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  • Ahlgren, Camilla, et al. (författare)
  • Levels of gold in plasma after dental gold inlay insertion.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Acta odontologica Scandinavica. - 1502-3850 .- 0001-6357. ; 65:6, s. 331-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported increased levels of gold (Au) in the blood of patients with dental gold restorations. This study analyzed gold levels in blood plasma before dental gold inlay insertion, 0-12 months after, and 15 years after. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plasma samples from 9 patients were taken before and 0-10 months after gold inlay insertion. Fifteen years after gold inlay insertion, further blood samples taken from 8 of these patients were analyzed for gold using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An oral examination was also carried out before and 15 years after gold inlay insertion. RESULTS: Gold levels in plasma were significantly higher 0-12 months after gold inlay insertion than before treatment (p=0.008). No significant difference in gold plasma levels was found between 0-12 months after and 15 years after insertion (p=0.109), although there was a significant correlation between the number of gold alloy surfaces and the amount of gold in plasma 15 years after insertion (p=0.028). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports a dose-related release of gold into plasma from dental gold restorations, a release that appears to be stable over time.
  • Akesson, A, et al. (författare)
  • Cadmium-induced effects on bone in a population-based study of women
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Environmental Health Perspectives. - : National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. - 1552-9924 .- 0091-6765. ; 114:6, s. 830-834
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High cadmium exposure is known to cause bone damage, but the association between low-level cadmium exposure and osteoporosis remains to be clarified. Using a population-based women's health survey in southern Sweden [Women's Health in the Lund Area (WHILA)] with no known historical cadmium contamination, we investigated cadmium-related effects on bone in 820 women (53-64 years of age). We measured cadmium in blood and urine and lead in blood, an array of markers of bone metabolism, and forearm bone mineral density (BMD). Associations were evaluated in multiple linear regression analysis including information on the possible confounders or effect modifiers: weight, menopausal status, use of hormone replacement therapy, age at menarche, alcohol consumption, smoking history, and physical activity. Median urinary cadmium was 0.52 mu g/L adjusted to density (0.67 mu g/g creatinine). After multivariate adjustment, BMD, parathyroid hormone, and urinary deoxypyridinoline (U-DPD) were adversely associated with concentrations of urinary cadmium (p < 0.05) in all subjects. These associations persisted in the group of never-smokers, which had the lowest cadmium exposure (mainly dietary). For U-DPD, there was a significant interaction between cadmium and menopause (p = 0.022). Our results suggest negative effects of low-level cadmium exposure on bone, possibly exerted via increased bone resorption, which seemed to be intensified after menopause. Based on the prevalence of osteoporosis and the low level of exposure, the observed effects, although slight, should be considered as early signals of potentially more adverse health effects.
  • Akesson, AA, et al. (författare)
  • Tubular and glomerular kidney effects in Swedish women with low environmental cadmium exposure
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Environmental Health Perspectives. - : National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. - 1552-9924 .- 0091-6765. ; 113:11, s. 1627-1631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxic agent in food and tobacco, but the exposure level that is critical for kidney effects in the general population is not defined. Within a population-based women's health survey in southern Sweden (Women's Health in the Lund Area, WHILA), we investigated cadmium exposure in relation to tubular and glomerular function, from 1999 through early 2000 in 820 women (71% participation rate) 53-64 years of age. Multiple linear regression showed cadmium in blood (median, 0.38 mu g/L) and urine (0.52 mu g/L; density adjusted = 0.67 mu g/g creatinine) to be significantly associated with effects on renal tubules (as indicated by increased levels of human complex-forming protein and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in urine), after adjusting for age, body mass index, blood lead, diabetes, hypertension, and regular use of nephrotoxic drugs. The associations remained significant even at the low exposure in women who had never smoked. We also found associations with markers of glomerular effects: glomerular filtration rate and creatinine clearance. Significant effects were seen already at a mean urinary cadmium level of 0.6 mu g/L (0.8 mu g/g creatinine). Cadmium potentiated diabetes-induced effects on kidney. In conclusion, tubular renal effects occurred at lower cadmium levels than previously demonstrated, and more important, glomerular effects were also observed. Although the effects were small, they may represent early signs of adverse effects, affecting large segments of the population. Subjects with diabetes seem to be at increased risk.
  • Ali, Imran, et al. (författare)
  • Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research. - : Elsevier. - 1096-0953 .- 0013-9351. ; 134, s. 265-269
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk.
  • Barman, Malin, 1983, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal dietary selenium intake is associated with increased gestational length and decreased risk of preterm delivery
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - : Cambridge University Press. - 0007-1145 .- 1475-2662. ; 123:2, s. 209-219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first positive genome-wide association study on gestational length and preterm delivery showed associations with a gene involved in the selenium metabolism. In this study we examine the associations between maternal intake of selenium and selenium status with gestational length and preterm delivery in 72,025 women with singleton live births from the population based, prospective Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). A self-reported, semi-quantitativ food-frequency questionnaire answered in pregnancy week 22 was used to estimate selenium intake during the first half of pregnancy. Associations were analysed with adjusted linear and cox regressions. Selenium status was assessed in whole blood collected in gestational week 17 (n=2,637). Median dietary selenium intake was 53 (IQR: 44-62) μg/day, supplements provided additionally 50 (30-75) μg/day for supplement-users (n=23,409). Maternal dietary selenium intake was significantly associated with prolonged gestational length (β per SD=0.25, 95% CI=0.07-0.43) and decreased risk for preterm delivery (n=3,618, HR per SD=0.92, 95% CI=0.87-0.98). Neither selenium intake from supplements nor maternal blood selenium status was associated with gestational length or preterm delivery. Hence, this study showed that maternal dietary selenium intake, but not intake of selenium containing supplements, during the first half of pregnancy was significantly associated with decreased risk for preterm delivery. Further investigations, preferably in the form of a large RCT, are needed to elucidate the impact of selenium on pregnancy duration.
  • Berger, Eloise, et al. (författare)
  • Association between low-grade inflammation and Breast cancer and B-cell Myeloma and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma : Findings from two prospective cohorts
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic inflammation may be involved in cancer development and progression. Using 28 inflammatory-related proteins collected from prospective blood samples from two case-control studies nested in the Italian component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (n = 261) and in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (n = 402), we tested the hypothesis that an inflammatory score is associated with breast cancer (BC) and Β-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (B-cell NHL, including 68 multiple myeloma cases) onset. We modelled the relationship between this inflammatory score and the two cancers studied: (BC and B-cell NHL) using generalised linear models, and assessed, through adjustments the role of behaviours and lifestyle factors. Analyses were performed by cancer types pooling both populations, and stratified by cohorts, and time to diagnosis. Our results suggested a lower inflammatory score in B-cell NHL cases (β = -1.28, p = 0.012), and, to lesser, extent with BC (β = -0.96, p = 0.33) compared to controls, mainly driven by cancer cases diagnosed less than 6 years after enrolment. These associations were not affected by subsequent adjustments for potential intermediate confounders, notably behaviours. Sensitivity analyses indicated that our findings were not affected by the way the inflammatory score was calculated. These observations call for further studies involving larger populations, larger variety of cancer types and repeated measures of larger panel of inflammatory markers.
  • Chatziioannou, Aristotelis, et al. (författare)
  • Blood-based omic profiling supports female susceptibility to tobacco smoke-induced cardiovascular diseases
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We recently reported that differential gene expression and DNA methylation profiles in blood leukocytes of apparently healthy smokers predicts with remarkable efficiency diseases and conditions known to be causally associated with smoking, suggesting that blood-based omic profiling of human populations may be useful for linking environmental exposures to potential health effects. Here we report on the sex-specific effects of tobacco smoking on transcriptomic and epigenetic features derived from genome-wide profiling in white blood cells, identifying 26 expression probes and 92 CpG sites, almost all of which are affected only in female smokers. Strikingly, these features relate to numerous genes with a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, especially thrombin signaling, including the thrombin receptors on platelets F2R (coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor; PAR1) and GP5 (glycoprotein 5), as well as HMOX1 (haem oxygenase 1) and BCL2L1 (BCL2-like 1) which are involved in protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis, respectively. These results are in concordance with epidemiological evidence of higher female susceptibility to tobacco-induced cardiovascular disease and underline the potential of blood-based omic profiling in hazard and risk assessment.
  • Engstrom, Annette, et al. (författare)
  • Cadmium-induced bone effect is not mediated via low serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research. - : Elsevier. - 1096-0953. ; 109:2, s. 188-192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant, which is associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. It has been proposed that cadmium's toxic effect on bone is exerted via impaired activation of vitamin D, secondary to the kidney effects. To test this, we assessed the association of cadmium-induced bone and kidney effects with serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D); measured by enzyme immunoassay. For the assessment, we selected 85 postmenopausal women, based on low (0.14-0.39 mu g/L) or high (0.66-2.1 mu g/L) urinary cadmium, within a cross-sectional population-based women's health survey in Southern Sweden. We also measured 25-hydroxy vitamin D. cadmium in blood, bone mineral density and several markers of bone remodeling and kidney effects. Although there were clear differences in both kidney and bone effect markers between women with low and high cadmium exposure, the 1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations were not significantly different (median, 111 pmol/L (5-95th percentile, 67-170 pmol/L) in low- and 125 pmol/L (66-200 pmol/L) in high-cadmium groups; p = 0.08). Also, there was no association between 1,25(OH)(2)D and markers of bone or kidney effects. It is concluded that the low levels of cadmium exposure present in the studied women, although high enough to be associated with lower bone mineral density and increased bone resorption, were not associated with lower serum concentrations of 1,25(OH)(2)D. Hence, decreased circulating levels of 1,25(OH)(2)D are unlikely to be the proposed link between cadmium-induced effects on kidney and bone. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Engstrom, Annette, et al. (författare)
  • Retinol May Counteract the Negative Effect of Cadmium on Bone
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nutrition. - : Oxford University Press. - 1541-6100 .- 0022-3166. ; 141:12, s. 2198-2203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cadmium and high vitamin A intake are both proposed risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD), but potential interactions have not been studied. Within the Women's Health in the Lund Area, a population-based study in southern Sweden, we measured retinol in serum among 606 women aged 54-64 y. Data on BMD were measured by DXA at the distal forearm. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (bALP), and osteocalcin in serum and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and cadmium in urine were available. Associations were evaluated using multivariable-adjusted linear regression analysis. Serum retinol concentrations (median, 1.9; range, 0.97-4.3 mu mol/L) were inversely associated with the bone formation markers bALP and osteocalcin (P <= 0.04) and with PTH (P = 0.07) and tended to be positively associated with BMD (P = 0.08) but not with the bone resorption marker DPD, indicating different effects on bone compared to urinary cadmium (median, 0.66; range, 0.12-3.6 nmol/mmol creatinine). Women with serum retinol less than the median and cadmium greater than the median had lower BMD than those with retinol greater than the median and cadmium less than the median (P = 0.016 among all women and P = 0.010 among never-smokers). Our findings suggest that adequate vitamin A status may counteract the adverse association between cadmium and BMD. J. Nutr. 141: 2198-2203, 2011.
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