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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Mendez Michelle) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Mendez Michelle)

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  • Ademuyiwa, Adesoji O., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ Global Health. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2059-7908. ; 1:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally.Methods: Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression.Results: This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed.Conclusions: Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas.
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  • Pedersen, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Birth Weight, Head Circumference, and Prenatal Exposure to Acrylamide from Maternal Diet : The European Prospective Mother-Child Study (NewGeneris)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 120:12, s. 1739-1745
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother child study. METHODS: Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide were measured in cord blood (reflecting cumulated exposure in the last months of pregnancy) from 1,101 singleton pregnant women recruited in Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain during 2006-2010. Maternal diet was estimated through food-frequency questionnaires. RESULTS: Both acrylamide and glycidamide Hb adducts were associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth weight and head circumference. The estimated difference in birth weight for infants in the highest versus lowest quartile of acrylamide Hb adduct levels after adjusting for gestational age and country was -132 g (95% CI: -207, -56); the corresponding difference for head circumference was -0.33 cm (95% CI: -0.61, -0.06). Findings were similar in infants of nonsmokers, were consistent across countries, and remained after adjustment for Factors associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal consumption of foods rich in acrylamide, such as fried potatoes, was associated with cord blood acrylamide adduct levels and with reduced birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary exposure to acrylamide was associated with reduced birth weight and head circumference. Consumption of specific foods during pregnancy was associated with higher acrylamide exposure in utero. IF confirmed, these findings suggest that dietary intake of acrylamide should be reduced among pregnant women.
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  • Pedersen, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Bulky DNA Adducts in Cord Blood, Maternal Fruit-and-Vegetable Consumption, and Birth Weight in a European Mother-Child Study (NewGeneris)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 121:10, s. 1200-1206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Tobacco-smoke, airborne, and dietary exposures to polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been associated with reduced prenatal growth. Evidence from -biomarker-based studies of low-exposed populations is limited. Bulky DNA adducts in cord blood reflect the prenatal effective dose to several genotoxic agents including PAHs. Objectives: We estimated the association between bulky DNA adduct levels and birth weight in a multicenter study and examined modification of this association by maternal intake of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy. Methods: Pregnant women from Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain were recruited in 2006-2010. Adduct levels were measured by the 32P-postlabeling technique in white blood cells from 229 mothers and 612 newborns. Maternal diet was examined through questionnaires. Results: Adduct levels in maternal and cord blood samples were similar and positively correlated (median, 12.1 vs. 11.4 adducts in 108 nucleotides; Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.66, p < 0.001). Cord blood adduct levels were negatively associated with birth weight, with an estimated difference in mean birth weight of -129 g (95% CI: -233, -25 g) for infants in the highest versus lowest tertile of adducts. The negative association with birth weight was limited to births in Norway, Denmark, and England, the countries with the lowest adduct levels, and was more pronounced in births to mothers with low intake of fruits and vegetables (-248 g; 95% CI: -405, -92 g) compared with those with high intake (-58 g; 95% CI: -206, 90 g). Conclusions: Maternal exposure to genotoxic agents that induce the formation of bulky DNA adducts may affect intrauterine growth. Maternal fruit and vegetable consumption may be protective.
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  • Duarte-Salles, Talita, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary Acrylamide Intake during Pregnancy and Fetal Growth-Results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 121:3, s. 374-379
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Acrylamide has shown developmental and reproductive toxicity in animals, as well as neurotoxic effects in humans with occupational exposures. Because it is widespread in food and can pass through the human placenta, concerns have been raised about potential developmental effects of dietary exposures in humans. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations of prenatal exposure to dietary acrylamide with small for gestational age (SGA) and birth weight. METHODS: This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Acrylamide exposure assessment was based on intake estimates obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which were compared with hemoglobin (Hb) adduct measurements reflecting acrylamide exposure in a subset of samples (n = 79). Data on infant birth weight and gestational age were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Multivariable regression was used to estimate associations between prenatal acrylamide and birth outcomes. RESULTS: Acrylamide intake during pregnancy was negatively associated with fetal growth. When women in the highest quartile of acrylamide intake were compared with women in the lowest quartile, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for SGA was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.21) and the coefficient for birth weight was -25.7 g (95% CI: -35.9, -15.4). Results were similar after excluding mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Maternal acrylamide-and glycidamide-Hb adduct levels were correlated with estimated dietary acrylamide intakes (Spearman correlations = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.44; and 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.63, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Lowering dietary acrylamide intake during pregnancy may improve fetal growth.
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  • Friedenreich, Christine, et al. (författare)
  • Anthropometric factors and risk of endometrial cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer. - 1573-7225 .- 0957-5243. ; 18:4, s. 399-413
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To examine the association between anthropometry and endometrial cancer, particularly by menopausal status and exogenous hormone use subgroups. Methods Among 223,008 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, there were 567 incident endometrial cancer cases during 6.4 years of follow-up. The analysis was performed with Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were strongly associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer. The relative risk (RR) for obese (BMI 30- < 40 kg/m(2)) compared to normal weight (BMI < 25) women was 1.78, 95% CI = 1.41-2.26, and for morbidly obese women (BMI >= 40) was 3.02, 95% CI = 1.66-5.52. The RR for women with a waist circumference of >= 88 cm vs. < 80 cm was 1.76, 95% CI = 1.42-2.19. Adult weight gain of >= 20 kg compared with stable weight (+/- 3 kg) increased risk independent of body weight at age 20 (RR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.11-2.77). These associations were generally stronger for postmenopausal than premenopausal women, and oral contraceptives never-users than ever-users, and much stronger among never-users of hormone replacement therapy compared to ever-users. Conclusion Obesity, abdominal adiposity, and adult weight gain were strongly associated with endometrial cancer risk. These associations were particularly evident among never-users of hormone replacement therapy.
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  • Friedenreich, Christine, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity and risk of colon and rectal cancers: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755. ; 15:12, s. 2398-2407
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated several aspects of the role of physical activity in colon and rectal cancer etiology that remain unclear in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer. This cohort of 413,044 men and women had 1,094 cases of colon and 599 cases of rectal cancer diagnosed during an average of 6.4 years of follow-up. We analyzed baseline data on occupational, household, and recreational activity to examine associations by type of activity, tumor subsite, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake. The multivariate hazard ratio for colon cancer was 0.78 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.59-1.03] among the most active participants when compared with the inactive, with evidence of a dose-response effect (P-trend = 0.04). For right-sided colon tumors, the risk was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.43-1.00) in the highest quartile of activity with evidence of a linear trend (P-trend=0.004). Active participants with a BMI under 25 had a risk of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.39-1.01) for colon cancer compared with the inactive. Finally, an interaction between BMI and activity (P-interaction=0.03) was observed for right-sided colon cancers; among moderately active and active participants with a BMI under 25, a risk of 0.38 (95% CI, 0.21-0.68) was found as compared with inactive participants with BMI > 30. No comparable decreased risks were observed for rectal cancer for any type of physical activity for any subgroup analyses or interactions considered. We found that physical activity reduced colon cancer risk, specifically for right-sided tumors and for lean participants, but not rectal cancer.
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  • Friedenreich, Christine, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity and risk of endometrial cancer: The European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 121:2, s. 347-355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The etiologic role of physical activity in endometrial cancer risk remains unclear given the few epidemiologic studies that have been conducted. To investigate this relation more fully, an analysis was,undertaken in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). During an average 6.6 years of follow-up, 689 incident endometrial cancer cases were identified from an analytic cohort within EPIC of 253,023 women. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the associations between type of activity (total, occupational, household, recreational) and endometrial cancer risk. For total activity, women in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of activity had a risk of 0.88 (95% confidence interval (95% CI = 0.61-1.27). No clear associations between each type of activity and endometrial cancer risk were found for the total study population combined. Associations were more evident in the stratified results, with premenopausal women who were active versus inactive experiencing a risk of 0.66 (95% CI = 0.38-1.14) overall. Among premenopausal women, for household and recreational activities the risk estimates in the highest as compared with the lowest quartiles were, respectively, 0.48 (95% CI = 0.23-0.99) and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.44-1.39). No effect modification by body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptive use or energy intake was found. This study provides no evidence of a protective effect of increased physical activity in endometrial cancer risk in all women but some support for a benefit among premenopausal women. The relative risk reductions are most apparent for household activities.
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