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1.
  • Blomberg, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Bimetallic nanoparticles as a model system for an industrial NiMo catalyst
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Materials. - : MDPI AG. - 1996-1944 .- 1996-1944. ; 12:22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An in-depth understanding of the reactionmechanismis required for the further development of Mo-based catalysts for biobased feedstocks. However, fundamental studies of industrial catalysts are challenging, and simplified systems are often used without direct comparison to their industrial counterparts. Here, we report on size-selected bimetallic NiMo nanoparticles as a candidate for a model catalyst that is directly compared to the industrial system to evaluate their industrial relevance. Both the nanoparticles and industrial supported NiMo catalysts were characterized using surface- and bulk-sensitive techniques. We found that the active Ni and Mo metals in the industrial catalyst are well dispersed and well mixed on the support, and that the interaction between Ni and Mo promotes the reduction of the Mo oxide. We successfully produced 25 nm NiMo alloyed nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. Characterization of the nanoparticles showed that they have a metallic core with a native oxide shell with a high potential for use as a model system for fundamental studies of hydrotreating catalysts for biobased feedstocks. © 2019 by the authors.
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2.
  • Hamed, Tareq Abu, et al. (författare)
  • Multiscale in modelling and validation for solar photovoltaics
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: EPJ Photovoltaics. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1099-159X. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Photovoltaics is amongst the most important technologies for renewable energy sources, and plays a key role in the development of a society with a smaller environmental footprint. Key parameters for solar cells are their energy conversion efficiency, their operating lifetime, and the cost of the energy obtained from a photovoltaic system compared to other sources. The optimization of these aspects involves the exploitation of new materials and development of novel solar cell concepts and designs. Both theoretical modeling and characterization of such devices require a comprehensive view including all scales from the atomic to the macroscopic and industrial scale. The different length scales of the electronic and optical degrees of freedoms specifically lead to an intrinsic need for multiscale simulation, which is accentuated in many advanced photovoltaics concepts including nanostructured regions. Therefore, multiscale modeling has found particular interest in the photovoltaics community, as a tool to advance the field beyond its current limits. In this article, we review the field of multiscale techniques applied to photovoltaics, and we discuss opportunities and remaining challenges.
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3.
  • Jain, Vishal, et al. (författare)
  • Study of photocurrent generation in InP nanowire-based p(+)-i-n(+) photodetectors
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nano Reseach. - Beijing & Berlin/Heidelberg : Springer. - 1998-0124 .- 1998-0000. ; 7:4, s. 544-552
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on electrical and optical properties of p(+)-i-n(+)photodetectors/solar cells based on square millimeter arrays of InP nanowires (NWs) grown on InP substrates. The study includes a sample series where the p(+)-segment length was varied between 0 and 250 nm, as well as solar cells with 9.3% efficiency with similar design. The electrical data for all devices display clear rectifying behavior with an ideality factor between 1.8 and 2.5 at 300 K. From spectrally resolved photocurrent measurements, we conclude that the photocurrent generation process depends strongly on the p(+)-segment length. Without a p(+)-segment, photogenerated carriers funneled from the substrate into the NWs contribute strongly to the photocurrent. Adding a p(+)-segment decouples the substrate and shifts the depletion region, and collection of photogenerated carriers, to the NWs, in agreement with theoretical modeling. In optimized solar cells, clear spectral signatures of interband transitions in the zinc blende and wurtzite InP layers of the mixed-phase i-segments are observed. Complementary electroluminescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as measurements of the dependence of the photocurrent on angle of incidence and polarization, support our interpretations.
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4.
  • Pfeiffer, Tobias V., et al. (författare)
  • Precursor-Less Coating of Nanoparticles in the Gas Phase
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Materials. - : MDPI AG. - 1996-1944. ; 8:3, s. 1027-1042
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article introduces a continuous, gas-phase method for depositing thin metallic coatings onto (nano)particles using a type of physical vapor deposition (PVD) at ambient pressure and temperature. An aerosol of core particles is mixed with a metal vapor cloud formed by spark ablation by passing the aerosol through the spark zone using a hollow electrode configuration. The mixing process rapidly quenches the vapor, which condenses onto the core particles at a timescale of several tens of milliseconds in a manner that can be modeled as bimodal coagulation. Gold was deposited onto core nanoparticles consisting of silver or polystyrene latex, and silver was deposited onto gold nanoparticles. The coating morphology depends on the relative surface energies of the core and coating materials, similar to the growth mechanisms known for thin films: a coating made of a substance having a high surface energy typically results in a patchy coverage, while a coating material with a low surface energy will normally "wet" the surface of a core particle. The coated particles remain gas-borne, allowing further processing.
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5.
  • Svensson, C. R., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of an air–liquid interface toxicological set-up using Cu, Pd, and Ag well-characterized nanostructured aggregates and spheres
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of nanoparticle research. - : Springer Netherlands. - 1388-0764 .- 1572-896X. ; 18:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systems for studying the toxicity of metal aggregates on the airways are normally not suited for evaluating the effects of individual particle characteristics. This study validates a set-up for toxicological studies of metal aggregates using an air–liquid interface approach. The set-up used a spark discharge generator capable of generating aerosol metal aggregate particles and sintered near spheres. The set-up also contained an exposure chamber, The Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity (NACIVT). The system facilitates online characterization capabilities of mass mobility, mass concentration, and number size distribution to determine the exposure. By dilution, the desired exposure level was controlled. Primary and cancerous airway cells were exposed to copper (Cu), palladium (Pd), and silver (Ag) aggregates, 50–150 nm in median diameter. The aggregates were composed of primary particles <10 nm in diameter. For Cu and Pd, an exposure of sintered aerosol particles was also produced. The doses of the particles were expressed as particle numbers, masses, and surface areas. For the Cu, Pd, and Ag aerosol particles, a range of mass surface concentrations on the air–liquid interface of 0.4–10.7, 0.9–46.6, and 0.1–1.4 µg/cm2, respectively, were achieved. Viability was measured by WST-1 assay, cytokines (Il-6, Il-8, TNF-a, MCP) by Luminex technology. Statistically significant effects and dose response on cytokine expression were observed for SAEC cells after exposure to Cu, Pd, or Ag particles. Also, a positive dose response was observed for SAEC viability after Cu exposure. For A549 cells, statistically significant effects on viability were observed after exposure to Cu and Pd particles. The set-up produced a stable flow of aerosol particles with an exposure and dose expressed in terms of number, mass, and surface area. Exposure-related effects on the airway cellular models could be asserted.
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6.
  • Bertram, Florian, et al. (författare)
  • In situ anodization of aluminum surfaces studied by x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Applied Physics Reviews. - : American Institute of Physics (AIP). - 1931-9401. ; 116:3, s. 034902-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present results from the anodization of an aluminum single crystal [Al(111)] and an aluminum alloy [Al 6060] studied by in situ x-ray reflectivity, in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and ex situ scanning electron microscopy. For both samples, a linear increase of oxide film thickness with increasing anodization voltage was found. However, the slope is much higher in the single crystal case, and the break-up of the oxide film grown on the alloy occurs at a lower anodization potential than on the single crystal. The reasons for these observations are discussed as are the measured differences observed for x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. (C) 2014 Author(s).
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7.
  • Blomberg, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Generation and oxidation of aerosol deposited PdAg nanoparticles
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Surface Science. - : Elsevier. - 0039-6028. ; 616, s. 186-191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PdAg nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm have been generated by an aerosol particle method, and supported on a silica substrate. By using a combination of X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy it is shown that the size distribution of the particles is narrow and that the two metals form an alloy with a mixture of 75% Pd and 25% Ag. Under oxidizing conditions, Pd is found to segregate to the surface and a thin PdO like oxide is formed similar to the surface oxide previously reported on extended PdAg and pure Pd surfaces. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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10.
  • Hedmer, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure and Emission Measurements During Production, Purification, and Functionalization of Arc-Discharge-Produced Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene. - : Oxford University Press. - 1475-3162. ; 58:3, s. 355-379
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The production and use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is rapidly growing. With increased production, there is potential that the number of occupational exposed workers will rapidly increase. Toxicological studies on rats have shown effects in the lungs, e.g. inflammation, granuloma formation, and fibrosis after repeated inhalation exposure to some forms of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs). Still, when it comes to health effects, it is unknown which dose metric is most relevant. Limited exposure data for CNTs exist today and no legally enforced occupational exposure limits are yet established. The aim of this work was to quantify the occupational exposures and emissions during arc discharge production, purification, and functionalization of MWCNTs. The CNT material handled typically had a mean length <5 μm. Since most of the collected airborne CNTs did not fulfil the World Health Organization fibre dimensions (79% of the counted CNT-containing particles) and since no microscopy-based method for counting of CNTs exists, we decided to count all particle that contained CNTs. To investigate correlations between the used exposure metrics, Pearson correlation coefficient was used.
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