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Sökning: WFRF:(McCullough R)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 49
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3.
  • Genkinger, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Dairy products and pancreatic cancer risk : a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0923-7534 .- 1569-8041. ; 25:6, s. 1106-1115
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • .Pancreatic cancer has few early symptoms, is usually diagnosed at late stages, and has a high case-fatality rate. Identifying modifiable risk factors is crucial to reducing pancreatic cancer morbidity and mortality. Prior studies have suggested that specific foods and nutrients, such as dairy products and constituents, may play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. In this pooled analysis of the primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2212 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified during follow-up among 862 680 individuals. Adjusting for smoking habits, personal history of diabetes, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake, multivariable study-specific hazard ratios (MVHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. There was no association between total milk intake and pancreatic cancer risk (MVHR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18 comparing a parts per thousand yen500 with 1-69.9 g/day). Similarly, intakes of low-fat milk, whole milk, cheese, cottage cheese, yogurt, and ice-cream were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. No statistically significant association was observed between dietary (MVHR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.77-1.19) and total calcium (MVHR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.71-1.12) intake and pancreatic cancer risk overall when comparing intakes a parts per thousand yen1300 with < 500 mg/day. In addition, null associations were observed for dietary and total vitamin D intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Findings were consistent within sex, smoking status, and BMI strata or when the case definition was limited to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Overall, these findings do not support the hypothesis that consumption of dairy foods, calcium, or vitamin D during adulthood is associated with pancreatic cancer risk.
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4.
  • Genkinger, J M, et al. (författare)
  • Dairy products and ovarian cancer : A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA USA. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA. NYU, Dept Environm Med, Div Epidemiol, New York, NY 10016 USA. Loma Linda Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Hlth Res, Loma Linda, CA USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY 14260 USA. Netherlands Org Appl Sci Res Qual Life, Dept Food & Chem Risk Anal, Zeist, Netherlands. Univ Oslo, Dept Nutr, Oslo, Norway. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, NIH, Dept Hlth & Human Serv, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. Natl Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden. Amer Canc Soc, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. Maastricht Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Nutr & Toxicol Res Inst, Maastricht, Netherlands. : AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 15:2, s. 364-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Dairy foods and their constituents (lactose and calcium) have been hypothesized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis. Although case-control studies have reported conflicting results for dairy foods and lactose, several cohort studies have shown positive associations between skim milk, lactose, and ovarian cancer. Methods: A pooled analysis of the primary data from 12 prospective cohort studies was conducted. The study population consisted of 553,217 women among whom 2,132 epithelial ovarian cases were identified. Study-specific relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled by a random-effects model. Results: No statistically significant associations were observed between intakes of milk, cheese, yogurt, ice cream, and dietary and total calcium intake and risk of ovarian cancer. Higher lactose intakes comparing >= 30 versus < 10 g/d were associated with a statistically significant higher risk of ovarian cancer, although the trend was not statistically significant (pooled multivariate relative risk, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.40; P-trend = 0.19). Associations for endometrioid, mucinous, and serous ovarian cancer were similar to the overall findings. Discussion: Overall, no associations were observed for intakes of specific dairy foods or calcium and ovarian cancer risk. A modest elevation in the risk of ovarian cancer was seen for lactose intake at the level that was equivalent to three or more servings of milk per day. Because a new dietary guideline recommends two to three servings of dairy products per day, the relation between dairy product consumption and ovarian cancer risk at these consumption levels deserves further examination.
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5.
  • Koushik, Anita, et al. (författare)
  • Fruits, vegetables, and colon cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Univ Montreal, CHUM, Ctr Rech, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ H2W 1V1, Canada. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Loma Linda Univ, Ctr Hlth Res, Loma Linda, CA 92350 USA. Maastricht Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. Amer Canc Soc, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Univ Buffalo State Univ New York, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY 14222 USA. Roswell Pk Canc Inst, Dept Canc Prevent & Populat Sci, Buffalo, NY 14263 USA. Dana Farber Canc Inst, Dept Adult Oncol, Boston, MA USA. TNO, Dept Food & Chem Risk Anal, Zeist, Netherlands. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pathol, Karmanos Canc Inst, Detroit, MI 48201 USA. Natl Canc Inst, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, I-20133 Milan, Italy. Karolinska Inst, Natl Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Promot, Helsinki, Finland. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. AZJ, Div Epidemiol, Dept Environm Med, New York, NY USA. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 99:19, s. 1471-1483
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Fruit and vegetable intakes have been associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer; however, in more recent studies associations have been less consistent. Statistical power to examine associations by colon site has been limited in previous studies. Methods Fruit and vegetable intakes in relation to colon cancer risk were examined in the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (Cis) were estimated separately in 14 studies using Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a randomeffects model. Intakes of total fruits and vegetables, total fruits, and total vegetables were categorized according to quintiles and absolute cutpoints. Analyses were conducted for colon cancer overall and for proximal and distal colon cancer separately. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Among 756217 men and women followed for up to 6 to 20 years, depending on the study, 5838 were diagnosed with colon cancer. The pooled multivariable RRs (95% Cis) of colon cancer for the highest versus lowest quintiles of intake were 0.91 (0.82 to 1-01 1 P-trend =.19) for total fruits and vegetables, 0.93 (0.85 to 1.02, P-trend =.28) for total fruits, and 0.94 (0.86 to 1.02, P-trend =.17) for total vegetables. Similar results were observed when intakes were categorized by identical absolute cut points across studies (pooled multivariable FIR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.77 to 1.05 for 800 or more versus <200 g/day of total fruits and vegetables, P-trend =.06). The age-standardized incidence rates of colon cancer for these two intake categories were 54 and 61 per 100000 person-years, respectively. When analyzed by colon site, the pooled multivariable RRs (95% Cis) comparing total fruit and vegetable intakes of 800 or more versus less than 200 g/day were 0.74 (0.57 to 0.95, P-trend =.02) for distal colon cancers and 1.02 (0.82 to 1.27, P-trend =.57) for proximal colon cancers. Similar site-specific associations were observed for total fruits and total vegetables. Conclusion Fruit and vegetable intakes were not strongly associated with colon cancer risk overall but may be associated with a lower risk of distal colon cancer.
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6.
  • Park, Yikyung, et al. (författare)
  • Intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and use of multiple vitamin supplements and risk of colon cancer : a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 21:11, s. 1745-1757
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To evaluate the associations between intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and risk of colon cancer. Using the primary data from 13 cohort studies, we estimated study- and sex-specific relative risks (RR) with Cox proportional hazards models and subsequently pooled RRs using a random effects model. Among 676,141 men and women, 5,454 colon cancer cases were identified (7-20 years of follow-up across studies). Vitamin A, C, and E intakes from food only were not associated with colon cancer risk. For intakes from food and supplements (total), the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CI) were 0.88 (0.76-1.02, > 4,000 vs. a parts per thousand currency sign1,000 mu g/day) for vitamin A, 0.81 (0.71-0.92, > 600 vs. a parts per thousand currency sign100 mg/day) for vitamin C, and 0.78 (0.66-0.92, > 200 vs. a parts per thousand currency sign6 mg/day) for vitamin E. Adjustment for total folate intake attenuated these associations, but the inverse associations with vitamins C and E remained significant. Multivitamin use was significantly inversely associated with colon cancer risk (RR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81-0.96). Modest inverse associations with vitamin C and E intakes may be due to high correlations with folate intake, which had a similar inverse association with colon cancer. An inverse association with multivitamin use, a major source of folate and other vitamins, deserves further study.
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7.
  • Setiawan, Veronica Wendy, et al. (författare)
  • Type I and II Endometrial Cancers : Have They Different Risk Factors?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - : AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 31:20, s. 2607-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Endometrial cancers have long been divided into estrogen-dependent type I and the less common clinically aggressive estrogen-independent type II. Little is known about risk factors for type II tumors because most studies lack sufficient cases to study these much less common tumors separately. We examined whether so-called classical endometrial cancer risk factors also influence the risk of type II tumors. Patients and Methods Individual-level data from 10 cohort and 14 case-control studies from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium were pooled. A total of 14,069 endometrial cancer cases and 35,312 controls were included. We classified endometrioid (n = 7,246), adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (n = 4,830), and adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation (n = 777) as type I tumors and serous (n = 508) and mixed cell (n = 346) as type II tumors. Results Parity, oral contraceptive use, cigarette smoking, age at menarche, and diabetes were associated with type I and type II tumors to similar extents. Body mass index, however, had a greater effect on type I tumors than on type II tumors: odds ratio (OR) per 2 kg/m(2) increase was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.21) for type I and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.14) for type II tumors (P-heterogeneity < .0001). Risk factor patterns for high-grade endometrioid tumors and type II tumors were similar. Conclusion The results of this pooled analysis suggest that the two endometrial cancer types share many common etiologic factors. The etiology of type II tumors may, therefore, not be completely estrogen independent, as previously believed. (C) 2013 by American Society of Clinical Oncology
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8.
  • Wu, Kana, et al. (författare)
  • Associations between unprocessed red and processed meat, poultry, seafood and egg intake and the risk of prostate cancer : A pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : WILEY. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 138:10, s. 2368-2382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reports relating meat intake to prostate cancer risk are inconsistent. Associations between these dietary factors and prostate cancer were examined in a consortium of 15 cohort studies. During follow-up, 52,683 incident prostate cancer cases, including 4,924 advanced cases, were identified among 842,149 men. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate study-specific relative risks (RR) and then pooled using random effects models. Results do not support a substantial effect of total red, unprocessed red and processed meat for all prostate cancer outcomes, except for a modest positive association for tumors identified as advanced stage at diagnosis (advanced(r)). For seafood, no substantial effect was observed for prostate cancer regardless of stage or grade. Poultry intake was inversely associated with risk of advanced and fatal cancers (pooled multivariable RR [MVRR], 95% confidence interval, comparing 45 vs. <5 g/day: advanced 0.83, 0.70-0.99; trend test p value 0.29), fatal, 0.69, 0.59-0.82, trend test p value 0.16). Participants who ate 25 versus <5 g/day of eggs (1 egg approximate to 50 g) had a significant 14% increased risk of advanced and fatal cancers (advanced 1.14, 1.01-1.28, trend test p value 0.01; fatal 1.14, 1.00-1.30, trend test p value 0.01). When associations were analyzed separately by geographical region (North America vs. other continents), positive associations between unprocessed red meat and egg intake, and inverse associations between poultry intake and advanced, advanced(r) and fatal cancers were limited to North American studies. However, differences were only statistically significant for eggs. Observed differences in associations by geographical region warrant further investigation. What's New? The debate over red meat consumption and cancer risk is longstanding. In this consortium of 15 cohorts from North America, Europe, Australia and Asia, the authors examined over 50,000 cases of prostate cancer and the associated intake of unprocessed red and processed meat, seafood, eggs and poultry. Overall no substantial risk for unprocessed red and processed meat intake and prostate cancer was found. Interestingly, positive associations between intake of unprocessed red meat as well as eggs and advanced or fatal prostate cancers were detected only in participants living in North America, a finding which warrants further investigation into meat and egg composition, consumption and potential differences in lifestyle and screening practices between continents.
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9.
  • Zuo, H., et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin B6 catabolism and lung cancer risk : Results from the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0923-7534 .- 1569-8041. ; 30:3, s. 478-485
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Increased vitamin B6 catabolism related to inflammation, as measured by the PAr index (the ratio of 4-pyridoxic acid over the sum of pyridoxal and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate), has been positively associated with lung cancer risk in two prospective European studies. However, the extent to which this association translates to more diverse populations is not known. Materials and methods For this study, we included 5323 incident lung cancer cases and 5323 controls individually matched by age, sex, and smoking status within each of 20 prospective cohorts from the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. Cohort-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between PAr and lung cancer risk were calculated using conditional logistic regression and pooled using random-effects models. Results PAr was positively associated with lung cancer risk in a dose-response fashion. Comparing the fourth versus first quartiles of PAr resulted in an OR of 1.38 (95% CI: 1.19-1.59) for overall lung cancer risk. The association between PAr and lung cancer risk was most prominent in former smokers (OR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.36-2.10), men (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28-2.00), and for cancers diagnosed within 3 years of blood draw (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.34-2.23). Conclusion Based on pre-diagnostic data from 20 cohorts across 4 continents, this study confirms that increased vitamin B6 catabolism related to inflammation and immune activation is associated with a higher risk of developing lung cancer. Moreover, PAr may be a pre-diagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal factor.
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10.
  • Alimena, Juliette, et al. (författare)
  • Searching for long-lived particles beyond the Standard Model at the Large Hadron Collider
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics G. - : Institute of Physics (IOP). - 0954-3899 .- 1361-6471. ; 47:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Particles beyond the Standard Model (SM) can generically have lifetimes that are long compared to SM particles at the weak scale. When produced at experiments such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, these long-lived particles (LLPs) can decay far from the interaction vertex of the primary proton-proton collision. Such LLP signatures are distinct from those of promptly decaying particles that are targeted by the majority of searches for new physics at the LHC, often requiring customized techniques to identify, for example, significantly displaced decay vertices, tracks with atypical properties, and short track segments. Given their non-standard nature, a comprehensive overview of LLP signatures at the LHC is beneficial to ensure that possible avenues of the discovery of new physics are not overlooked. Here we report on the joint work of a community of theorists and experimentalists with the ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb experiments-as well as those working on dedicated experiments such as MoEDAL, milliQan, MATHUSLA, CODEX-b, and FASER-to survey the current state of LLP searches at the LHC, and to chart a path for the development of LLP searches into the future, both in the upcoming Run 3 and at the high-luminosity LHC. The work is organized around the current and future potential capabilities of LHC experiments to generally discover new LLPs, and takes a signature-based approach to surveying classes of models that give rise to LLPs rather than emphasizing any particular theory motivation. We develop a set of simplified models; assess the coverage of current searches; document known, often unexpected backgrounds; explore the capabilities of proposed detector upgrades; provide recommendations for the presentation of search results; and look towards the newest frontiers, namely high-multiplicity 'dark showers', highlighting opportunities for expanding the LHC reach for these signals.
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