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Sökning: WFRF:(Månsdotter Anna)

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  • Fagrell Trygg, Nadja, et al. (författare)
  • Reducing or reproducing inequalities in health? : An intersectional policy analysis of how health inequalities are represented in a Swedish bill on alcohol, drugs, tobacco and gambling
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2458. ; 22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: According to post-structural policy analyses, policies and interventions aiming at reducing social inequalities have been found to be part in producing and reifying such inequalities themselves. Given the central role of health inequalities on the public health policy agenda globally it seems important to examine the way policy on health inequalities may potentially counteract the goal of health equity. The aim of this intersectional policy analysis, was to critically analyze the representation of health inequalities in a government bill proposing a national strategy on alcohol, drugs, tobacco and gambling, to examine its performative power, and to outline alternative representations.Method: A post-structural approach to policy analysis was combined with an intersectional framework. The material was analyzed through an interrogating process guided by the six questions of the “What’s the problem represented to be?” (WPR) approach. Thus, the underlying assumptions of the problem representation, its potential implications and historical background were explored. In a final step of the analysis we examined our own problem representations.Results: The recommendations found in the gender and equity perspective of the bill represented the problem of health inequalities as a lack of knowledge, with an emphasis on quantitative knowledge about differences in health between population groups. Three underlying assumptions supporting this representation were found: quantification and objectivity, inequalities as unidimensional, and categorization and labelling. The analysis showed how the bill, by opting into these partly overlapping assumptions, is part of enacting a discourse on health inequalities that directs attention to specific subjects (e.g., vulnerable) with special needs (e.g., health care), in certain places (e.g., disadvantaged neighborhoods). It also showed how underlying processes of marginalization are largely neglected in the bill due to its focus on describing differences rather than solutions. Finally, we showed how different intersectional approaches could be used to complement and challenge this, potentially counteractive, problem representation.Conclusions: The problem representation of health inequalities and its underlying assumptions may have counteractive effects on health equity, and even though some of its strengths are raised, it seems to be profoundly entangled with a system resisting the kind of change that the bill itself advocates for. If carefully used, intersectionality has the potential to support a more comprehensive and inclusive equality-promoting public health policy and practice.
  • Månsdotter, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Parental share in public and domestic spheres: a population study on gender equality, death, and sickness.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of epidemiology and community health. - : BMJ. - 0143-005X .- 1470-2738. ; 60:7, s. 616-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • STUDY OBJECTIVE: Examine the relation between aspects of gender equality and population health based on the premise that sex differences in health are mainly caused by the gender system. SETTING/ PARTICIPANTS: All Swedish couples (98 240 people) who had their first child together in 1978. DESIGN: The exposure of gender equality is shown by the parents' division of income and occupational position (public sphere), and parental leave and temporary child care (domestic sphere). People were classified by these indicators during 1978-1980 into different categories; those on an equal footing with their partner and those who were traditionally or untraditionally unequal. Health is measured by the outcomes of death during 1981-2001 and sickness absence during 1986-2000. Data are obtained by linking individual information from various national sources. The statistical method used is multiple logistic regressions with odds ratios as estimates of relative risks. MAIN RESULTS: From the public sphere is shown that traditionally unequal women have decreased health risks compared with equal women, while traditionally unequal men tend to have increased health risks compared with equal men. From the domestic sphere is indicated that both women and men run higher risks of death and sickness when being traditionally unequal compared with equal. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the relation between gender equality and health, which was found to depend on sex, life sphere, and inequality type, seems to require a combination of the hypotheses of convergence, stress and expansion.
  • Månsdotter, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Paternity leave in Sweden: costs, savings and health gains.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Health policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands). - : Elsevier BV. - 0168-8510 .- 1872-6054. ; 82:1, s. 102-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The initial objective is to examine the relationship between paternity leave in 1978-1979 and male mortality during 1981-2001, and the second objective is to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the 1974 parental insurance reform in Sweden. METHODS: Based on a population of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (45,801 males), the risk of death for men who took paternity leave, compared with men who did not, was estimated by odds ratios. The cost-effectiveness analysis considered costs for information, administration and production losses, minus savings due to decreased sickness leave and inpatient care, compared to health gains in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). RESULTS: It is demonstrated that fathers who took paternity leave have a statistically significant decreased death risk of 16%. Costs minus savings (discounted values) stretch from a net cost of EUR 19 million to a net saving of EUR 11 million, and the base case cost-effectiveness is EUR 8000 per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that that the right to paternity leave is a desirable reform based on commonly stated public health, economic, and feminist goals. The critical issue in future research should be to examine impact from health-related selection.
  • Månsdotter, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Towards capability-adjusted life years in public health and social welfare : results from a Swedish survey on ranking capabilities
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - San Francisco : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 15:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to rank capabilities and suggest a relevant set of capabilities for the Swedish context to inform the development of capability-adjusted life years (CALYs). CALYs is a quality of life measure for policy making based on the capability approach by Amartya Sen.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Swedish governmental review proposed the following 10 relevant capabilities: time, financial situation, mental/physical health, political resources, knowledge, living environment, occupation, social relations, security, and housing. Researchers in health-related disciplines from 5 universities ranked these capabilities from 1 to 10 (most to least important) in a web-based cross-sectional survey; 115 of 171 responses were eligible.RESULTS: Health, social relations, and financial situation were deemed most important. Stratification by gender, research field, and age group revealed few differences. We found that it was possible to rank capabilities and that health, social relations, and financial situation were ranked highest by a non-representative sample of researchers and doctoral students from health-related disciplines at five Swedish universities.CONCLUSIONS: The revealed ranking is dependent on the metric and must be further explored. The findings support continued development of CALYs for monitoring and evaluating outcomes in public health and social-welfare interventions.
  • Trygg Fagrell, Nadja, 1988- (författare)
  • Knowledge diversification in public health through intersectionality
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • BackgroundKnowledges about health inequalities and their causes are a central concern in public health. Generally, these relate to the social patterning of health and the forces that affect health conditions in daily life. However, public health decision making has been criticized for excluding knowledges of particular importance for health equity. This poses a challenge since knowledges and understandings shape what policies and interventions are viewed as relevant, reasonable or even possible to think of. If certain knowledges are left out, there is a risk that both knowledge making and decision making with respect to health inequalities will exclude important measures.Since intersectionality encompasses a wide range of knowledge-making practices centered around social justice, it may contribute diverse knowledges of importance to health equity. Intersectionality has recently gained traction within public health and represents an important shift in conceptualizing how different dimensions of inequalities, such as sexism, classism and racism, interlock to generate social exclusion and marginalization instead of working separately, one by one.AimThe overall aim of this thesis is to explore the possibility of using intersectionality as a tool for knowledge diversification within public health. The specific research question is:What knowledges and understandings of health inequalities do the inter-categorical (studies I and II) and post-categorical (studies III and IV) approaches to intersectionality contribute and how are such contributions made?Material and methodsThe method of the cover story can be understood as a way of studying science or as a retrospective self-reflection based on the four individual studies, making up the material of the thesis. Specifically, the material was reassembled and retold in order to show how certain intersectional approaches generate different types of knowledges and understandings of health inequalities by involving different ways of operationalizing inequalities and managing categories.In study I, a scoping review of the quantitative international literature was undertaken with the aim of mapping and describing inter-categorical inequalities in mental health. Study II was a quantitative analysis of a population-based survey with the aim of mapping inter-categorical inequalities in mental health in the Swedish adult population. Study III was a policy analysis of a government bill that proposes a national strategy on alcohol, drugs, tobacco and gambling with the study aim to examine the equity-perspective of the bill through an intersectional lens. Study IV was a post-qualitative inquiry based on participatory observations and interviews with the study aim to explore the becoming of social divisions among seniors as they participate in health-promoting activities.ResultsThe inter-categorical approach to intersectionality (applied in studies I and II) generated knowledges about health inequalities as quantitative mean differences between population groups, and highlighted unexpected patterns and unpredictable inequalities in mental health. This implies the importance of building responsive systems that regularly monitor inequalities across different intersectional positions and contexts so that services can be directed and adapted to those most in need.The post-categorical approach to intersectionality (applied in studies III and IV) generated knowledges about health inequalities as processes of marginalization, resistance, exclusion, or inclusion, and highlighted difficult trade-offs with respect to public health policy and practice. This enables a transformative way of thinking by providing the possibility of doing things differently in everyday practices in which marginalization and resistance becomes.ConclusionDifferent approaches to intersectionality contribute diverse knowledges and understandings about health inequalities. This is important since it expands the possibilities for fair decision making and health equity through different outlooks on social justice. Knowledge diversification through intersectionality could be particularly useful to release tension due to the restrictive forces of public health decision making and to increase accountability for the multiple social interests of the population. Thus, it has the potential to make public health decision making more flexible, transparent, reflexive, and democratic.
  • Backhans, Mona Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Pioneers and laggards : Is the effect of gender equality on health dependent on context?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 0277-9536 .- 1873-5347. ; 68, s. 1388-1395
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study combines data at individual and area level to examine interactions between equality within couples and gender equality in the municipality in which individuals live. The research question is whether the context impacts on the association between gender equality and health. The material consists of data on 37,423 men and 37,616 women in 279 Swedish municipalities, who had their first child in 1978. The couples were classified according to indicators of their level of gender equality in 1980 in the public sphere (occupation and income) and private sphere (child care leave and parental leave) compared to that of their municipality. The health outcome is compensated days from sickness insurance during 1986-1999 with a cut-off at the 85% percentile. Data were analysed using logistic regression with the overall odds as reference. The results concerning gender equality in the private sphere show that among fathers, those who are equal in an equal municipality have lower levels of sick leave than the average while laggards (less equal than their municipality) and modest laggards have higher levels. In the public sphere, pioneers (more equal t han their municipality) fare better than the average while laggards fare worse. For mothers, those who are traditional in their roles in the public sphere are protected from high levels of sick leave, while the reverse is true for those who are equal. Traditional mothers in a traditional municipality have the lowest level of sick leave and pioneers the highest. These results show that there are distinct benefits as well as disadvantages to being a gender pioneer and/or a laggard in comparison to your municipality. The associations are markedly different for men and women.
  • Fagrell Trygg, Nadja, et al. (författare)
  • Intersectional inequalities in mental health across multiple dimensions of inequality in the Swedish adult population
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 0277-9536 .- 1873-5347. ; 283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intersectionality has recently gained traction in health inequality research emphasizing multiple intersecting dimensions of inequality as opposed to the traditional unidimensional approaches. In this study inequalities in mental health were estimated across intersections of gender, income, education, occupation, country of birth, and sexual orientation. The outcomes and inequalities of intersectional strata were disentangled analogously to the possibilities described by intersectionality theory; as a result of either of the two inequality dimensions, as a result of the sum the dimensions, or as a unique outcome not equaling the sum. Furthermore the study examined the discriminatory accuracy of the six inequality dimensions as well as the intersectional space comprising 64 strata. The study population (N = 52,743) consists of a yearly random sample of the Swedish population 26–84 years between 2010 and 2015, from The Health on Equal Terms survey. Mental health was measured through a self-administered General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12, and sociodemographics through survey and linked register data. Intersectional inequalities in mental health were estimated for all pairwise combinations of inequality dimensions by joint inequalities, excess intersectional inequalities and referent inequalities. The findings of the study found that the sum of dimensions contributed to the overall (joint) inequality in mental health rather than a reinforced adverse effect of multiple disadvantages or the contribution by a single dimension. Nevertheless, the dimension of income was found to be the most important in terms of relative contribution. The discriminatory accuracy was low indicating that policy action targeting mental health should be universal rather than focusing on particular groups. The results highlight the unpredictable inequality patterns revealed by an intersectional approach, even for a single health outcome and within one country, and illustrate the need for empirical investigations into the actual population patterns in health that appear in the intersections of multiple disadvantages.
  • Hofmarcher, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Societal costs of illegal drug use in Sweden
  • 2024
  • Ingår i: International journal of drug policy. - : Elsevier. - 0955-3959 .- 1873-4758. ; 123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Illegal drug use is a public health concern with far-reaching consequences for people who use them and for society. In Sweden, the reported use of illegal drugs has been growing and the number of drug-induced deaths is among the highest in Europe. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date estimation of the societal costs of illegal drug use in Sweden, relying as much as possible on registry and administrative data. Methods: A prevalence-based cost-of-illness study of illegal drug use in Sweden in 2020 was conducted. A societal approach was chosen and included direct costs (such as costs of health care, social services, and the criminal justice system), indirect costs (such as lost productivity due to unemployment and drug-induced death), and intangible costs (such as reduced quality of life among people who use drugs and their family members). Costs were estimated by combining registry, administrative, and survey data with unit cost data. Results: The estimated societal costs of illegal drug use were 3.7 billion euros in 2020. This corresponded to 355 euros per capita and 0.78 % of the gross domestic product. The direct and intangible costs were of similar sizes, each contributing to approximately 40 % of total costs, whereas indirect costs contributed to approximately 20 %. The largest individual cost components were reduced quality of life among people who use drugs and costs of the criminal justice system. Conclusion: Illegal drug use has a negative impact on the societal aim to create good and equitable health in Sweden. The findings call for evidence-based prevention of drug use and treatment for those addicted. It is important to address the co-morbidity of mental ill-health and drug dependence, to develop low-threshold services and measures for early prevention among children and young adults, as well as to evaluate laws and regulations connected to illegal drug use.
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