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Sökning: WFRF:(Maibach R)

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  • Abe, O, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X. ; 365:9472, s. 1687-1717
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Quinquennial overviews (1985-2000) of the randomised trials in early breast cancer have assessed the 5-year and 10-year effects of various systemic adjuvant therapies on breast cancer recurrence and survival. Here, we report the 10-year and 15-year effects. Methods Collaborative meta-analyses were undertaken of 194 unconfounded randomised trials of adjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy that began by 1995. Many trials involved CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil), anthracycline-based combinations such as FAC (fluorouracil, doxombicin, cyclophosphamide) or FEC (fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide), tamoxifen, or ovarian suppression: none involved taxanes, trastuzumab, raloxifene, or modem aromatase inhibitors. Findings Allocation to about 6 months of anthracycline-based polychemotherapy (eg, with FAC or FEC) reduces the annual breast cancer death rate by about 38% (SE 5) for women younger than 50 years of age when diagnosed and by about 20% (SE 4) for those of age 50-69 years when diagnosed, largely irrespective of the use of tamoxifen and of oestrogen receptor (ER) status, nodal status, or other tumour characteristics. Such regimens are significantly (2p=0 . 0001 for recurrence, 2p<0 . 00001 for breast cancer mortality) more effective than CMF chemotherapy. Few women of age 70 years or older entered these chemotherapy trials. For ER-positive disease only, allocation to about 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen reduces the annual breast cancer death rate by 31% (SE 3), largely irrespective of the use of chemotherapy and of age (<50, 50-69, &GE; 70 years), progesterone receptor status, or other tumour characteristics. 5 years is significantly (2p<0 . 00001 for recurrence, 2p=0 . 01 for breast cancer mortality) more effective than just 1-2 years of tamoxifen. For ER-positive tumours, the annual breast cancer mortality rates are similar during years 0-4 and 5-14, as are the proportional reductions in them by 5 years of tamoxifen, so the cumulative reduction in mortality is more than twice as big at 15 years as at 5 years after diagnosis. These results combine six meta-analyses: anthracycline-based versus no chemotherapy (8000 women); CMF-based versus no chemotherapy (14 000); anthracycline-based versus CMF-based chemotherapy (14 000); about 5 years of tamoxifen versus none (15 000); about 1-2 years of tamoxifen versus none (33 000); and about 5 years versus 1-2 years of tamoxifen (18 000). Finally, allocation to ovarian ablation or suppression (8000 women) also significantly reduces breast cancer mortality, but appears to do so only in the absence of other systemic treatments. For middle-aged women with ER-positive disease (the commonest type of breast cancer), the breast cancer mortality rate throughout the next 15 years would be approximately halved by 6 months of anthracycline-based chemotherapy (with a combination such as FAC or FEC) followed by 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. For, if mortality reductions of 38% (age <50 years) and 20% (age 50-69 years) from such chemotherapy were followed by a further reduction of 31% from tamoxifen in the risks that remain, the final mortality reductions would be 57% and 45%, respectively (and, the trial results could well have been somewhat stronger if there had been full compliance with the allocated treatments). Overall survival would be comparably improved, since these treatments have relatively small effects on mortality from the aggregate of all other causes. Interpretation Some of the widely practicable adjuvant drug treatments that were being tested in the 1980s, which substantially reduced 5-year recurrence rates (but had somewhat less effect on 5-year mortality rates), also substantially reduce 15-year mortality rates. Further improvements in long-term survival could well be available from newer drugs, or better use of older drugs.
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  • Hamann, Dathan, et al. (författare)
  • Jewellery : alloy composition and release of nickel, cobalt and lead assessed with the EU synthetic sweat method
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Contact Dermatitis. - 0105-1873 .- 1600-0536. ; 73:4, s. 231-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Several studies have shown nickel and cobalt release from jewellery by using spot tests, but the metal composition of jewellery is largely unknown. Objectives. To evaluate the metal composition of a large worldwide sample of mainly inexpensive jewellery items, and investigate the release of nickel, cobalt and lead from a subsample by using EN 1811: 1998-required methods. Methods. A total of 956 metallic jewellery components were examined with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. A subsample of 96 jewellery items purchased in the United States were investigated for nickel, cobalt and lead release by the use of artificial sweat immersion and plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Results. Eighteen elements were detected. The 10 most frequently occurring were, in order of frequency, copper, iron, zinc, nickel, silver, chromium, tin, manganese, lead, and cobalt. Release of nickelwas noted from 79 of the 96 US samples (0.01-98 mu g/cm(2)/week), release of cobalt from 35 samples (0.02-0.5 mu g/cm(2)/week), and release of lead from 37 samples (0.03-2718 mu g/cm(2)/week). Conclusions. We present here a comprehensive list of the most frequently encountered metals in jewellery and fashion accessories. Different allergenic and non-allergenic metals are utilized. We also report the frequent release of nickel, cobalt and lead from these objects, despite legislative restrictions.
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  • Peiser, M., et al. (författare)
  • Allergic contact dermatitis: Epidemiology, molecular mechanisms, in vitro methods and regulatory aspects
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. - 1420-682X .- 1420-9071. ; 69:5, s. 763-781
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Contact allergies are complex diseases, and one of the important challenges for public health and immunology. The German 'Federal Institute for Risk Assessment' hosted an 'International Workshop on Contact Dermatitis'. The scope of the workshop was to discuss new discoveries and developments in the field of contact dermatitis. This included the epidemiology and molecular biology of contact allergy, as well as the development of new in vitro methods. Furthermore, it considered regulatory aspects aiming to reduce exposure to contact sensitisers. An estimated 15-20% of the general population suffers from contact allergy. Workplace exposure, age, sex, use of consumer products and genetic predispositions were identified as the most important risk factors. Research highlights included: advances in understanding of immune responses to contact sensitisers, the importance of autoxidation or enzyme-mediated oxidation for the activation of chemicals, the mechanisms through which hapten-protein conjugates are formed and the development of novel in vitro strategies for the identification of skin-sensitising chemicals. Dendritic cell cultures and structure-activity relationships are being developed to identify potential contact allergens. However, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) presently remains the validated method of choice for hazard identification and characterisation. At the workshop the use of the LLNA for regulatory purposes and for quantitative risk assessment was also discussed. © The Author(s) 2011.
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  • Ribi, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of life under extended continuous versus intermittent adjuvant letrozole in lymph node-positive, early breast cancer patients: the SOLE randomised phase 3 trial.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: British journal of cancer. - 1532-1827. ; 120
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the phase III SOLE trial, the extended use of intermittent versus continuous letrozole for 5 years did not improve disease-free survival in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Intermittent therapy with 3-month breaks may be beneficial for patients' quality of life (QoL).In the SOLE QoL sub-study, 956 patients completed the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) symptom and further QoL scales up to 24 months after randomisation. Differences in change of QoL from baseline between the two administration schedules were tested at 12 and 24 months using repeated measures mixed-models. The primary outcome was change in hot flushes at 12 months.There was no difference in hot flushes at 12 months between the two schedules, but patients receiving intermittent letrozole reported significantly more improvement at 24 months. They also indicated less worsening in vaginal problems, musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, physical well-being and mood at 12 months. Overall, 25-30% of patients reported a clinically relevant worsening in key symptoms and global QoL.Less symptom worsening was observed during the first year of extended treatment with the intermittent administration. For women experiencing an increased symptom burden of extended adjuvant endocrine therapy, an intermittent administration is a safe alternative.Clinical trial information: NCT00651456.
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  • Faergemann, Jan, 1948, et al. (författare)
  • Pentane-1,5-diol as a percutaneous absorption enhancer
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Arch Dermatol Res. ; 297:6, s. 261-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Propylene glycol (propane-1,2-diol) is the only diol widely used in dermatology. Pentane-1,5-diol is mainly used as a plasticizer in cellulose products and adhesives, in dental composites and in brake fluid compositions and as a preservative for grain. However, pentane-1,5-diol is also an effective solvent, water-binding substance, antimicrobial agent and preservative and may therefore replace several ingredients in a skin composition. The release of tri-iodothyroacetic acid (TRIAC) and percutaneous absorption of hydrocortisone and mometasone furoate with either pentane-1,5-diol or propane-1,2-diol and 2-methyl-pentane-2,4-diol (hexylene glycol), respectively, as enhancers was compared. The release of TRIAC was 21% higher when pentane-1,5-diol was used as an enhancer instead of propane-1,2-diol. The percutaneous absorption of hydrocortisone through the skin was increased 12 times with propane-1,2-diol compared to 4.4 times with pentane-1,5-diol. However, the percutaneous absorption of hydrocortisone into the skin was 50% higher with pentane-1,5-diol compared to propane-1,2-diol. There was no significant difference, between the original mometasone furoate cream, with 2-methyl-pentane-2,4-diol, and the new cream with pentane-1,5-diol in the amount of mometasone furoate that was absorbed into the skin and through the skin. However, the cosmetic properties of the new mometasone furoate cream was superior to the original mometasone furoate cream, for examples, no bad odour, more even texture, goes better into the skin and has less greasiness. Pentane-1,5-diol can be used as a technology platform, which adds a series of desirable properties to dermatological preparations and enhances product usability. This will result in improved formulations for a series of major and commonly used dermatological drugs. When used in pharmaceutical topical preparations, pentane-1,5-diol will increase the percutaneous absorption of the active substance and it is an efficient antimicrobial agent that will act as an effective preservative in topical formulations. Pentane-1,5-diol is cosmetically attractive, has low risk for skin and eye irritation compared to other diols, low toxicity risk and no bad odour.
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