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2.
  • Cansby, Emmelie, et al. (författare)
  • Targeted Delivery of Stk25 Antisense Oligonucleotides to Hepatocytes Protects Mice Against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: CMGH Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - 2352-345X. ; 7:3, s. 597-618
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Aims: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are emerging as leading causes of liver disease worldwide. Currently, no specific pharmacologic therapy is available for NAFLD/NASH, which has been recognized as one of the major unmet medical needs of the 21st century. Our recent studies in genetic mouse models, human cell lines, and well-characterized patient cohorts have identified serine/threonine protein kinase (STK)25 as a critical regulator of hepatic lipid partitioning and NAFLD/NASH. Here, we studied the metabolic benefit of liver-specific STK25 inhibitors on NAFLD development and progression in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Methods: We developed a hepatocyte-specific triantennary N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-conjugated antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeting Stk25 and evaluated its effect on NAFLD features in mice after chronic exposure to dietary lipids. Results: We found that systemic administration of hepatocyte-targeting GalNAc-Stk25 ASO in obese mice effectively ameliorated steatosis, inflammatory infiltration, hepatic stellate cell activation, nutritional fibrosis, and hepatocellular damage in the liver compared with mice treated with GalNAc-conjugated nontargeting ASO, without any systemic toxicity or local tolerability concerns. We also observed protection against high-fat-diet–induced hepatic oxidative stress and improved mitochondrial function with Stk25 ASO treatment in mice. Moreover, GalNAc-Stk25 ASO suppressed lipogenic gene expression and acetyl-CoA carboxylase protein abundance in the liver, providing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying repression of hepatic steatosis. Conclusions: This study provides in vivo nonclinical proof-of-principle for the metabolic benefit of liver-specific inhibition of STK25 in the context of obesity and warrants future investigations to address the therapeutic potential of GalNAc-Stk25 ASO in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.
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3.
  • Efe, C., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of Risk Scoring Systems in Ursodeoxycholic Acid-Treated Patients With Primary Biliary Cholangitis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Gastroenterology. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0002-9270 .- 1572-0241. ; 114:7, s. 1101-1108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Risk stratification based on biochemical variables is a useful tool for monitoring ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)-treated patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Several UDCA response criteria and scoring systems have been proposed for risk prediction in PBC, but these have not been validated in large external cohorts. METHODS: We performed a study on data of 1746 UDCA-treated patients with PBC from 25 centers in Europe, United States, and Canada. The prognostic performance of the risk scoring systems (GLOBE and UK-PBC) and the UDCA response criteria (Barcelona, Paris I, Paris II, Rotterdam, and Toronto) were evaluated. We regarded cirrhosis-related complications (ascites, variceal bleeding, and/or hepatic encephalopathy) as clinical end points. RESULTS: A total of 171 patients reached a clinical end point during a median 7 years (range 1-16 years) of follow-up. The 5-, 10- and 15-year adverse outcome-free survivals were 95%, 85%, and 77%. The GLOBE and UK-PBC scores predicted cirrhosis-related complications better than the UDCA response criteria. The hazard ratio (HR) for a 1 standard deviation increase was HR 5.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.43-5.74, P < 0.001) for the GLOBE score and HR 3.39 (95% CI: 3.10-3.72, P < 0.001) for the UK-PBC score. Overall, the GLOBE and UK-PBC risk scores showed similar and excellent prognostic performance (C-statistic, 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91%-95% vs 0.94; 95% CI: 0.91%-0.96%). DISCUSSION: In our international, multicenter PBC cohort, the GLOBE and UK-PBC risk scoring systems were good predictors of future cirrhosis-related complications.
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4.
  • Hedin, Charlotte Rose Hawkey, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonists in Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714. ; 18:10, s. 2295-2304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims: Few patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists because of the often mild symptoms of IBD. We assessed the effects of anti-TNF agents on liver function in patients with PSC and IBD, and their efficacy in treatment of IBD. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 141 patients with PSC and IBD receiving treatment with anti-TNF agents (infliximab or adalimumab) at 20 sites (mostly tertiary-care centers) in Europe and North America. We collected data on the serum level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). IBD response was defined as either endoscopic response or, if no endoscopic data were available, clinical response, as determined by the treating clinician or measurements of fecal calprotectin. Remission was defined more stringently as endoscopic mucosal healing. We used linear regression analysis to identify factors associated significantly with level of ALP during anti-TNF therapy. Results: Anti-TNF treatment produced a response of IBD in 48% of patients and remission of IBD in 23%. There was no difference in PSC symptom frequency before or after drug exposure. The most common reasons for anti-TNF discontinuation were primary nonresponse of IBD (17%) and side effects (18%). At 3 months, infliximab-treated patients had a median reduction in serum level of ALP of 4% (interquartile range, reduction of 25% to increase of 19%) compared with a median 15% reduction in ALP in adalimumab-treated patients (interquartile range, reduction of 29% to reduction of 4%; P =.035). Factors associated with lower ALP were normal ALP at baseline (P <.01), treatment with adalimumab (P =.090), and treatment in Europe (P =.083). Conclusions: In a retrospective analysis of 141 patients with PSC and IBD, anti-TNF agents were moderately effective and were not associated with exacerbation of PSC symptoms or specific side effects. Prospective studies are needed to investigate the association between use of adalimumab and reduced serum levels of ALP further.
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6.
  • Shemer, E. Wikström, et al. (författare)
  • Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and associated adverse pregnancy and fetal outcomes : a 12-year population-based cohort study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1470-0328 .- 1471-0528. ; 120:6, s. 717-723
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To determine the risk for adverse pregnancy and fetal outcomes in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP).Design: Population-based cohort study.Setting: Swedish Medical Birth Register (MBR) 19972009.Population: A total of 1213668 singleton deliveries.Methods: Linkage of Hospital Discharge Register for exposure (ICP; n=5477) with MBR for covariates.Main outcome measures: Gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, prematurity, and stillbirth.Results: Intrahepatic cholestasis (ICP) was diagnosed in 0.320.58% of all pregnancies, with an increasing trend until 2005 (P<0.0001). Compared with women who did not have ICP, women with ICP were more likely to have gestational diabetes (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 2.81; 95% CI 2.323.41) and pre-eclampsia (aOR 2.62, 95% CI 2.322.78). Women with ICP were also more likely to have spontaneous (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.471.93) and iatrogenic (aOR 5.95, 95% CI 5.236.60) preterm delivery, with increased rates of induction of labour (aOR 11.76, 95% CI 11.0411.62). However, this actively managed cohort of ICP cases was not at increased risk of stillbirth (aOR 0.92, 95% CI 0.521.62). Infants in ICP deliveries were more likely to have a low (<7) 5-minute Apgar score (aOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.141.85) and be large for gestational age at birth (aOR 2.27, 95% CI 2.022.55).Conclusions: Over time, a greater proportion of Swedish pregnant women have received a diagnosis of ICP, probably because of an increased awareness of the disorder. Our data confirm an increased risk of preterm delivery, but not of stillbirth, in actively managed ICP. The high rates of gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia are new findings, and need to be considered in the management of ICP pregnancies.
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7.
  • Abdel-Khalik, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Bile acid biosynthesis in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome bypassing cholesterol: Potential importance of pathway intermediates.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. - 1879-1220. ; 206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bile acids are the end products of cholesterol metabolism secreted into bile. They are essential for the absorption of lipids and lipid soluble compounds from the intestine. Here we have identified a series of unusual Δ5-unsaturated bile acids in plasma and urine of patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), a defect in cholesterol biosynthesis resulting in elevated levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), an immediate precursor of cholesterol. Using liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) we have uncovered a pathway of bile acid biosynthesis in SLOS avoiding cholesterol starting with 7-DHC and proceeding through 7-oxo and 7β-hydroxy intermediates. This pathway also occurs to a minor extent in healthy humans, but elevated levels of pathway intermediates could be responsible for some of the features SLOS. The pathway is also active in SLOS affected pregnancies as revealed by analysis of amniotic fluid. Importantly, intermediates in the pathway, 25-hydroxy-7-oxocholesterol, (25R)26-hydroxy-7-oxocholesterol, 3β-hydroxy-7-oxocholest-5-en-(25R)26-oic acid and the analogous 7β-hydroxysterols are modulators of the activity of Smoothened (Smo), an oncoprotein that mediates Hedgehog (Hh) signalling across membranes during embryogenesis and in the regeneration of postembryonic tissue. Computational docking of the 7-oxo and 7β-hydroxy compounds to the extracellular cysteine rich domain of Smo reveals that they bind in the same groove as both 20S-hydroxycholesterol and cholesterol, known activators of the Hh pathway.
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8.
  • Abu-Hayyeh, Shadi, et al. (författare)
  • Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy levels of sulfated progesterone metabolites inhibit farnesoid X receptor resulting in a cholestatic phenotype.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - 0270-9139. ; 57:2, s. 716-726
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most prevalent pregnancy-specific liver disease and is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including preterm labor and intrauterine death. The endocrine signals that cause cholestasis are not known but 3α-sulfated progesterone metabolites have been shown to be elevated in ICP, leading us to study the impact of sulfated progesterone metabolites on farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated bile acid homeostasis pathways. Here we report that the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate is supraphysiologically raised in the serum of ICP patients. Mice challenged with cholic acid developed hypercholanemia and a hepatic gene expression profile indicative of FXR activation. However, coadministration of epiallopregnanolone sulfate with cholic acid exacerbated the hypercholanemia and resulted in aberrant gene expression profiles for hepatic bile acid-responsive genes consistent with cholestasis. We demonstrate that levels of epiallopregnanolone sulfate found in ICP can function as a partial agonist for FXR, resulting in the aberrant expression of bile acid homeostasis genes in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes. Furthermore, epiallopregnanolone sulfate inhibition of FXR results in reduced FXR-mediated bile acid efflux and secreted FGF19. Using cofactor recruitment assays, we show that epiallopregnanolone sulfate competitively inhibits bile acid-mediated recruitment of cofactor motifs to the FXR-ligand binding domain. Conclusion: Our results reveal a novel molecular interaction between ICP-associated levels of the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate and FXR that couples the endocrine component of pregnancy in ICP to abnormal bile acid homeostasis. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;).
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9.
  • Abu-Hayyeh, S., et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic and Mechanistic Potential of Progesterone Sulfates in Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy and Pruritus Gravidarum
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - 0270-9139. ; 63:4, s. 1287-1298
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A challenge in obstetrics is to distinguish pathological symptoms from those associated with normal changes of pregnancy, typified by the need to differentiate whether gestational pruritus of the skin is an early symptom of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) or due to benign pruritus gravidarum. ICP is characterized by raised serum bile acids and complicated by spontaneous preterm labor and stillbirth. A biomarker for ICP would be invaluable for early diagnosis and treatment and to enable its differentiation from other maternal diseases. Three progesterone sulfate compounds, whose concentrations have not previously been studied, were newly synthesized and assayed in the serum of three groups of ICP patients and found to be significantly higher in ICP at 9-15 weeks of gestation and prior to symptom onset (group 1 cases/samples: ICP n = 35/80, uncomplicated pregnancy = 29/100), demonstrating that all three progesterone sulfates are prognostic for ICP. Concentrations of progesterone sulfates were associated with itch severity and, in combination with autotaxin, distinguished pregnant women with itch that would subsequently develop ICP from pruritus gravidarum (group 2: ICP n = 41, pruritus gravidarum n = 14). In a third group of first-trimester samples all progesterone sulfates were significantly elevated in serum from low-risk asymptomatic women who subsequently developed ICP (ICP/uncomplicated pregnancy n = 54/51). Finally, we show mechanistically that progesterone sulfates mediate itch by evoking a Tgr5-dependent scratch response in mice. Conclusion: Our discovery that sulfated progesterone metabolites are a prognostic indicator for ICP will help predict onset of ICP and distinguish it from benign pruritus gravidarum, enabling targeted obstetric care to a high-risk population. Delineation of a progesterone sulfate-TGR5 pruritus axis identifies a therapeutic target for itch management in ICP.
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10.
  • Al-Dury, Samer, et al. (författare)
  • Obeticholic acid may increase the risk of gallstone formation in susceptible patients.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of hepatology. - 1600-0641. ; 71:5, s. 986-991
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) has been developed for the treatment of liver diseases. We aimed to determine whether OCA treatment increases the risk of gallstone formation.Twenty patients awaiting laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized to treatment with OCA (25 mg/day) or placebo for three weeks before surgery. Serum bile acids (BAs), the BA synthesis marker C4 (7α-hydroxy-cholest-4-ene-3-one), and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) were measured before and after treatment. During surgery, biopsies from the liver and the whole bile-filled gallbladder were collected for analyses of gene expression, biliary lipids and FGF19.In serum, OCA increased FGF19 (from 95.0±8.5 to 234.4±35.6 ng/L) and decreased C4 (from 31.4±22.8 to 2.8±4.0 nmol/L) and endogenous BAs (from 1312.2±236.2 to 517.7±178.9 nmol/L; all p<0.05). At surgery, BAs in gallbladder bile were lower in OCA patients than controls (OCA, 77.9±53.6 mmol/L; placebo, 196.4±99.3 mmol/L; p<0.01), resulting in a higher cholesterol saturation index (OCA, 2.8±1.1; placebo, 1.8±0.8; p < 0.05). In addition, hydrophobic OCA conjugates accounted for 13.6±5.0% of gallbladder BAs after OCA treatment, resulting in a higher hydrophobicity index (OCA, 0.43±0.09; placebo, 0.34±0.07, p<0.05). Gallbladder FGF19 was three-fold higher in OCA patients than in controls (OCA, 40.3±16.5 ng/L; placebo, 13.5±13.1 ng/mL; p<0.005). Gene expression analysis indicated a mainly gallbladder epithelial origin of FGF19.Our results show for the first time an enrichment of FGF19 in human bile after OCA treatment. In accordance with its murine homolog FGF15, FGF19 might trigger relaxation and filling of the gallbladder which, in combination with increased cholesterol saturation and BA hydrophobicity, would enhance the risk for gallstone development.Obeticholic acid increased human gallbladder cholesterol saturation and bile acid hydrophobicity, both decreasing cholesterol solubility in bile. Together with increased hepatobiliary FGF19, our findings suggest that pharmacological FXR activation increases the risk of gallstone formation.
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