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1.
  • Feigin, Valery L., et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national burden of stroke and its risk factors, 1990-2019 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 20:10, s. 795-820
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Regularly updated data on stroke and its pathological types, including data on their incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability, risk factors, and epidemiological trends, are important for evidence-based stroke care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) aims to provide a standardised and comprehensive measurement of these metrics at global, regional, and national levels. Methods We applied GBD 2019 analytical tools to calculate stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and the population attributable fraction (PAF) of DALYs (with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals [UIs]) associated with 19 risk factors, for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. These estimates were provided for ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, and all strokes combined, and stratified by sex, age group, and World Bank country income level. Findings In 2019, there were 12.2 million (95% UI 11.0-13.6) incident cases of stroke, 101 million (93.2-111) prevalent cases of stroke, 143 million (133-153) DALYs due to stroke, and 6.55 million (6.00-7.02) deaths from stroke. Globally, stroke remained the second-leading cause of death (11.6% [10.8-12.2] of total deaths) and the third-leading cause of death and disability combined (5.7% [5.1-6.2] of total DALYs) in 2019. From 1990 to 2019, the absolute number of incident strokes increased by 70.0% (67.0-73.0), prevalent strokes increased by 85.0% (83.0-88.0), deaths from stroke increased by 43.0% (31.0-55.0), and DALYs due to stroke increased by 32.0% (22.0-42.0). During the same period, age-standardised rates of stroke incidence decreased by 17.0% (15.0-18.0), mortality decreased by 36.0% (31.0-42.0), prevalence decreased by 6.0% (5.0-7.0), and DALYs decreased by 36.0% (31.0-42.0). However, among people younger than 70 years, prevalence rates increased by 22.0% (21.0-24.0) and incidence rates increased by 15.0% (12.0-18.0). In 2019, the age-standardised stroke-related mortality rate was 3.6 (3.5-3.8) times higher in the World Bank low-income group than in the World Bank high-income group, and the age-standardised stroke-related DALY rate was 3.7 (3.5-3.9) times higher in the low-income group than the high-income group. Ischaemic stroke constituted 62.4% of all incident strokes in 2019 (7.63 million [6.57-8.96]), while intracerebral haemorrhage constituted 27.9% (3.41 million [2.97-3.91]) and subarachnoid haemorrhage constituted 9.7% (1.18 million [1.01-1.39]). In 2019, the five leading risk factors for stroke were high systolic blood pressure (contributing to 79.6 million [67.7-90.8] DALYs or 55.5% [48.2-62.0] of total stroke DALYs), high body-mass index (34.9 million [22.3-48.6] DALYs or 24.3% [15.7-33.2]), high fasting plasma glucose (28.9 million [19.8-41.5] DALYs or 20.2% [13.8-29.1]), ambient particulate matter pollution (28.7 million [23.4-33.4] DALYs or 20.1% [16.6-23.0]), and smoking (25.3 million [22.6-28.2] DALYs or 17.6% [16.4-19.0]). Interpretation The annual number of strokes and deaths due to stroke increased substantially from 1990 to 2019, despite substantial reductions in age-standardised rates, particularly among people older than 70 years. The highest age-standardised stroke-related mortality and DALY rates were in the World Bank low-income group. The fastest-growing risk factor for stroke between 1990 and 2019 was high body-mass index. Without urgent implementation of effective primary prevention strategies, the stroke burden will probably continue to grow across the world, particularly in low-income countries.
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3.
  • Pajola, M., et al. (författare)
  • The Agilkia boulders/pebbles size-frequency distributions : OSIRIS and ROLIS joint observations of 67P surface
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 462, s. S242-S252
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By using the images acquired by the OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System) and ROLIS (ROsetta Lander Imaging System) cameras, we derive the size-frequency distribution (SFD) of cometary pebbles and boulders covering the size range 0.05-30.0 m on the Agilkia landing site. The global SFD measured on OSIRIS images, reflects the different properties of the multiple morphological units present on Agilkia, combined with selection effects related to lifting, transport and redeposition. Contrarily, the different ROLIS SFD derived on the smooth and rough units may be related to their different regolith thickness present on Agilkia. In the thicker, smoother layer, ROLIS mainly measures the SFD of the airfall population which almost completely obliterates the signature of underlying boulders up to a size of the order of 1 m. This is well matched by the power-law index derived analysing coma particles identified by the grain analyser Grain Impact Analyser and Dust Accumulator. This result confirms the important blanketing dynamism of Agilkia. The steeper SFD observed in rough terrains from 0.4 to 2 m could point out intrinsic differences between northern and southern dust size distributions, or it may suggest that the underlying boulders 'peek through' the thinner airfall layer in the rough terrain, thereby producing the observed excess in the decimetre size range. Eventually, the OSIRIS SFD performed on the Philae landing unit may be due to water sublimation from a static population of boulders, affecting smaller boulders before the bigger ones, thus shallowing the original SFD.
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4.
  • Bertini, I., et al. (författare)
  • The scattering phase function of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko coma as seen from the Rosetta/OSIRIS instrument
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 469, s. S404-S415
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The study of dust, the most abundant material in cometary nuclei, is pivotal in understanding the original materials forming the Solar system. Measuring the coma phase function provides a tool to investigate the nature of cometary dust. Rosetta/OSIRIS sampled the coma phase function of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, covering a large phase angle range in a small amount of time. Twelve series were acquired in the period from 2015 March to 2016 February for this scientific purpose. These data allowed, after stray light removal, measuring the phase function shape, its reddening, and phase reddening while varying heliocentric and nucleocentric distances. Despite small dissimilarities within different series, we found a constant overall shape. The reflectance has a u-shape with minimum at intermediate phase angles, reaching similar values at the smallest and largest phase angle sampled. The comparison with cometary phase functions in literature indicates OSIRIS curves being consistent with the ones found in many other single comets. The dust has a negligible phase reddening at alpha < 90 degrees, indicating a coma dominated by single scattering. We measured a reddening of [11-14] %/100 nm between 376 and 744 nm. No trend with heliocentric or nucleocentric distance was found, indicating the coma doesn't change its spectrum with time. These results are consistent with single coma grains and close-nucleus coma photometric results. Comparison with nucleus photometry indicates a different backscattering phase function shape and similar reddening values only at alpha < 30 degrees. At larger phase angles, the nucleus becomes significantly redder than the coma.
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5.
  • Oklay, N., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term survival of surface water ice on comet 67P
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 469, s. S582-S597
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Numerous water-ice-rich deposits surviving more than several months on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko were observed during the Rosetta mission. We announce the first-time detection of water-ice features surviving up to 2 yr since their first observation via OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) NAC (narrow angle camera). Their existence on the nucleus of comet 67P at the arrival of the Rosetta spacecraft suggests that they were exposed to the surface during the comet's previous orbit. We investigated the temporal variation of large water-ice patches to understand the long-term sustainability of water ice on cometary nuclei on time-scales of months and years. Large clusters are stable over typical periods of 0.5 yr and reduce their size significantly around the comet's perihelion passage, while small exposures disappear. We characterized the temporal variation of their multispectral signatures. In large clusters, dust jets were detected, whereas in large isolated ones no associated activity was detected. Our thermal analysis shows that the long-term sustainability of water-ice-rich features can be explained by the scarce energy input available at their locations over the first half year. However, the situation reverses for the period lasting several months around perihelion passage. Our two end-member mixing analysis estimates a pure water-ice equivalent thickness up to 15 cm within one isolated patch, and up to 2 m for the one still observable through the end of the mission. Our spectral modelling estimates up to 48 per cent water-ice content for one of the large isolated feature, and up to 25 per cent water ice on the large boulders located within clusters.
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6.
  • Pajola, M., et al. (författare)
  • The pebbles/boulders size distributions on Sais : Rosetta's final landing site on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 469:Suppl. 2, s. S636-S645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By using the imagery acquired by the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System Wide-Angle Camera (OSIRISWAC), we prepare a high-resolution morphological map of the Rosetta Sais final landing site, characterized by an outcropping consolidated terrain unit, a coarse boulder deposit and a fine particle deposit. Thanks to the 0.014 m resolution images, we derive the pebbles/boulders size-frequency distribution (SFD) of the area in the size range of 0.07-0.70 m. Sais' SFD is best fitted with a two-segment differential power law: the first segment is in the range 0.07-0.26 m, with an index of -1.7 ± 0.1, while the second is in the range 0.26-0.50 m, with an index of -4.2 +0.4/-0.8. The 'knee' of the SFD, located at 0.26 m, is evident both in the coarse and fine deposits. When compared to the Agilkia Rosetta Lander Imaging System images, Sais surface is almost entirely free of the ubiquitous, cm-sized debris blanket observed by Philae. None the less, a similar SFD behaviour of Agilkia, with a steeper distribution above ~0.3 m, and a flatter trend below that, is observed. The activity evolution of 67P along its orbit provides a coherent scenario of how these deposits were formed. Indeed, different lift pressure values occurring on the two locations and at different heliocentric distances explain the presence of the cm-sized debris blanket on Agilkia observed at 3.0 au inbound. Contrarily, Sais activity after 2.1 au outbound has almost completely eroded the fine deposits fallen during perihelion, resulting in an almost dust-free surface observed at 3.8 au.
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7.
  • Pajola, M., et al. (författare)
  • The pristine interior of comet 67P revealed by the combined Aswan outburst and cliff collapse
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Astronomy. - 2397-3366. ; 1:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Outbursts occur commonly on comets(1) with different frequencies and scales(2,3). Despite multiple observations suggesting various triggering processes(4,5), the driving mechanism of such outbursts is still poorly understood. Landslides have been invoked(6) to explain some outbursts on comet 103P/Hartley (2), although the process required a pre-existing dust layer on the verge of failure. The Rosetta mission observed several outbursts from its target comet 67P/ChuryumovGerasimenko, which were attributed to dust generated by the crumbling of materials from collapsing cliffs(7,8). However, none of the aforementioned works included definitive evidence that landslides occur on comets. Amongst the many features observed by Rosetta on the nucleus of the comet, one peculiar fracture, 70 m long and 1 m wide, was identified on images obtained in September 2014 at the edge of a cliff named Aswan(9). On 10 July 2015, the Rosetta Navigation Camera captured a large plume of dust that could be traced back to an area encompassing the Aswan escarpment(7). Five days later, the OSIRIS camera observed a fresh, sharp and bright edge on the Aswan cliff. Here we report the first unambiguous link between an outburst and a cliff collapse on a comet. We establish a new dust-plume formation mechanism that does not necessarily require the breakup of pressurized crust or the presence of supervolatile material, as suggested by previous studies(7). Moreover, the collapse revealed the fresh icy interior of the comet, which is characterized by an albedo > 0.4, and provided the opportunity to study how the crumbling wall settled down to form a new talus.
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8.
  • Stephan, K., et al. (författare)
  • Regions of interest on Ganymede's and Callisto's surfaces as potential targets for ESA's JUICE mission
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Planetary and Space Science. - : Elsevier BV. - 0032-0633 .- 1873-5088. ; 208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The JUpiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE) will investigate Ganymede's and Callisto's surfaces and subsurfaces from orbit to explore the geologic processes that have shaped and altered their surfaces by impact, tectonics, possible cryovolcanism, space weathering due to micrometeorites, radiation and charged particles as well as explore the structure and properties of the icy crust and liquid shell (Grasset et al., 2013). The best possible synergy of the JUICE instruments is required to answer the major science objective of this mission and to fully exploit the po-tential of the JUICE mission. Therefore, the JUICE team is aiming to define high priority targets on both Gany-mede's and Callisto's surfaces to support the coordination of the planning activities by the individual instrument teams. Based on the science objectives of the JUICE mission and the most recent knowledge of Ganymede's and Callisto's geologic evolution we propose a collection of Regions of Interest (RoIs), which characterize surface features and terrain types representing important traces of geologic processes, from past and/or present cryovolcanic and tectonic activity to space weathering processes, which are crucial to understand the geologic evolution of Ganymede and Callisto. The proposed evaluation of RoIs is based on their scientific importance as well as on the opportunities and conditions to observe them during the currently discussed mission profile.
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10.
  • Cremonese, G., et al. (författare)
  • Photometry of dust grains of comet 67P and connection with nucleus regions
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 588
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. Multiple pairs of high-resolution images of the dust coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko have been collected by OSIRIS onboard Rosetta allowing extraction and analysis of dust grain tracks. Methods. We developed a quasi automatic method to recognize and to extract dust tracks in the Osiris images providing size, FWHM and photometric data. The dust tracks characterized by a low signal-to-noise ratio were checked manually. We performed the photometric analysis of 70 dust grain tracks observed on two different Narrow Angle Camera images in the two filters F24 and F28, centered at lambda = 480.7 nm and at lambda = 743.7 nm, respectively, deriving the color and the reddening of each one. We then extracted several images of the nucleus observed with the same filters and with the same phase angle to be compared with the dust grain reddening. Results. Most of the dust grain reddening is very similar to the nucleus values, confirming they come from the surface or subsurface layer. The histogram of the dust grain reddening has a secondary peak at negative values and shows some grains with values higher than the nucleus, suggesting a different composition from the surface grains. One hypothesis comes from the negative values point at the presence of hydrated minerals in the comet.
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