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Sökning: WFRF:(Macfarlane Matthew D.)

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1.
  • Huang, X. F., et al. (författare)
  • Genomewide Association Study of Acute Anterior Uveitis Identifies New Susceptibility Loci
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. - : Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO). - 0146-0404 .- 1552-5783. ; 61:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE. Acute anterior uveitis (AAU) is a common intraocular inflammatory disease. AAU occurs in 30% to 50% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and both conditions are strongly associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B 27 , implying a shared etiology. This study aims to apply genomewide association study (GWAS) to characterize the genetic associations of AAU and their relationship to the genetics of AS. METHODS. We undertook the GWAS analyses in 2752 patients with AS with AAU (cases) and 3836 patients with AS without AAU (controls). There were 7,436,415 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) available alter SNP microarray genotyping, imputation, and quality-control filtering. RESULTS. We identified one locus associated with AAU at genomewide significance: rs9378248 (P = 2.69 x 10(-8), odds ratio [OR] = 0.78), lying close to HLA-B. Suggestive association was observed at 11 additional loci, including previously reported AS loci ERAP1 (rs27529, P = 2.19 x 10(-7), OR = 1.22) and NOS2 (rs2274894, P = 8.22 x 10(-7), OR = 0.83). Multiple novel suggestive associations were also identified, including MERTK (rsl0171979, P = 2.56 x 10(-6), OR = 1.20), KIFAP3 (rs508063, P = 5.64 x 10(-7), OR = 1.20), CLCN7 (rs67412457, P = 1.33 x 10(-6), OR = 1.25), ACAA2 (rs9947182, P = 9.70 x 10(-7), OR = 1.37), and 5 intergenic loci. The SNP-based heritability is approximately 0.5 for AS alone, and is much higher (approximately 0.7) for AS with AAU. Consistent with the high heritability, a genomewide polygenic risk score shows strong power in identifying individuals at high risk of either AS with AAU or AS alone. CONCLUSIONS. We report here the first GWAS for AAU and identify new susceptibility loci. Our findings confirm the strong overlap in etiopathogenesis of AAU with AS, and also provide new insights into the genetic basis of AAU.
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2.
  • Looi, Jeffrey C. L., et al. (författare)
  • The Australian, US, Scandinavian Imaging Exchange (AUSSIE): an innovative, virtually-integrated health research network embedded in health care
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Australasian Psychiatry. - : SAGE Publications. - 1039-8562. ; 22:3, s. 260-265
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To describe the development, design and function of an innovative international clinical research network for neuroimaging research, based in Australia, within a joint state health service/medical school. This Australian, US, Scandinavian Imaging Exchange (AUSSIE) network focuses upon identifying neuroimaging biomarkers for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disease. Methods: We describe a case study of the iterative development of the network, identifying characteristic features and methods which may serve as potential models for virtual clinical research networks. This network was established to analyse clinically-derived neuroimaging data relevant to neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disease, specifically in relation to subcortical brain structures. Results: The AUSSIE network has harnessed synergies from the individual expertise of the component groups, primarily clinical neuroscience researchers, to analyse a variety of clinical data. Conclusion: AUSSIE is an active virtual clinical research network, analogous to a connectome, which is embedded in health care and has produced significant research, advancing our understanding of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disease through the lens of neuroimaging.
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3.
  • Jakabek, David, et al. (författare)
  • Regional structural hypo- and hyperconnectivity of frontal–striatal and frontal–thalamic pathways in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1065-9471. ; 39:10, s. 4083-4093
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) has been predominantly considered as a frontotemporal cortical disease, with limited direct investigation of frontal–subcortical connections. We aim to characterize the grey and white matter components of frontal–thalamic and frontal–striatal circuits in bvFTD. Twenty-four patients with bvFTD and 24 healthy controls underwent morphological and diffusion imaging. Subcortical structures were manually segmented according to published protocols. Probabilistic pathways were reconstructed separately from the dorsolateral, orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex to the striatum and thalamus. Patients with bvFTD had smaller cortical and subcortical volumes, lower fractional anisotropy, and higher mean diffusivity metrics, which is consistent with disruptions in frontal–striatal–thalamic pathways. Unexpectedly, regional volumes of the striatum and thalamus connected to the medial prefrontal cortex were significantly larger in bvFTD (by 135% in the striatum, p =.032, and 217% in the thalamus, p =.004), despite smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex connected regional volumes (by 67% in the striatum, p =.002, and 65% in the thalamus, p =.020), and inconsistent changes in orbitofrontal cortex connected regions. These unanticipated findings may represent compensatory or maladaptive remodeling in bvFTD networks. Comparisons are made to other neuropsychiatric disorders suggesting a common mechanism of changes in frontal–subcortical networks; however, longitudinal studies are necessary to test this hypothesis.
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4.
  • Lubitz, Steven A, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Risk Prediction of Atrial Fibrillation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0009-7322. ; 135:14, s. 1311-1320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND—: Atrial fibrillation (AF) has a substantial genetic basis. Identification of individuals at greatest AF risk could minimize the incidence of cardioembolic stroke. METHODS—: To determine whether genetic data can stratify risk for development of AF, we examined associations between AF genetic risk scores and incident AF in five prospective studies comprising 18,919 individuals of European ancestry. We examined associations between AF genetic risk scores and ischemic stroke in a separate study of 509 ischemic stroke cases (202 cardioembolic [40%]) and 3,028 referents. Scores were based on 11 to 719 common variants (≥5%) associated with AF at P-values ranging from <1x10 to <1x10 in a prior independent genetic association study. RESULTS—: Incident AF occurred in 1,032 (5.5%) individuals. AF genetic risk scores were associated with new-onset AF after adjusting for clinical risk factors. The pooled hazard ratio for incident AF for the highest versus lowest quartile of genetic risk scores ranged from 1.28 (719 variants; 95%CI, 1.13-1.46; P=1.5x10) to 1.67 (25 variants; 95%CI, 1.47-1.90; P=9.3x10). Discrimination of combined clinical and genetic risk scores varied across studies and scores (maximum C statistic, 0.629-0.811; maximum ΔC statistic from clinical score alone, 0.009-0.017). AF genetic risk was associated with stroke in age- and sex-adjusted models. For example, individuals in the highest versus lowest quartile of a 127-variant score had a 2.49-fold increased odds of cardioembolic stroke (95%CI, 1.39-4.58; P=2.7x10). The effect persisted after excluding individuals (n=70) with known AF (odds ratio, 2.25; 95%CI, 1.20-4.40; P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS—: Comprehensive AF genetic risk scores were associated with incident AF beyond associations for clinical AF risk factors, though offered small improvements in discrimination. AF genetic risk was also associated with cardioembolic stroke in age- and sex-adjusted analyses. Efforts are warranted to determine whether AF genetic risk may improve identification of subclinical AF or help distinguish between stroke mechanisms.
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5.
  • Looi, Jeffrey C. L., et al. (författare)
  • Morphometric analysis of subcortical structures in progressive supranuclear palsy: In vivo evidence of neostriatal and mesencephalic atrophy
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. - : Elsevier. - 0925-4927. ; 194:2, s. 163-175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by gait and postural disturbance, gaze palsy, apathy, decreased verbal fluency and dysexecutive symptoms, with some of these clinical features potentially having origins in degeneration of frontostriatal circuits and the mesencephalon. This hypothesis was investigated by manual segmentation of the caudate and putamen on MRI scans, using previously published protocols, in 15 subjects with PSP and 15 healthy age-matched controls. Midbrain atrophy was assessed by measurement of mid-sagittal area of the midbrain and pons. Shape analysis of the caudate and putamen was performed using spherical harmonics (SPHARM-PDM, University of North Carolina). The sagittal pons area/midbrain area ratio (P/M ratio) was significantly higher in the PSP group, consistent with previous findings. Significantly smaller striatal volumes were found in the PSP group - putamina were 10% smaller and caudate volumes were 17% smaller than in controls after controlling for age and intracranial volume. Shape analysis revealed significant shape deflation in PSP in the striatum, compared to controls; with regionally significant change relevant to frontostriatal and corticostriatal circuits in the caudate. Thus, in a clinically diagnosed and biomarker-confirmed cohort with early PSP, we demonstrate that neostriatal volume and shape are significantly reduced in vivo. The findings suggest a neostriatal and mesencephalic structural basis for the clinical features of PSP leading to frontostriatal and mesocortical-striatal circuit disruption. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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6.
  • Macfarlane, Matthew D, et al. (författare)
  • Striatal Atrophy in the Behavioural Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia: Correlation with Diagnosis, Negative Symptoms and Disease Severity.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 10:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is associated with changes in dorsal striatal parts of the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and putamen), related to dysfunction in the cortico-striato-thalamic circuits which help mediate executive and motor functions. We aimed to determine whether the size and shape of striatal structures correlated with diagnosis of bvFTD, and measures of clinical severity, behaviour and cognition.
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