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1.
  • Costas, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Reproductive Factors, Exogenous Hormone Use, and Risk of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Cohort of Women From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 188:2, s. 274-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of hormonal factors in the etiology of lymphoid neoplasms remains unclear. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results, have lacked sufficient statistical power to assess many lymphoma subtypes, or have lacked detailed information on relevant exposures. Within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we analyzed comprehensive data on reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use collected at baseline (1992-2000) among 343,458 women, including data on 1,427 incident cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and its major subtypes identified after a mean follow-up period of 14 years (through 2015). We estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariable proportional hazards modeling. Overall, we observed no statistically significant associations between parity, age at first birth, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, or ever use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of B-cell NHL or its subtypes. Women who had undergone surgical menopause had a 51% higher risk of B-cell NHL (based on 67 cases) than women with natural menopause (hazard ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.94). Given that this result may have been due to chance, our results provide little support for the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in lymphomagenesis.
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2.
  • Jacobs, Kevin B, et al. (författare)
  • Detectable clonal mosaicism and its relationship to aging and cancer.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - New York : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 44:6, s. 651-658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In an analysis of 31,717 cancer cases and 26,136 cancer-free controls from 13 genome-wide association studies, we observed large chromosomal abnormalities in a subset of clones in DNA obtained from blood or buccal samples. We observed mosaic abnormalities, either aneuploidy or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, of >2 Mb in size in autosomes of 517 individuals (0.89%), with abnormal cell proportions of between 7% and 95%. In cancer-free individuals, frequency increased with age, from 0.23% under 50 years to 1.91% between 75 and 79 years (P = 4.8 × 10(-8)). Mosaic abnormalities were more frequent in individuals with solid tumors (0.97% versus 0.74% in cancer-free individuals; odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; P = 0.016), with stronger association with cases who had DNA collected before diagnosis or treatment (OR = 1.45; P = 0.0005). Detectable mosaicism was also more common in individuals for whom DNA was collected at least 1 year before diagnosis with leukemia compared to cancer-free individuals (OR = 35.4; P = 3.8 × 10(-11)). These findings underscore the time-dependent nature of somatic events in the etiology of cancer and potentially other late-onset diseases.
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3.
  • Kitahara, Cari M., et al. (författare)
  • Association between adult height, genetic susceptibility and risk of glioma
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 41:4, s. 1075-1085
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Some, but not all, observational studies have suggested that taller stature is associated with a significant increased risk of glioma. In a pooled analysis of observational studies, we investigated the strength and consistency of this association, overall and for major sub- types, and investigated effect modification by genetic susceptibility to the disease. Methods We standardized and combined individual-level data on 1354 cases and 4734 control subjects from 13 prospective and 2 case-control studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for glioma and glioma sub-types were estimated using logistic regression models stratified by sex and adjusted for birth cohort and study. Pooled ORs were additionally estimated after stratifying the models according to seven recently identified glioma-related genetic variants. Results Among men, we found a positive association between height and glioma risk (epsilon 190 vs 170-174 cm, pooled OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.11-2.61; P-trend = 0.01), which was slightly stronger after restricting to cases with glioblastoma (pooled OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.17-3.38; P-trend = 0.02). Among women, these associations were less clear (epsilon 175 vs 160-164 cm, pooled OR for glioma = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.70-1.62; P-trend = 0.22; pooled OR for glioblastoma = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.77-2.39; P-trend = 0.04). In general, we did not observe evidence of effect modification by glioma-related genotypes on the association between height and glioma risk. Conclusion An association of taller adult stature with glioma, particularly for men and stronger for glioblastoma, should be investigated further to clarify the role of environmental and genetic determinants of height in the etiology of this disease.
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4.
  • Rajaraman, Preetha, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of glioma and meta-analysis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - : SPRINGER. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 131:12, s. 1877-1888
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gliomas account for approximately 80 % of all primary malignant brain tumors and, despite improvements in clinical care over the last 20 years, remain among the most lethal tumors, underscoring the need for gaining new insights that could translate into clinical advances. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified seven new susceptibility regions. We conducted a new independent GWAS of glioma using 1,856 cases and 4,955 controls (from 14 cohort studies, 3 case-control studies, and 1 population-based case-only study) and found evidence of strong replication for three of the seven previously reported associations at 20q13.33 (RTEL), 5p15.33 (TERT), and 9p21.3 (CDKN2BAS), and consistent association signals for the remaining four at 7p11.2 (EGFR both loci), 8q24.21 (CCDC26) and 11q23.3 (PHLDB1). The direction and magnitude of the signal were consistent for samples from cohort and case-control studies, but the strength of the association was more pronounced for loci rs6010620 (20q,13.33; RTEL) and rs2736100 (5p15.33, TERT) in cohort studies despite the smaller number of cases in this group, likely due to relatively more higher grade tumors being captured in the cohort studies. We further examined the 85 most promising single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers identified in our study in three replication sets (5,015 cases and 11,601 controls), but no new markers reached genome-wide significance. Our findings suggest that larger studies focusing on novel approaches as well as specific tumor subtypes or subgroups will be required to identify additional common susceptibility loci for glioma risk.
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5.
  • Amirian, E. Susan, et al. (författare)
  • The Glioma International Case-Control Study : A Report From the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 183:2, s. 85-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen collection. To our knowledge, the GICC Study is the largest glioma study to date that includes collection of blood samples, which will allow for genetic analysis and interrogation of gene-environment interactions.
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6.
  • Andersson, A., et al. (författare)
  • Public support for healthcare-mediated disclosure of hereditary cancer risk information: Results from a population-based survey in Sweden
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice. - : Springer Nature. - 1731-2302 .- 1897-4287. ; 18:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Targeted surveillance of at-risk individuals in families with increased risk of hereditary cancer is an effective prevention strategy if relatives are identified, informed and enrolled in screening programs. Despite the potential benefits, many eligible at-risk relatives remain uninformed of their cancer risk. This study describes the general public's opinion on disclosure of hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) risk information, as well as preferences on the source and the mode of information. Methods A random sample of the general public was assessed through a Swedish citizen web-panel. Respondents were presented with scenarios of being an at-risk relative in a family that had an estimated increased hereditary risk of CRC; either 10% (moderate) or 70% (high) lifetime risk. A colonoscopy was presented as a preventive measure. Results were analysed to identify significant differences between groups using the Pearson's chi-square (chi(2)) test. Results Of 1800 invited participants, 977 completed the survey (54%). In the moderate and high-risk scenarios, 89.2 and 90.6% respectively, would like to receive information about a potential hereditary risk of CRC (chi 2,p = .755). The desire to be informed was higher among women (91.5%) than men (87.0%, chi 2,p = .044). No significant differences were found when comparing different age groups, educational levels, place of residence and having children or not. The preferred source of risk information was a healthcare professional in both moderate and high-risk scenarios (80.1 and 75.5%). However, 18.1 and 20.1% respectively would prefer to be informed by a family member. Assuming that healthcare professionals disclosed the information, the favoured mode of information was letter and phone (38.4 and 33.2%). Conclusions In this study a majority of respondents wanted to be informed about a potential hereditary risk of CRC and preferred healthcare professionals to communicate this information. The two presented levels of CRC lifetime risk did not significantly affect the interest in being informed. Our data offer insights into the needs and preferences of the Swedish population, providing a rationale for developing complementary healthcare-assisted communication pathways to realise the full potential of targeted prevention of hereditary CRC.
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7.
  • Antoniou, A. C., et al. (författare)
  • Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers : Implications for risk prediction
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 70:23, s. 9742-9754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11, and rs10941679 at 5p12, and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18, P = 0.006 and HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19, P = 0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 carriers, and rs6504950 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the 9 polymorphisms investigated, 7 were associated with breast cancer for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, P = 7 × 10-11 - 0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (P = 0.0049, 0.03, respectively). All risk-associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the 7 risk-associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e., between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing breast cancer by age 80, compared with 42% to 50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences might be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers.
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8.
  • Berntsson, Shala G., et al. (författare)
  • Glioma-related seizures in relation to histopathological subtypes : a report from the glioma international case-control study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology. - : Springer. - 0340-5354 .- 1432-1459. ; 265:6, s. 1432-1442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of glioma-related seizures and seizure control at the time of tumor diagnosis with respect to tumor histologic subtypes, tumor treatment and patient characteristics, and to compare seizure history preceding tumor diagnosis (or study enrollment) between glioma patients and healthy controls.Methods: The Glioma International Case Control study (GICC) risk factor questionnaire collected information on demographics, past medical/medication history, and occupational history. Cases from eight centers were also asked detailed questions on seizures in relation to glioma diagnosis; cases (n = 4533) and controls (n = 4171) were also asked about seizures less than 2 years from diagnosis and previous seizure history more than 2 years prior to tumor diagnosis, including childhood seizures.Results: Low-grade gliomas (LGGs), particularly oligodendrogliomas/oligoastrocytomas, had the highest proportion of glioma-related seizures. Patients with low-grade astrocytoma demonstrated the most medically refractory seizures. A total of 83% of patients were using only one antiepileptic drug (AED), which was levetiracetam in 71% of cases. Gross total resection was strongly associated with reduced seizure frequency (p < 0.009). No significant difference was found between glioma cases and controls in terms of seizure occurring more than 2 years before diagnosis or during childhood.Conclusions: Our study showed that glioma-related seizures were most common in low-grade gliomas. Gross total resection was associated with lower seizure frequency. Additionally, having a history of childhood seizures is not a risk factor ***for developing glioma-related seizures or glioma.
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9.
  • Jakubowska, A., et al. (författare)
  • Association of PHB 1630 C > T and MTHFR 677 C > T polymorphisms with breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers: results from a multicenter study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1532-1827 .- 0007-0920. ; 106:12, s. 2016-2024
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The variable penetrance of breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers suggests that other genetic or environmental factors modify breast cancer risk. Two genes of special interest are prohibitin (PHB) and methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), both of which are important either directly or indirectly in maintaining genomic integrity. METHODS: To evaluate the potential role of genetic variants within PHB and MTHFR in breast and ovarian cancer risk, 4102 BRCA1 and 2093 BRCA2 mutation carriers, and 6211 BRCA1 and 2902 BRCA2 carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (CIMBA) were genotyped for the PHB 1630 C>T (rs6917) polymorphism and the MTHFR 677 C>T (rs1801133) polymorphism, respectively. RESULTS: There was no evidence of association between the PHB 1630 C>T and MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphisms with either disease for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers when breast and ovarian cancer associations were evaluated separately. Analysis that evaluated associations for breast and ovarian cancer simultaneously showed some evidence that BRCA1 mutation carriers who had the rare homozygote genotype (TT) of the PHB 1630 C>T polymorphism were at increased risk of both breast and ovarian cancer (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.10-2.04 and HR 2.16, 95% CI 1.24-3.76, respectively). However, there was no evidence of association under a multiplicative model for the effect of each minor allele. CONCLUSION: The PHB 1630TT genotype may modify breast and ovarian cancer risks in BRCA1 mutation carriers. This association need to be evaluated in larger series of BRCA1 mutation carriers. British Journal of Cancer (2012) 106, 2016-2024. doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.160 www.bjcancer.com Published online 15 May 2012 (C) 2012 Cancer Research UK
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10.
  • Lagerstedt-Robinson, K., et al. (författare)
  • Mismatch repair gene mutation spectrum in the Swedish Lynch syndrome population
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Oncology Reports. - : SPANDIDOS PUBL LTD. - 1021-335X .- 1791-2431. ; 36:5, s. 2823-2835
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lynch syndrome caused by constitutional mismatch-repair defects is one of the most common hereditary cancer syndromes with a high risk for colorectal, endometrial, ovarian and urothelial cancer. Lynch syndrome is caused by mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes i.e., MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. After 20 years of genetic counseling and genetic testing for Lynch syndrome, we have compiled the mutation spectrum in Sweden with the aim to provide a population-based perspective on the contribution from the different MMR genes, the various types of mutations and the influence from founder mutations. Mutation data were collected on a national basis from all laboratories involved in genetic testing. Mutation analyses were performed using mainly Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. A total of 201 unique disease-predisposing MMR gene mutations were identified in 369 Lynch syndrome families. These mutations affected MLH1 in 40%, MSH2 in 36%, MSH6 in 18% and PMS2 in 6% of the families. A large variety of mutations were identified with splice site mutations being the most common mutation type in MLH1 and frameshift mutations predominating in MSH2 and MSH6. Large deletions of one or several exons accounted for 21% of the mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 and 22% in PMS2, but were rare (4%) in MSH6. In 66% of the Lynch syndrome families the variants identified were private and the effect from founder mutations was limited and predominantly related to a Finnish founder mutation that accounted for 15% of the families with mutations in MLH1. In conclusion, the Swedish Lynch syndrome mutation spectrum is diverse with private MMR gene mutations in two-thirds of the families, has a significant contribution from internationally recognized mutations and a limited effect from founder mutations.
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