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Sökning: WFRF:(Matthews CE)

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1.
  • Brayne, C. E., et al. (författare)
  • Dementia Research Fit for the Planet: Reflections on Population Studies of Dementia for Researchers and Policy Makers Alike
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neuroepidemiology. - 0251-5350 .- 1423-0208. ; 54:2, s. 157-170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In recent years, a rapidly increasing collection of investigative methods in addition to changes in diagnostic criteria for dementia have followed "high-tech" trends in medicine, with the aim to better define the dementia syndrome and its biological substrates, mainly in order to predict risk prior to clinical expression. These approaches are not without challenge. A set of guidelines have been developed by a group of European experts in population-based cohort research through a series of workshops, funded by the Joint Program for Neurodegenerative Disorders (JPND). The aims of the guidelines are to assist policy makers and researchers to understand (1) What population studies for ageing populations should encompass and (2) How to interpret the findings from population studies. Such studies are essential to provide evidence relevant to the understanding of healthy and frail brain ageing, including the dementia syndrome for contemporary and future societies by drawing on the past.
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  • Fuhrman, Barbara J, et al. (författare)
  • Association of the Age at Menarche with Site-Specific Cancer Risks in Pooled Data from Nine Cohorts
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 81:8, s. 2246-2255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The average age at menarche declined in European and U.S. populations during the 19th and 20th centuries. The timing of pubertal events may have broad implications for chronic disease risks in aging women. Here we tested for associations of recalled menarcheal age with risks of 19 cancers in 536,450 women [median age, 60 years (range, 31-39 years)] in nine prospective U.S. and European cohorts that enrolled participants from 1981 to 1998. Cox regression estimated multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations of the age at menarche with risk of each cancer in each cohort and random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate summary estimates for each cancer. Over a median 10 years of follow-up, 60,968 women were diagnosed with a first primary incident cancer. Inverse linear associations were observed for seven of 19 cancers studied. Each additional year in the age at menarche was associated with reduced risks of endometrial cancer (HR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.89-0.94), liver cancer (HR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.99), melanoma (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), bladder cancer (HR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99), and cancers of the colon (HR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), lung (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), and breast (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99). All but one of these associations remained statistically significant following adjustment for baseline body mass index. Similarities in the observed associations between menarche and seven cancers suggest shared underlying causes rooted early in life. We propose as a testable hypothesis that early exposure to sex hormones increases mid-life cancer risks by altering functional capacities of stem cells with roles in systemic energy balance and tissue homeostasis. SIGNIFICANCE: Age at menarche is associated with risk for seven cancers in middle-aged women, and understanding the shared underlying causal pathways across these cancers may suggest new avenues for cancer prevention.
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  • Matthews, Charles E., et al. (författare)
  • Amount and Intensity of Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Lower Cancer Risk
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - : AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 38:7, s. 686-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To determine whether recommended amounts of leisure-time physical activity (ie, 7.5-15 metabolic equivalent task [MET] hours/week) are associated with lower cancer risk, describe the shape of the dose-response relationship, and explore associations with moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity.METHODS: Data from 9 prospective cohorts with self-reported leisure-time physical activity and follow-up for cancer incidence were pooled. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of the relationships between physical activity with incidence of 15 types of cancer. Dose-response relationships were modeled with restricted cubic spline functions that compared 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0 MET hours/week to no leisure-time physical activity, and statistically significant associations were determined using tests for trend (P < .05) and 95% CIs (< 1.0).RESULTS: A total of 755,459 participants (median age, 62 years [range, 32-91 years]; 53% female) were followed for 10.1 years, and 50,620 incident cancers accrued. Engagement in recommended amounts of activity (7.5-15 MET hours/week) was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of 7 of the 15 cancer types studied, including colon (8%-14% lower risk in men), breast (6%-10% lower risk), endometrial (10%-18% lower risk), kidney (11%-17% lower risk), myeloma (14%-19% lower risk), liver (18%-27% lower risk), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (11%-18% lower risk in women). The dose response was linear in shape for half of the associations and nonlinear for the others. Results for moderate- and vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity were mixed. Adjustment for body mass index eliminated the association with endometrial cancer but had limited effect on other cancer types.CONCLUSION: Health care providers, fitness professionals, and public health practitioners should encourage adults to adopt and maintain physical activity at recommended levels to lower risks of multiple cancers. 
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  • Moore, Steven C., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Leisure-Time Physical Activity With Risk of 26 Types of Cancer in 1.44 Million Adults
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JAMA Internal Medicine. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2168-6106 .- 2168-6114. ; 176:6, s. 816-825
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Leisure-time physical activity has been associated with lower risk of heart-disease and all-cause mortality, but its association with risk of cancer is not well understood. OBJECTIVE To determine the association of leisure-time physical activity with incidence of common types of cancer and whether associations vary by body size and/or smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We pooled data from 12 prospective US and European cohorts with self-reported physical activity (baseline, 1987-2004). We used multivariable Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for associations of leisure-time physical activity with incidence of 26 types of cancer. Leisure-time physical activity levels were modeled as cohort-specific percentiles on a continuous basis and cohort-specific results were synthesized by random-effects meta-analysis. Hazard ratios for high vs low levels of activity are based on a comparison of risk at the 90th vs 10th percentiles of activity. The data analysis was performed from January 1, 2014, to June 1, 2015. EXPOSURES Leisure-time physical activity of a moderate to vigorous intensity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Incident cancer during follow-up. RESULTS A total of 1.44 million participants (median [range] age, 59 [19-98] years; 57% female) and 186 932 cancers were included. High vs low levels of leisure-time physical activity were associated with lower risks of 13 cancers: esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.89), liver (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.55-0.98), lung (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.71-0.77), kidney (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.70-0.85), gastric cardia (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64-0.95), endometrial (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.92), myeloid leukemia (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70-0.92), myeloma (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72-0.95), colon (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.91), head and neck (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.93), rectal (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95), bladder (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.82-0.92), and breast (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.87-0.93). Body mass index adjustment modestly attenuated associations for several cancers, but 10 of 13 inverse associations remained statistically significant after this adjustment. Leisure-time physical activity was associated with higher risks of malignant melanoma (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.16-1.40) and prostate cancer (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03-1.08). Associations were generally similar between overweight/obese and normal-weight individuals. Smoking status modified the association for lung cancer but not other smoking-related cancers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Leisure-time physical activity was associated with lower risks of many cancer types. Health care professionals counseling inactive adults should emphasize that most of these associations were evident regardless of body size or smoking history, supporting broad generalizability of findings.
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  • Östling, Jörgen, et al. (författare)
  • IL-17-high asthma with features of a psoriasis immunophenotype
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 144:5, s. 1198-1213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The role of IL-17 immunity is well established in patients with inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease, but not in asthmatic patients, in whom further study is required.Objective: We sought to undertake a deep phenotyping study of asthmatic patients with upregulated IL-17 immunity.Methods: Whole-genome transcriptomic analysis was performed by using epithelial brushings, bronchial biopsy specimens (91 asthmatic patients and 46 healthy control subjects), and whole blood samples (n = 498) from the Unbiased Biomarkers for the Prediction of Respiratory Disease Outcomes (U-BIOPRED) cohort. Gene signatures induced in vitro by IL-17 and IL-13 in bronchial epithelial cells were used to identify patients with IL-17–high and IL-13–high asthma phenotypes.Results: Twenty-two of 91 patients were identified with IL-17, and 9 patients were identified with IL-13 gene signatures. The patients with IL-17–high asthma were characterized by risk of frequent exacerbations, airway (sputum and mucosal) neutrophilia, decreased lung microbiota diversity, and urinary biomarker evidence of activation of the thromboxane B2 pathway. In pathway analysis the differentially expressed genes in patients with IL-17-high asthma were shared with those reported as altered in psoriasis lesions and included genes regulating epithelial barrier function and defense mechanisms, such as IL1B, IL6, IL8, and β-defensin.Conclusion: The IL-17–high asthma phenotype, characterized by bronchial epithelial dysfunction and upregulated antimicrobial and inflammatory response, resembles the immunophenotype of psoriasis, including activation of the thromboxane B2 pathway, which should be considered a biomarker for this phenotype in further studies, including clinical trials targeting IL-17.
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  • Dajti, I, et al. (författare)
  • 2021
  • swepub:Mat__t
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10.
  • Tabiri, S, et al. (författare)
  • 2021
  • swepub:Mat__t
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 29
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