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Sökning: WFRF:(Morbidelli Alessandro)

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1.
  • Bitsch, Bertram, et al. (författare)
  • Formation of planetary systems by pebble accretion and migration : Growth of gas giants
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361. ; 623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Giant planets migrate though the protoplanetary disc as they grow their solid core and attract their gaseous envelope. Previously, we have studied the growth and migration of an isolated planet in an evolving disc. Here, we generalise such models to include the mutual gravitational interaction between a high number of growing planetary bodies. We have investigated how the formation of planetary systems depends on the radial flux of pebbles through the protoplanetary disc and on the planet migration rate. Our N-body simulations confirm previous findings that Jupiter-like planets in orbits outside the water ice line originate from embryos starting out at 20-40 AU when using nominal type-I and type-II migration rates and a pebble flux of approximately 100-200 Earth masses per million years, enough to grow Jupiter within the lifetime of the solar nebula. The planetary embryos placed up to 30 AU migrate into the inner system (r P < 1AU). There they form super-Earths or hot and warm gas giants, producing systems that are inconsistent with the configuration of the solar system, but consistent with some exoplanetary systems. We also explored slower migration rates which allow the formation of gas giants from embryos originating from the 5-10 AU region, which are stranded exterior to 1 AU at the end of the gas-disc phase. These giant planets can also form in discs with lower pebbles fluxes (50-100 Earth masses per Myr). We identify a pebble flux threshold below which migration dominates and moves the planetary core to the inner disc, where the pebble isolation mass is too low for the planet to accrete gas efficiently. In our model, giant planet growth requires a sufficiently high pebble flux to enable growth to out-compete migration. An even higher pebble flux produces systems with multiple gas giants. We show that planetary embryos starting interior to 5 AU do not grow into gas giants, even if migration is slow and the pebble flux is large. These embryos instead grow to just a few Earth masses, the mass regime of super-Earths. This stunted growth is caused by the low pebble isolation mass in the inner disc and is therefore independent of the pebble flux. Additionally, we show that the long-term evolution of our formed planetary systems can naturally produce systems with inner super-Earths and outer gas giants as well as systems of giant planets on very eccentric orbits.
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2.
  • Bitsch, Bertram, et al. (författare)
  • Pebble-isolation mass : Scaling law and implications for the formation of super-Earths and gas giants
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361. ; 612
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The growth of a planetary core by pebble accretion stops at the so-called pebble isolation mass, when the core generates a pressure bump that traps drifting pebbles outside its orbit. The value of the pebble isolation mass is crucial in determining the final planet mass. If the isolation mass is very low, gas accretion is protracted and the planet remains at a few Earth masses with a mainly solid composition. For higher values of the pebble isolation mass, the planet might be able to accrete gas from the protoplanetary disc and grow into a gas giant. Previous works have determined a scaling of the pebble isolation mass with cube of the disc aspect ratio. Here, we expand on previous measurements and explore the dependency of the pebble isolation mass on all relevant parameters of the protoplanetary disc. We use 3D hydrodynamical simulations to measure the pebble isolation mass and derive a simple scaling law that captures the dependence on the local disc structure and the turbulent viscosity parameter α. We find that small pebbles, coupled to the gas, with Stokes number τ f < 0.005 can drift through the partial gap at pebble isolation mass. However, as the planetary mass increases, particles must be decreasingly smaller to penetrate the pressure bump. Turbulent diffusion of particles, however, can lead to an increase of the pebble isolation mass by a factor of two, depending on the strength of the background viscosity and on the pebble size. We finally explore the implications of the new scaling law of the pebble isolation mass on the formation of planetary systems by numerically integrating the growth and migration pathways of planets in evolving protoplanetary discs. Compared to models neglecting the dependence of the pebble isolation mass on the α-viscosity, our models including this effect result in higher core masses for giant planets. These higher core masses are more similar to the core masses of the giant planets in the solar system.
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5.
  • Bitsch, Bertram, et al. (författare)
  • The structure of protoplanetary discs around evolving young stars
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy & Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361. ; 575
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The formation of planets with gaseous envelopes takes place in protoplanetary accretion discs on time scales of several million years. Small dust particles stick to each other to form pebbles, pebbles concentrate in the turbulent flow to form planetesimals and planetary embryos and grow to planets, which undergo substantial radial migration. All these processes are influenced by the underlying structure of the protoplanetary disc, specifically the profiles of temperature, gas scale height, and density. The commonly used disc structure of the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN) is a simple power law in all these quantities. However, protoplanetary disc models with both viscous and stellar heating show several bumps and dips in temperature, scale height, and density caused by transitions in opacity, which are missing in the MMSN model. These play an important role in the formation of planets, since they can act as sweet spots for forming planetesimals via the streaming instability and affect the direction and magnitude of type-I migration. We present 2D simulations of accretion discs that feature radiative cooling and viscous and stellar heating, and they are linked to the observed evolutionary stages of protoplanetary discs and their host stars. These models allow us to identify preferred planetesimal and planet formation regions in the protoplanetary disc as a function of the disc's metallicity, accretion rate, and lifetime. We derive simple fitting formulae that feature all structural characteristics of protoplanetary discs during the evolution of several Myr. These fits are straightforward for applying to modelling any growth stage of planets where detailed knowledge of the underlying disc structure is required.
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6.
  • Bolin, Bryce T., et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of the Nucleus, Morphology, and Activity of Interstellar Comet 2I/Borisov by Optical and Near-infrared GROWTH, Apache Point, IRTF, ZTF, and Keck Observations
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 160:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present visible and near-infrared (NIR) photometric and spectroscopic observations of interstellar object (ISO) 2I/Borisov taken from 2019 September 10 to 2019 December 20 using the GROWTH, the Apache Point Observatory Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m, and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility 3.0 m combined with pre- and postdiscovery observations of 2I obtained by the Zwicky Transient Facility from 2019 March 17 to 2019 May 5. Comparison with imaging of distant solar system comets shows an object very similar to mildly active solar system comets with an outgassing rate of similar to 10(27)mol s(-1). The photometry, taken in filters spanning the visible and NIR range, shows a gradual brightening trend of similar to 0.03 mag day(-1)since 2019 September 10 UTC for a reddish object becoming neutral in the NIR. The light curve from recent and prediscovery data reveals a brightness trend suggesting the recent onset of significant H2O sublimation with the comet being active with super volatiles such as CO at heliocentric distances >6 au consistent with its extended morphology. Using the advanced capability to significantly reduce the scattered light from the coma enabled by high-resolution NIR images from Keck adaptive optics taken on 2019 October 4, we estimate a diameter for 2I's nucleus of less than or similar to 1.4 km. We use the size estimates of 1I/'Oumuamua and 2I/Borisov to roughly estimate the slope of the ISO size distribution, resulting in a slope of similar to 3.4 1.2, similar to solar system comets and bodies produced from collisional equilibrium.
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7.
  • Izidoro, Andre, et al. (författare)
  • Breaking the chains : Hot super-Earth systems from migration and disruption of compact resonant chains
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - : Oxford University Press. - 0035-8711. ; 470:2, s. 1750-1770
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 'Hot super-Earths' (or 'mini-Neptunes') between one and four times Earth's size with period shorter than 100 d orbit 30-50 per cent of Sun-like stars. Their orbital configuration - measured as the period ratio distribution of adjacent planets in multiplanet systems - is a strong constraint for formation models. Here, we use N-body simulations with synthetic forces from an underlying evolving gaseous disc to model the formation and long-term dynamical evolution of super-Earth systems. While the gas disc is present, planetary embryos grow and migrate inward to form a resonant chain anchored at the inner edge of the disc. These resonant chains are far more compact than the observed super-Earth systems. Once the gas dissipates, resonant chains may become dynamically unstable. They undergo a phase of giant impacts that spreads the systems out. Disc turbulence has no measurable effect on the outcome. Our simulations match observations if a small fraction of resonant chains remain stable, while most super- Earths undergo a late dynamical instability. Our statistical analysis restricts the contribution of stable systems to less than 25 per cent. Our results also suggest that the large fraction of observed single-planet systems does not necessarily imply any dichotomy in the architecture of planetary systems. Finally, we use the low abundance of resonances in Kepler data to argue that, in reality, the survival of resonant chains happens likely only in ~5 per cent of the cases. This leads to a mystery: in our simulations only 50-60 per cent of resonant chains became unstable, whereas at least 75 per cent (and probably 90-95 per cent) must be unstable to match observations.
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8.
  • Izidoro, Andre, et al. (författare)
  • Formation of planetary systems by pebble accretion and migration : Hot super-Earth systems from breaking compact resonant chains
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361. ; 650
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • At least 30% of main sequence stars host planets with sizes of between 1 and 4 Earth radii and orbital periods of less than 100 days.We use N-body simulations including a model for gas-assisted pebble accretion and disk–planet tidal interaction to study the formation of super-Earth systems.We show that the integrated pebble mass reservoir creates a bifurcation between hot super-Earths or hot-Neptunes (.15M) and super-massive planetary cores potentially able to become gas giant planets (&15M). Simulations with moderate pebble fluxes grow multiple super-Earth-mass planets that migrate inwards and pile up at the inner edge of the disk forming long resonant chains. We follow the long-term dynamical evolution of these systems and use the period ratio distribution of observed planet-pairs to constrain our model. Up to 95% of resonant chains become dynamically unstable after the gas disk dispersal, leading to a phase of late collisions that breaks the original resonant configurations. Our simulations naturally match observations when they produce a dominant fraction (&95%) of unstable systems with a sprinkling (.5%) of stable resonant chains (the Trappist-1 system represents one such example). Our results demonstrate that super-Earth systems are inherently multiple (N-2) and that the observed excess of single-planet transits is a consequence of the mutual inclinations excited by the planet–planet instability. In simulations in which planetary seeds are initially distributed in the inner and outer disk, close-in super-Earths are systematically ice rich. This contrasts with the interpretation that most super-Earths are rocky based on bulk-density measurements of super-Earths and photo-evaporation modeling of their bimodal radius distribution.We investigate the conditions needed to form rocky super-Earths. The formation of rocky super-Earths requires special circumstances, such as far more efficient planetesimal formation well inside the snow line, or much faster planetary growth by pebble accretion in the inner disk. Intriguingly, the necessary conditions to match the bulk of hot super-Earths are at odds with the conditions needed to match the Solar System.
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9.
  • Kraus, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Planet Formation Imager (PFI) : Science vision and key requirements
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Optical and Infrared Interferometry and Imaging V. - : SPIE. - 9781510601932 ; 9907
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Planet Formation Imager (PFI) project aims to provide a strong scientific vision for ground-based optical astronomy beyond the upcoming generation of Extremely Large Telescopes. We make the case that a breakthrough in angular resolution imaging capabilities is required in order to unravel the processes involved in planet formation. PFI will be optimised to provide a complete census of the protoplanet population at all stellocentric radii and over the age range from 0.1 to ∼100 Myr. Within this age period, planetary systems undergo dramatic changes and the final architecture of planetary systems is determined. Our goal is to study the planetary birth on the natural spatial scale where the material is assembled, which is the "Hill Sphere" of the forming planet, and to characterise the protoplanetary cores by measuring their masses and physical properties. Our science working group has investigated the observational characteristics of these young protoplanets as well as the migration mechanisms that might alter the system architecture. We simulated the imprints that the planets leave in the disk and study how PFI could revolutionise areas ranging from exoplanet to extragalactic science. In this contribution we outline the key science drivers of PFI and discuss the requirements that will guide the technology choices, the site selection, and potential science/technology tradeoffs.
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10.
  • Lambrechts, Michiel, et al. (författare)
  • Formation of planetary systems by pebble accretion and migration : How the radial pebble flux determines a terrestrial-planet or super-Earth growth mode
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361. ; 627
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Super-Earths - planets with sizes between the Earth and Neptune - are found in tighter orbits than that of the Earth around more than one third of main sequence stars. It has been proposed that super-Earths are scaled-up terrestrial planets that also formed similarly, through mutual accretion of planetary embryos, but in discs much denser than the solar protoplanetary disc. We argue instead that terrestrial planets and super-Earths have two clearly distinct formation pathways that are regulated by the pebble reservoir of the disc. Through numerical integrations, which combine pebble accretion and N-body gravity between embryos, we show that a difference of a factor of two in the pebble mass flux is enough to change the evolution from the terrestrial to the super-Earth growth mode. If the pebble mass flux is small, then the initial embryos within the ice line grow slowly and do not migrate substantially, resulting in a widely spaced population of approximately Mars-mass embryos when the gas disc dissipates. Subsequently, without gas being present, the embryos become unstable due to mutual gravitational interactions and a small number of terrestrial planets are formed by mutual collisions. The final terrestrial planets are at most five Earth masses. Instead, if the pebble mass flux is high, then the initial embryos within the ice line rapidly become sufficiently massive to migrate through the gas disc. Embryos concentrate at the inner edge of the disc and growth accelerates through mutual merging. This leads to the formation of a system of closely spaced super-Earths in the five to twenty Earth-mass range, bounded by the pebble isolation mass. Generally, instabilities of these super-Earth systems after the disappearance of the gas disc trigger additional merging events and dislodge the system from resonant chains. Therefore, the key difference between the two growth modes is whether embryos grow fast enough to undergo significant migration. The terrestrial growth mode produces small rocky planets on wider orbits like those in the solar system whereas the super-Earth growth mode produces planets in short-period orbits inside 1 AU, with masses larger than the Earth that should be surrounded by a primordial H/He atmosphere, unless subsequently lost by stellar irradiation. The pebble flux - which controls the transition between the two growth modes - may be regulated by the initial reservoir of solids in the disc or the presence of more distant giant planets that can halt the radial flow of pebbles.
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