behaviour. - : Elsevier Masson. - 0003-3472 .- 1095-8282. ; 84:3, s. 547-554
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chemical communication is used by diverse organisms in a variety of contexts and can have strong fitness consequences for the individuals involved. However, despite the extensive use of birds as models for many research areas in biology, avian olfaction has been poorly investigated. Studies on bird species that lack well-developed olfactory organs and those investigating responses to predator odours are particularly scarce. We investigated behavioural responses of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus, a ground-living species with intermediate olfactory bulb size, to several predator and nonpredator faecal odours. We found that the birds spent less time foraging and were more vigilant when exposed to predator faecal odour compared with nonpredator faecal odour. Individuals showed a similar response when exposed to increased amounts of faeces. Taken together, our results demonstrate that domestic fowl can distinguish between herbivore and predator faecal odour, and respond to predator olfactory cues alone, without prior experience. Our results have implications for the understanding of predator-prey interactions and responses to olfactory cues in general, and for chemical communication in avian species more specifically.
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  • Resultat 1-7 av 7

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