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Sökning: WFRF:(Maibach Howard)

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1.
  • Hamann, Dathan, et al. (författare)
  • Jewellery : alloy composition and release of nickel, cobalt and lead assessed with the EU synthetic sweat method
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Contact Dermatitis. - 0105-1873 .- 1600-0536. ; 73:4, s. 231-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Several studies have shown nickel and cobalt release from jewellery by using spot tests, but the metal composition of jewellery is largely unknown. Objectives. To evaluate the metal composition of a large worldwide sample of mainly inexpensive jewellery items, and investigate the release of nickel, cobalt and lead from a subsample by using EN 1811: 1998-required methods. Methods. A total of 956 metallic jewellery components were examined with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. A subsample of 96 jewellery items purchased in the United States were investigated for nickel, cobalt and lead release by the use of artificial sweat immersion and plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Results. Eighteen elements were detected. The 10 most frequently occurring were, in order of frequency, copper, iron, zinc, nickel, silver, chromium, tin, manganese, lead, and cobalt. Release of nickelwas noted from 79 of the 96 US samples (0.01-98 mu g/cm(2)/week), release of cobalt from 35 samples (0.02-0.5 mu g/cm(2)/week), and release of lead from 37 samples (0.03-2718 mu g/cm(2)/week). Conclusions. We present here a comprehensive list of the most frequently encountered metals in jewellery and fashion accessories. Different allergenic and non-allergenic metals are utilized. We also report the frequent release of nickel, cobalt and lead from these objects, despite legislative restrictions.
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2.
  • Schalock, Peter C, et al. (författare)
  • Hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants-diagnostic algorithm and suggested patch test series for clinical use.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Contact Dermatitis. - : Blackwell. - 0105-1873 .- 1600-0536. ; 66:1, s. 4-19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to implanted metals are challenging to evaluate and treat. Although they are uncommon, they do exist, and require appropriate and complete evaluation. This review summarizes the evidence regarding evaluation tools, especially patch and lymphocyte transformation tests, for hypersensitivity reactions to implanted metal devices. Patch test evaluation is the gold standard for metal hypersensitivity, although the results may be subjective. Regarding pre-implant testing, those patients with a reported history of metal dermatitis should be evaluated by patch testing. Those without a history of dermatitis should not be tested unless considerable concern exists. Regarding post-implant testing, a subset of patients with metal hypersensitivity may develop cutaneous or systemic reactions to implanted metals following implant. For symptomatic patients, a diagnostic algorithm to guide the selection of screening allergen series for patch testing is provided. At a minimum, an extended baseline screening series and metal screening is necessary. Static and dynamic orthopaedic implants, intravascular stent devices, implanted defibrillators and dental and gynaecological devices are considered. Basic management suggestions are provided. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive reference for use by those evaluating suspected cutaneous and systemic metal hypersensitivity reactions.
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  • Gruvberger, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Methyldibromoglutaronitrile
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Management of positive patch test reactions. - : Springer. - 3540443479 ; , s. 41-41
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 22
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