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1.
  • Brekke, Hilde Kristin, 1972, et al. (författare)
  • Breastfeeding and introduction of solid foods in Swedish infants: the All Babies in Southeast Sweden study.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: The British journal of nutrition. - 0007-1145 .- 1475-2662. ; 94:3, s. 377-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this report is to describe breastfeeding duration and introduction of foods in Swedish infants born 1997-9, in relation to current recommendations. A secondary aim is to examine breastfeeding duration and introduction of certain allergenic foods in allergy-risk families (for whom allergy-preventive advice has been issued). Out of 21,700 invited infants, screening questionnaires were completed for 16,070 infants after delivery. Parents to 11,081 infants completed a follow-up questionnaire regarding breastfeeding and introduction of foods and 9849 handed in detailed food diaries at 1 year of age. The percentages of infants who were exclusively breast-fed at 3, 6 and >or=9 months of age were 78.4, 10.1 and 3.9, respectively. The corresponding percentages for partial breastfeeding were 87.8, 68.9 and 43.6. Gluten-containing foods were introduced to 66% of infants between 4 and 6 months, as recommended at the time of the study, and one-quarter had stopped breastfeeding when gluten was introduced. More than 90% of parents introduced the first sample of solid food during months 4-6, as recommended. Fish and eggs had been introduced during the first year in 43% and 29%, respectively, of infants with atopic heredity. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and time of introduction of solid foods, including gluten, seemed to have been in line with Swedish recommendations at the time, although gluten was often introduced late, and not during ongoing breastfeeding as recommended. The adherence to allergy-preventive advice was less than optimal in infants with atopic heredity.
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2.
  • Huus, Karina, et al. (författare)
  • Exclusive breastfeeding of Swedish children and its possible influence on the development of obesity : a prospective cohort study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMC Pediatrics. - London : BioMed Central. - 1471-2431 .- 1471-2431. ; 8, s. 42-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Overweight and obesity are increasing among children all over the world. Socio-economic factors may influence the development of overweight and obesity in childhood, and it has been proposed that breastfeeding may protect against obesity. The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and obesity when potential confounders, such as socioeconomic factors, are considered. Methods The data analyzed was from ABIS (All Babies in Southeast Sweden), a prospective cohort study. All parents with children born between October 1, 1997 and October 1, 1999 in Southeast Sweden (n = 21,700) were asked to participate. Parents were asked to answer periodic questionnaires from the time of the child's birth (n = 16,058) until he/she was five years of age (n = 7,356). Cutoffs for overweight and obesity were defined according to Cole et al, age and gender adjusted. Short-term exclusive breastfeeding was defined as < 4 months of exclusive breastfeeding. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify variables that predict the child's BMI (Body Mass Index) at five years of age. Results At five years of age, 12.9% of the children in the study wereoverweight and 4.3% were obese. At the age of three months, 78.4% of the children were being breastfed exclusively. The median exclusive breastfeeding duration was four months. High maternal BMI > 30 (AOR = 1.07; CI = 1.05–1.09; P < 0.001), maternal smoking (AOR = 1.43; CI = 1.05–1.95; P = 0.023) and being a single parent (AOR = 2.10; CI = 1.43–3.09; P < 0.001) were associated with short-term exclusive breastfeeding (less than 4 months). Short-term exclusive breastfeeding was less common if one of the parents had a university degree (Mother: AOR = 0.74; CI = 0.61–0.90; P = 0.003 Father: AOR = 0.73; CI = 0.58–0.92; P = 0.008) or if the father was more than 37 years old (AOR = 0.74; CI = 0.55–0.99; P = 0.045). Short-term exclusive breastfeeding was associated with obesity in five-year-old children (simple logistic regression: OR = 1.44; CI = 1.00–2.07; P = 0.050), but when including other independent factors in the analysis, short-term exclusive breastfeeding did not attain statistical significance. Conclusion We cannot exclude the possibility that exclusive breastfeeding influences weight development, but it does not seem to protect against obesity at five years of age. 
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3.
  • Huus, Karina, et al. (författare)
  • Relationship of food frequencies as reported by parents to overweight and obesity at 5 years
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 98:1, s. 139-143
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To investigate if food frequencies are related to overweight/obesity in 5-year-old children. METHODS: During 1997-1999, 21 700 infants were invited to participate in ABIS (All Babies in Southeast Sweden), a prospective, cohort study. Participants were followed from birth (n = 16 058) to 5 years (n = 7356). Food frequencies reported by parents at 2.5 and 5 years were studied in the relation to overweight/obesity at 5 years using multiple logistic regressions. A p-value < 0.01 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: At 2.5 years frequencies of intake of cheese were positively associated with overweight/obesity at 5 years while porridge, fried potatoes/french fries and cream/crème fraiche showed a negative association. When adjusting for known risk factors, porridge and fried potatoes/french fries remained negatively associated with overweight/obesity. At 5 years, chocolate and lemonade were positively associated with overweight/obesity whereas cream/crème fraiche, pastries and candy were negatively associated. Candy remained negatively associated to overweight/obesity after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: Food frequencies do not offer any simple explanation for overweight/obesity. Porridge at 2.5 years may protect against overweight/obesity at 5 years, while lemonade may contribute to overweight. Our finding that fried potatoes/french fries may protect against overweight/obesity is unexpected and must be interpreted with caution. These findings should be confirmed by prospective studies using objective recordings.
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4.
  • Huus, Karina, et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors in childhood obesity : findings from the All Babies In Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - : Wiley InterScience. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 96:9, s. 1321-1325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Our objective was to investigate whether overweight at a very young age predicts overweight at 5 years and to identify risk factors for overweight/obesity at 5 years, thereby making it easier for Child Health Services to focus their prevention strategies on risk groups. Methods: We analysed data from the ABIS study (All Babies In Southeast Sweden), a prospective cohort study. Parents answered questionnaires between childbirth (n = 16,058) and 5 years (n = 7356). Results: High body mass index (BMI; >95th percentile) at 1 year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 6.57; 95% CI = 4.63–9.33; p < 0.001) and age-adjusted BMI > 25 at 2.5 years (AOR = 14.24; 95% CI = 10.52–19.29; p < 0.001) were associated with increased risk of obesity (age-adjusted BMI > 30) at 5 years. Heredity for type 2 diabetes (p = 0.022), high parental BMI and the child's own BMI at birth and at 1 year predicted higher BMI of the child at 5 years (p < 0.001). High parental education was inversely associated with child overweight (p = 0.054 respective p < 0.005). Conclusion: Obesity at age 1 and at 2.5 years predicts obesity at 5 years. Obese parents, especially in families with heredity for type 2 diabetes and low education, should be targeted in early obesity prevention strategies by the Child Health Service.
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5.
  • Huus, Karina, 1968- (författare)
  • Weight gain in children : possible relation to the development of diabetes
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has increased the last decades and is now defined as a global epidemic disease by the World Health Organization. Also the incidence of type 1 diabetes has increased and there are some hypothesises that argue there is a connection between overweight/obesity and type 1 diabetes.Aim: The general aim of this thesis was to study factors contributing to the development of overweight and obesity among children and to study possible relations to the development of diabetes.Method: All Babies in Southeast Sweden, ABIS, is a prospective cohort study. The study includes all babies who were born in southeast Sweden between Oct 1st 1997 until Oct1st 1999 and the design was to follow them up to school age in ABIS I and to follow them until 14 years in ABIS II, of the eligible 74 % entered the study. The families have answered questionnaires and biological samples were taken mainly from the children at the different time points: birth, 1 year, 2.5 years, 5 years and 8-9 years. In this thesis studies have been made including the whole cohort, but some studies have also been made involving only a part of the children.Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in the ABIS study was 12.9% overweight and 2.5 % obese at 5 years of age. One risk factor which appeared to have a great impact on the development of overweight and obesity at 5 years of age was the child’s own BMI at an early age and also the heredity for overweight/ obesity and the heredity for type 2 diabetes. If the father had a university degree, the child was less likely to be obese at 5 years of age. Other factors, such as the parents´ age, if the child had any siblings, and if the child lived with a single parent, did not show any significant correlation to the child’s BMI at 5 years of age.Early nutrition has been studied and no correlation could be found between breastfeeding less than 4 months and the development of overweight/obesity at 5 years of age. The parents answered questions about how frequent the child ate different food at 2.5 years and at 5 years. Intake of sweet lemonade was the only single food which was correlated to a higher BMI in 5 years old children. Porridge seemed to be protective against overweight/ obesity. In one of the studies the physical activity was measured by a step counter. The fewer steps the children were taking, the higher BMI and waist circumference they had. Low physical activity was also associated with a higher C-peptide value and decreased insulin sensitivity. Children who spent more time in front of TV/video had a higher fasting blood glucose value.Conclusions: A strong factor for the development of overweight and obesity among children is the child’s own BMI at an early age and also its heredity for overweight/ obesity and the heredity for type 2 diabetes. Early nutrition did not show any obvious correlations with overweight and obesity at 5 year old children. Low physical activity was associated with higher fasting C-peptide value and decreased insulin sensitivity. Low physical activity may cause β-cell stress which might contribute to an autoimmune process in individuals genetically predisposed to autoimmunity and, thereby, to the increasing incidence of Type 1 diabetes in children.
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6.
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Exclusive breastfeeding and risk of atopic dermatitis in some 8300 infants
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. - 0905-6157 .- 1399-3038. ; 16:3, s. 201-208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Earlier studies on breastfeeding and atopy in infants have yielded contradictory results. We examined the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and atopic dermatitis (AD) in a cohort of infants born between 1 October 1997 and 1 October 1999 in south-east Sweden. We evaluated the risk of AD 'at least once' or 'at least three times' during the first year of life in relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding: < 4 months (short exclusive breastfeeding, SEBF) vs. ≥4 months. All data were obtained through questionnaires. Of 8346 infants with breastfeeding data, 1943 (23.3%) had suffered from AD during the first year of life. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was not associated with lower risk of AD (p = 0.868). SEBF did not influence the risk of any AD (OR = 1.03, 95% CI OR = 0.91-1.17, p = 0.614) or AD at least three times (OR = 0.97, 95% CI OR = 0.81-1.16, p = 0.755) during the first year of life. Adjustment for confounders did not change these point estimates. Neither was there any link between SEBF and risk of AD among infants with a family history of atopy [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.16, 95% CI AOR = 0.90-1.48, p = 0.254]. Furred pets at home were linked to a lower risk of AD both among infants with a family history of atopy (AOR = 0.76, 95% CI AOR = 0.60-0.96, p = 0.021) and among infants with no such history (AOR = 0.79, 95% CI AOR = 0.69-0.90, p < 0.001). Infants with no family history of atopy were less prone to develop AD if parents smoked (AOR = 0.76, 95% CI AOR = 0.61-0.95, p = 0.016). This study indicates that exclusive breastfeeding does not influence the risk of AD during the first year of life, while presence of furred pets at home seems to be negatively associated with AD. Copyright © 2005 Blackwell Munksgaard.
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7.
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F., et al. (författare)
  • Celiac disease and risk of subsequent type 1 diabetes : a general population cohort study of children and adolescents
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - 0149-5992 .- 1935-5548. ; 29:11, s. 2483-2488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Earlier studies suggest that children with type 1 diabetes are more likely to have a subsequent diagnosis of celiac disease. However, research is sparse on the risk of subsequent type 1 diabetes in individuals with celiac disease. We sought to determine the risk of subsequent type 1 diabetes diagnosed before the age of 20 years in children and adolescents with celiac disease in a national, general population-based cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We identified 9,243 children with a diagnosis of celiac disease in the Swedish national inpatient register between 1964 and 2003. We then identified five reference individuals matched at time of diagnosis for age, calendar year, sex, and county (n = 45,680). Only individuals with >1 year of follow-up after study entry (diagnosis of celiac disease) were included in the analyses. RESULTS: Celiac disease was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of subsequent type 1 diabetes before age 20 years (hazard ratio 2.4 [95% CI 1.9-3.0], P < 0.001). This risk increase was seen regardless of whether celiac disease was first diagnosed between 0 and 2 (2.2 [1.7-2.9], P < 0.001) or 3 and 20 (3.4 [1.9-6.1], P < 0.001) years of age. Individuals with prior celiac disease were also at increased risk of ketoacidosis or diabetic coma before the age of 20 years (2.3 [1.4-3.9], P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Children with celiac disease are at increased risk of subsequent type 1 diabetes. This risk increase is low considering that 95% of individuals with celiac disease are HLA-DQ2 positive.
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8.
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F., et al. (författare)
  • Coeliac disease and risk of renal disease : a general population cohort study
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation. - 0931-0509 .- 1460-2385. ; 21:7, s. 1809-1815
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Coeliac disease (CD) may be a risk factor for renal disease. METHODS: We investigated the risk of any form of glomerulonephritis (GN) (acute, chronic and non-specified), chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) and renal replacement therapy including dialysis treatment and kidney transplantation (KT) in patients with CD in a general population-based cohort study. We used Cox regression to assess the risk of renal disease in 14,336 patients who had received a diagnosis of CD (1964-2003) and 69,875 reference individuals matched for age, calendar year, sex and county. Patients were identified using the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry. Follow-up began 1 year after study entry. RESULTS: CD was associated with an increased risk of any form of GN (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.64; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.01-2.66; P = 0.046; 89 events), CGN (HR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.34-5.24; P = 0.005; 39 events), dialysis (HR = 3.48; 95% CI = 2.26-5.37; P < 0.001; 102 positive events) and KT (HR = 3.15; 95% CI = 1.29-7.71; P = 0.012; 22 events). CONCLUSION: We suggest that immune characteristics associated with CD increase the risk of chronic renal disease. Individuals with CD may also be at a moderately increased risk of any form of GN.
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9.
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F., et al. (författare)
  • Coeliac disease in the father affects the newborn
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Gut. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 49:2, s. 169-175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIMS Untreated coeliac disease in the mother is associated with lower birth weight. We examined the risk of adverse neonatal outcome when the infant's mother, father, or other relative suffered from known coeliac disease.METHODS Mothers answered a questionnaire a few days after the birth of their infant. Of a total of 10597 single birth infants from Southeast Sweden, 53 infants had a mother with coeliac disease (father 27, sibling 70, other close relative 442). Adjusted odds ratios and adjusted differences for neonatal outcome were calculated.RESULTS Infants whose father suffered from coeliac disease had a lower birth weight (95% adjusted confidence interval (CI) −459, −72 g), more often belonged to the low birth weight (LBW) category (LBW ⩽2499 g) (95% CI adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.48–17.18), and had a shorter pregnancy duration (95% adjusted CI −1.53, −0.08 weeks) than non-coeliac controls. They also weighed less than infants whose father suffered from other autoimmune diseases (95% CI −549, −93 g). Infants whose mother suffered from coeliac disease had a lower birth weight (95% adjusted CI −370, −74 g) and more often belonged to the LBW category (95% CI AOR 2.60–15.08) than non-coeliac controls. These infants were more often in the LBW category than infants whose mother suffered from non-diabetic autoimmune diseases (95% CI AOR 1.24–9.65). Coeliac disease in other relatives was not associated with any adverse effect on neonatal outcome.CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that even treated coeliac disease, in either of the parents, has a negative effect on pregnancy, resulting in lower birth weight and perhaps shorter duration of pregnancy.
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10.
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F., et al. (författare)
  • Milk consumption during pregnancy and infant birth weight
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objective To examine birth weight and risk of low birth weight (≤2 499g, LBW) in relation to milk intake.Design Questionnaire-based study.Setting Southeast SwedenPopulation Single birth infants within the ABIS project included during a two-year period (ABIS = All Babies In Southeast Sweden).Main outcome measures Birth weight and LBW.Results Low milk intake during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in infant birth weight (P<0,01l, Kruskal-Wallis) but did not correlate with LBW (P=0.434, Chi-2) (10 489 infants with complete data)When adjusting for confounders (regression analyses) low milk intake during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in infant birth weight (adjusted P for trend<0,001) and with an increased risk of LBW (adjusted P for trend= 0.028) (9 097 infants with complete data).Conclusion This study suggests that low milk intake in the pregnant mother is associated with lower birth weight of the newborn. Further research is needed to evaluate the relationship between low milk intake and the risk of LBW.
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