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Sökning: WFRF:(Meibohm Bernd)

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1.
  • Artigas Soler, María, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association and large-scale follow up identifies 16 new loci influencing lung function.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 43:11, s. 1082-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pulmonary function measures reflect respiratory health and are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We tested genome-wide association with forced expiratory volume in 1 second and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity in 48,201 individuals of European ancestry with follow up of the top associations in up to an additional 46,411 individuals. We identified new regions showing association (combined P < 5 × 10(-8)) with pulmonary function in or near MFAP2, TGFB2, HDAC4, RARB, MECOM (also known as EVI1), SPATA9, ARMC2, NCR3, ZKSCAN3, CDC123, C10orf11, LRP1, CCDC38, MMP15, CFDP1 and KCNE2. Identification of these 16 new loci may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating pulmonary function and into molecular targets for future therapy to alleviate reduced lung function.
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2.
  • Chen, Chunli (författare)
  • Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Evaluations and Experimental Design Recommendations for Preclinical Studies of Anti-tuberculosis Drugs
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Tuberculosis is an ancient infectious disease and a leading cause of death globally. Preclinical research is important for defining drugs and regimens which should be carried forward to human studies. This thesis aims to characterize the population pharmacokinetics and exposure-response relationships of anti-tubercular drugs alone and in combinations, and to suggest experimental designs for preclinical settings.The population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and pyrazinamide were described for the first time in two mouse models. This allowed for linking the population pharmacokinetic model to the Multistate Tuberculosis Pharmacometric (MTP) model for biomarker response, which was used to characterize exposure-response relationships in monotherapy. Pharmacodynamic interactions in combination therapies were quantitatively described by linking the MTP model to the General Pharmacodynamic Interaction (GPDI) model, which provided estimates of single drug effects together with a quantitative model-based evaluation framework for evaluation of pharmacodynamic interactions among drugs in combinations. Synergism (more than expected additivity) was characterized between rifampicin and ethambutol, while antagonism (less than expected additivity) was characterized between rifampicin and isoniazid in combination therapies.The new single-dose pharmacokinetic design with enrichened individual sampling was more informative than the original design, in which only one sample was taken from each mouse in the pharmacokinetic studies. The new oral zipper design allows for informative pharmacokinetic sampling in a multiple-dose administration scenario for characterizing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships, with similar or lower bias and imprecision in parameter estimates and with a decreased total number of animals required by up to 7-fold compared to the original design. The optimized design for assessing pharmacodynamic interactions in the combination therapies, which was based on EC20, EC50 and EC80 of the single drug, provided lower bias and imprecision than a conventional reduced four-by-four microdilution checkerboard design at the same total number of samples required, which followed the 3Rs of animal welfare.In summary, in this thesis the population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models of first-line drugs in mice were characterized through linking each population pharmacokinetic model to the MTP model. Pharmacodynamic interactions were quantitatively illustrated by the MTP-GPDI model. Lastly, experimental designs were optimized and recommended to both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies for preclinical settings.  
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3.
  • Hancock, Dana B, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Joint Meta-Analysis of SNP and SNP-by-Smoking Interaction Identifies Novel Loci for Pulmonary Function
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - 1553-7404. ; 8:12, s. e1003098-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic loci for spirometic measures of pulmonary function, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC). Given that cigarette smoking adversely affects pulmonary function, we conducted genome-wide joint meta-analyses (JMA) of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) associations on FEV1 and FEV1/FVC across 19 studies (total N = 50,047). We identified three novel loci not previously associated with pulmonary function. SNPs in or near DNER (smallest PJMA = 5.00×10−11), HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DQA2 (smallest PJMA = 4.35×10−9), and KCNJ2 and SOX9 (smallest PJMA = 1.28×10−8) were associated with FEV1/FVC or FEV1 in meta-analysis models including SNP main effects, smoking main effects, and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) interaction. The HLA region has been widely implicated for autoimmune and lung phenotypes, unlike the other novel loci, which have not been widely implicated. We evaluated DNER, KCNJ2, and SOX9 and found them to be expressed in human lung tissue. DNER and SOX9 further showed evidence of differential expression in human airway epithelium in smokers compared to non-smokers. Our findings demonstrated that joint testing of SNP and SNP-by-environment interaction identified novel loci associated with complex traits that are missed when considering only the genetic main effects.
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4.
  • Tang, Wenbo, et al. (författare)
  • Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Studies and Meta-Analyses of Longitudinal Change in Adult Lung Function
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 9:7, s. e100776-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci influencing cross-sectional lung function, but less is known about genes influencing longitudinal change in lung function. Methods: We performed GWAS of the rate of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) in 14 longitudinal, population-based cohort studies comprising 27,249 adults of European ancestry using linear mixed effects model and combined cohort-specific results using fixed effect meta-analysis to identify novel genetic loci associated with longitudinal change in lung function. Gene expression analyses were subsequently performed for identified genetic loci. As a secondary aim, we estimated the mean rate of decline in FEV1 by smoking pattern, irrespective of genotypes, across these 14 studies using meta-analysis. Results: The overall meta-analysis produced suggestive evidence for association at the novel IL16/STARD5/TMC3 locus on chromosome 15 (P = 5.71 x 10(-7)). In addition, meta-analysis using the five cohorts with >= 3 FEV1 measurements per participant identified the novel ME3 locus on chromosome 11 (P = 2.18 x 10(-8)) at genome-wide significance. Neither locus was associated with FEV1 decline in two additional cohort studies. We confirmed gene expression of IL16, STARD5, and ME3 in multiple lung tissues. Publicly available microarray data confirmed differential expression of all three genes in lung samples from COPD patients compared with controls. Irrespective of genotypes, the combined estimate for FEV1 decline was 26.9, 29.2 and 35.7 mL/year in never, former, and persistent smokers, respectively. Conclusions: In this large-scale GWAS, we identified two novel genetic loci in association with the rate of change in FEV1 that harbor candidate genes with biologically plausible functional links to lung function.
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