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Sökning: WFRF:(Mahaffey Kenneth W.)

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1.
  • Alfredsson, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting the risk of bleeding during dual antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndromes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Heart. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1355-6037 .- 1468-201X. ; 103:15, s. 1168-1176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin + a P2Y12 inhibitor is recommended for at least 12 months for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), with shorter durations considered for patients with increased bleeding risk. However, there are no decision support tools available to predict an individual patients bleeding risk during DAPT treatment in the post-ACS setting. Methods To develop a longitudinal bleeding risk prediction model, we analysed 9240 patients with unstable angina/non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) from the Targeted Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes (TRILOGY ACS) trial, who were managed without revascularisation and treated with DAPT for a median of 14.8 months. Results We identified 10 significant baseline predictors of non-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-related Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries (GUSTO) severe/life-threatening/moderate bleeding: age, sex, weight, NSTEMI (vs unstable angina), angiography performed before randomisation, prior peptic ulcer disease, creatinine, systolic blood pressure, haemoglobin and treatment with beta-blocker. The five significant baseline predictors of Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major or minor bleeding included age, sex, angiography performed before randomisation, creatinine and haemoglobin. The models showed good predictive accuracy with Therneaus C-indices: 0.78 (SE=0.024) for the GUSTO model and 0.67 (SE=0.023) for the TIMI model. Internal validation with bootstrapping gave similar C-indices of 0.77 and 0.65, respectively. External validation demonstrated an attenuated C-index for the GUSTO model (0.69) but not the TIMI model (0.68). Conclusions Longitudinal bleeding risks during treatment with DAPT in patients with ACS can be reliably predicted using selected baseline characteristics. The TRILOGY ACS bleeding models can inform riskbenefit considerations regarding the duration of DAPT following ACS.
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2.
  • Fanaroff, Alexander C., et al. (författare)
  • Frequency, Regional Variation, and Predictors of Undetermined Cause of Death in Cardiometabolic Clinical Trials : A Pooled Analysis of 9259 Deaths in 9 Trials
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 139:7, s. 863-873
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Modern cardiometabolic clinical trials often include cardiovascular death as a component of a composite primary outcome, requiring central adjudication by a clinical events committee to classify cause of death. However, sometimes the cause of death cannot be determined from available data. The US Food and Drug Administration has indicated that this circumstance should occur only rarely, but its prevalence has not been formally assessed. METHODS: Data from 9 global clinical trials (2009-2017) with long-term follow-up and blinded, centrally adjudicated cause of death were used to calculate the proportion of deaths attributed to cardiovascular, noncardiovascular, or undetermined causes by therapeutic area (diabetes mellitus/pre-diabetes mellitus, stable atherosclerosis, atrial fibrillation, and acute coronary syndrome), region of patient enrollment, and year of trial manuscript publication. Patient-and trial-level variables associated with undetermined cause of death were identified using a logistic model. RESULTS: Across 127 049 enrolled participants from 9 trials, there were 9259 centrally adjudicated deaths: 5012 (54.1%) attributable to cardiovascular causes, 2800 (30.2%) attributable to noncardiovascular causes, and 1447 (15.6%) attributable to undetermined causes. There was variability in the proportion of deaths ascribed to undetermined causes by trial therapeutic area, region of enrollment, and year of trial manuscript publication. On multivariable analysis, acute coronary syndrome or atrial fibrillation trial (versus atherosclerotic vascular disease or diabetes mellitus/pre-diabetes mellitus), longer time from enrollment to death, more recent trial manuscript publication year, enrollment in North America (versus Western Europe), female sex, and older age were associated with greater likelihood of death of undetermined cause. CONCLUSIONS: In 9 cardiometabolic clinical trials with long-term followup, approximately 16% of deaths had undetermined causes. This provides a baseline for quality assessment of clinical trials and informs operational efforts to potentially reduce the frequency of undetermined deaths in future clinical research.
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3.
  • Hiatt, William R, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor versus Clopidogrel in Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 376:1, s. 32-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease is considered to be a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis with associated adverse cardiovascular and limb events. Data from previous trials have suggested that patients receiving clopidogrel monotherapy had a lower risk of cardiovascular events than those receiving aspirin. We wanted to compare clopidogrel with ticagrelor, a potent antiplatelet agent, in patients with peripheral artery disease.METHODS: In this double-blind, event-driven trial, we randomly assigned 13,885 patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease to receive monotherapy with ticagrelor (90 mg twice daily) or clopidogrel (75 mg once daily). Patients were eligible if they had an ankle-brachial index (ABI) of 0.80 or less or had undergone previous revascularization of the lower limbs. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of adjudicated cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. The primary safety end point was major bleeding. The median follow-up was 30 months.RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 66 years, and 72% were men; 43% were enrolled on the basis of the ABI and 57% on the basis of previous revascularization. The mean baseline ABI in all patients was 0.71, 76.6% of the patients had claudication, and 4.6% had critical limb ischemia. The primary efficacy end point occurred in 751 of 6930 patients (10.8%) receiving ticagrelor and in 740 of 6955 (10.6%) receiving clopidogrel (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.13; P=0.65). In each group, acute limb ischemia occurred in 1.7% of the patients (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.33; P=0.85) and major bleeding in 1.6% (hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.43; P=0.49).CONCLUSIONS: In patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease, ticagrelor was not shown to be superior to clopidogrel for the reduction of cardiovascular events. Major bleeding occurred at similar rates among the patients in the two trial groups. (Funded by AstraZeneca; EUCLID ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01732822 .).
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4.
  • Norgren, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Outcomes of Patients with Critical Limb Ischaemia in the EUCLID Trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. - : W B SAUNDERS CO LTD. - 1078-5884 .- 1532-2165. ; 55:1, s. 109-117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Critical limb ischaemia (CLI) implies an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the optimal antithrombotic treatment is not established.Design, Materials, Methods: The EUCLID trial investigated the effect of monotherapy with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in 13,885 patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD); the primary endpoint was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischaemic stroke. Patients planned for revascularisation or amputation within 3 months, were excluded. This analysis focuses on the subgroup with CLI, defined by rest pain (58.8%), major (9.0%) or minor (32.2%) tissue loss.Results: In EUCLID, 643 patients (4.6%) had CLI at baseline. Diabetes mellitus was more common in the CLI group, while coronary disease, carotid disease, and hypertension were more common in the non-CLI group. A majority of CLI patients (62.1%) had only lower extremity PAD. In patients enrolled on the ankle brachial index (ABI) criteria, ABI was 0.55 +/- 0.21 (mean +/- SD) for those with CLI versus 0.63 +/- 0.15 for those without CLI. The primary efficacy endpoint significantly increased among patients with CLI compared with those without CLI with a rate of 8.85 versus 4.28/100 patient years (adjusted for baseline characteristics hazard ratio [HR] 1.43 [95% CI 1.16-1.76]; p = 0.0009). When acute limb ischaemia requiring hospitalisation was added to the model, significant differences remained (adjusted HR 1.38, [95% CI 1.13-1.69]; p = 0.0016). The 1 year mortality was 8.9%. A trend towards increased lower limb revascularisation among those with CLI was observed. Bleeding (TIMI major, fatal, intracranial) did not differ between those with and without CLI.Conclusions: Nearly 5% of patients enrolled in EUCLID had CLI at baseline. Milder forms of CLI dominated, a result of the trial design. Patients with CLI had a significantly higher rate of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity versus those without CLI. Further efforts are required to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in PAD, especially in patients with CLI.
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6.
  • van Diepen, Sean, et al. (författare)
  • Baseline NT-proBNP and biomarkers of inflammation and necrosis in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction : insights from the APEX-AMI trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. - 0929-5305 .- 1573-742X. ; 34:1, s. 106-113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coronary plaque rupture is associated with a systemic inflammatory response. The relationship between baseline N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a prognostic marker in patients with acute coronary syndromes, and systemic inflammatory mediators in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not well described. Of 5,745 STEMI patients treated with primary PCI in the APEX-AMI trial, we evaluated the relationship between baseline NT-proBNP levels and baseline levels of inflammatory markers and markers of myonecrosis in a subset of 772 who were enrolled in a biomarker substudy. Spearman correlations (r (s)) were calculated between baseline NT-proBNP levels and a panel of ten systemic inflammatory biomarkers. Interleukin (IL)-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, was significantly positively correlated with NT-proBNP (r (s) = 0.317, P < 0.001). In a sensitivity analysis excluding all heart failure patients, the correlation between baseline IL-6 and NT-proBNP remained significant (n = 651, r (s) = 0.296, P < 0.001). A positive association was also observed with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (r (s) = 0.377, P < 0.001) and there was a weak negative correlation with the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (r (s) = -0.109, P = 0.003). No other significant correlations were observed among the other testes inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI, the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was modestly correlated with baseline NT-proBNP levels. This relationship remained significant in patients without heart failure. This finding is consistent with pre-clinical and clinical research suggesting that systemic inflammation may influence NT-proBNP expression independently of myocardial stretch.
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7.
  • van Diepen, Sean, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic relevance of baseline pro- and anti-inflammatory markers in STEMI : An APEX AMI substudy
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - 0167-5273 .- 1874-1754. ; 168:3, s. 2127-2133
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Plaque rupture, acute ischemia, and necrosis in acute coronary syndromes are accompanied by concurrent pro-and anti-inflammatory cascades. Whether STEMI clinical prediction models can be improved with the addition of baseline inflammatory biomarkers remains unknown. Methods: In an APEX-AMI trial substudy, 772 patients had a panel of 9 inflammatory serum biomarkers, high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) measured at baseline after randomization. Baseline biomarkers were incorporated into a clinical prediction model for a composite of 90-day death, shock, or heart failure. Incremental prognostic value was assessed using Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI). Results: Individually, several biomarkers were independent predictors of clinical outcome: hsCRP (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.21; p=0.007, per doubling), NT-proBNP (HR 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.23; p<0.001, per doubling), interleukin (IL)-6 (HR 1.26; 95% CI, 1.12-1.41; p<0.001, per doubling), and inducible protein-10 (IP-10) (HR 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.98; p<0.025, per doubling). The addition of baseline NT-proBNP (NRI 8.6%, p=0.028; IDI 0.030, p<0.001) and IL-6 (NRI 8.8%, p=0.012; IDI 0.036, p<0.001) improved the clinical risk prediction model and the addition of hsCRP (NRI 6.5%, p=0.069; IDI 0.018, p=0.004) yielded minimal improvement. After incorporating NT-proBNP into the model, the remaining biomarkers added little additional predictive value. Conclusions: Multiple inflammatory biomarkers independently predicted 90-day death, shock or heart failure; however, they added little value to a clinical prediction model that included NT-proBNP. Future studies of inflammatory biomarkers in STEMI should report incremental value in a prediction model that includes NT-proBNP.
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9.
  • Armaganijan, Luciana V., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of age on efficacy and safety of vorapaxar in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome : Insights from the Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER) trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 178, s. 176-184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Antithrombotic therapy plays an important role in the treatment of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) but is associated with bleeding risk. Advanced age may modify the relationship between efficacy and safety. Methods Efficacy and safety of vorapaxar (a protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist) was analyzed across ages as a continuous and a categorical variable in the 12,944 patients with NSTE ACS enrolled in the TRACER trial. To evaluate the effect of age, Cox regression models were developed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with the adjustment of other baseline characteristics and randomized treatment for the primary efficacy composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization, and the primary safety composite of moderate or severe Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) bleeding. Results The median age of the population was 64 years (25th, 75th percentiles = 58, 71). Also, 1,791 patients (13.8%) were <= 54 years of age, 4,968 (38.4%) were between 55 and 64 years, 3,979 (30.7%) were between 65 and 74 years, and 2,206 (17.1%) were 75 years or older. Older patients had higher rates of hypertension, renal insufficiency, and previous stroke and worse Killip class. The oldest age group (>= 75 years) had substantially higher 2-year rates of the composite ischemic end point and moderate or severe GUSTO bleeding compared with the youngest age group (<= 54 years). The relationships between treatment assignment (vorapaxar vs placebo) and efficacy outcomes did not vary by age. For the primary efficacy end point, the HRs (95% CIs) comparing vorapaxar and placebo in the 4 age groups were as follows: 1.12 (0.88-1.43), 0.88 (0.76-1.02), 0.89 (0.76-1.04), and 0.88 (0.74-1.06), respectively (P value for interaction = .435). Similar to what was observed for efficacy outcomes, we did not observe any interaction between vorapaxar and age on bleeding outcomes. For the composite of moderate or severe bleeding according to the GUSTO classification, the HRs (95% CIs) comparing vorapaxar and placebo in the 4 age groups were 1.73 (0.89-3.34), 1.39 (1.04-1.86), 1.10 (0.85-1.42), and 1.73 (1.29-2.33), respectively (P value for interaction = .574). Conclusion Older patients had a greater risk for ischemic and bleeding events; however, the efficacy and safety of vorapaxar in NSTE ACS were not significantly influenced by age.
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