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Sökning: WFRF:(Morse Michael)

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1.
  • Alimena, Juliette, et al. (författare)
  • Searching for long-lived particles beyond the Standard Model at the Large Hadron Collider
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics G. - : Institute of Physics (IOP). - 0954-3899 .- 1361-6471. ; 47:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Particles beyond the Standard Model (SM) can generically have lifetimes that are long compared to SM particles at the weak scale. When produced at experiments such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, these long-lived particles (LLPs) can decay far from the interaction vertex of the primary proton-proton collision. Such LLP signatures are distinct from those of promptly decaying particles that are targeted by the majority of searches for new physics at the LHC, often requiring customized techniques to identify, for example, significantly displaced decay vertices, tracks with atypical properties, and short track segments. Given their non-standard nature, a comprehensive overview of LLP signatures at the LHC is beneficial to ensure that possible avenues of the discovery of new physics are not overlooked. Here we report on the joint work of a community of theorists and experimentalists with the ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb experiments-as well as those working on dedicated experiments such as MoEDAL, milliQan, MATHUSLA, CODEX-b, and FASER-to survey the current state of LLP searches at the LHC, and to chart a path for the development of LLP searches into the future, both in the upcoming Run 3 and at the high-luminosity LHC. The work is organized around the current and future potential capabilities of LHC experiments to generally discover new LLPs, and takes a signature-based approach to surveying classes of models that give rise to LLPs rather than emphasizing any particular theory motivation. We develop a set of simplified models; assess the coverage of current searches; document known, often unexpected backgrounds; explore the capabilities of proposed detector upgrades; provide recommendations for the presentation of search results; and look towards the newest frontiers, namely high-multiplicity 'dark showers', highlighting opportunities for expanding the LHC reach for these signals.
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2.
  • Boutet, S., et al. (författare)
  • High-Resolution Protein Structure Determination by Serial Femtosecond Crystallography
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 337:6092, s. 362-364
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules.
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4.
  • Adrian-Martinez, S., et al. (författare)
  • The First Combined Search For Neutrino Point-Sources In The Southern Hemisphere With The Antares And Icecube Neutrino Telescopes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 823:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the results of searches for point-like sources of neutrinos based on the first combined analysis of data from both the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes. The combination of both detectors, which differ in size and location, forms a window in the southern sky where the sensitivity to point sources improves by up to a factor of 2 compared with individual analyses. Using data recorded by ANTARES from 2007 to 2012, and by IceCube from 2008 to 2011, we search for sources of neutrino emission both across the southern sky and from a preselected list of candidate objects. No significant excess over background has been found in these searches, and flux upper limits for the candidate sources are presented for E-2.5 and E-2 power-law spectra with different energy cut-offs.
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5.
  • Buchhave, Lars A., et al. (författare)
  • An abundance of small exoplanets around stars with a wide range of metallicities
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 486:7403, s. 375-377
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The abundance of heavy elements (metallicity) in the photospheres of stars similar to the Sun provides a 'fossil' record of the chemical composition of the initial protoplanetary disk. Metal-rich stars are much more likely to harbour gas giant planets(1-4), supporting the model that planets form by accumulation of dust and ice particles(5). Recent ground-based surveys suggest that this correlation is weakened for Neptunian-sized planets(4,6-9). However, how the relationship between size and metallicity extends into the regime of terrestrial-sized exoplanets is unknown. Here we report spectroscopic metallicities of the host stars of 226 small exoplanet candidates discovered by NASA's Kepler mission(10), including objects that are comparable in size to the terrestrial planets in the Solar System. We find that planets with radii less than four Earth radii form around host stars with a wide range of metallicities (but on average a metallicity close to that of the Sun), whereas large planets preferentially form around stars with higher metallicities. This observation suggests that terrestrial planets may be widespread in the disk of the Galaxy, with no special requirement of enhanced metallicity for their formation.
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6.
  • Lin, Wei-Chen, et al. (författare)
  • Dynamical analysis of attractor behavior in constant roll inflation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. - 1475-7516 .- 1475-7516. ; :9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There has been considerable recent interest in a new class of non-slow roll inflationary solutions known as constant roll inflation. Constant roll solutions are a generalization of the ultra-slow roll (USR) solution, where the first Hubble slow roll parameter epsilon is small, but the second Hubble slow roll parameter eta is not. While it is known that the USR solutions represent dynamical transients, there has been some disagreement in literature about whether or not large-eta constant roll solutions are attractors or are also a class of transient solutions. In this paper we show that the large-eta constant roll solutions do in fact represent transient solutions by performing stability analysis on the exact analytic (large-eta) constant roll solutions.
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7.
  • Nobre, Liana, et al. (författare)
  • Outcomes of BRAF V600E pediatric gliomas treated with targeted BRAF inhibition
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JCO Precision Oncology. - 2473-4284. ; 3, s. 561-571
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2020 by American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE Children with pediatric gliomas harboring a BRAF V600E mutation have poor outcomes with current chemoradiotherapy strategies. Our aim was to study the role of targeted BRAF inhibition in these tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS We collected clinical, imaging, molecular, and outcome information from patients with BRAF V600E–mutated glioma treated with BRAF inhibition across 29 centers from multiple countries. RESULTS Sixty-seven patients were treated with BRAF inhibition (pediatric low-grade gliomas [PLGGs], n = 56; pediatric high-grade gliomas [PHGGs], n = 11) for up to 5.6 years. Objective responses were observed in 80% of PLGGs, compared with 28% observed with conventional chemotherapy (P, .001). These responses were rapid (median, 4 months) and sustained in 86% of tumors up to 5 years while receiving therapy. After discontinuation of BRAF inhibition, 76.5% (13 of 17) of patients with PLGG experienced rapid progression (median, 2.3 months). However, upon rechallenge with BRAF inhibition, 90% achieved an objective response. Poor prognostic factors in conventional therapies, such as concomitant homozygous deletion of CDKN2A, were not associated with lack of response to BRAF inhibition. In contrast, only 36% of those with PHGG responded to BRAF inhibition, with all but one tumor progressing within 18 months. In PLGG, responses translated to 3-year progression-free survival of 49.6% (95% CI, 35.3% to 69.5%) versus 29.8% (95% CI, 20% to 44.4%) for BRAF inhibition versus chemotherapy, respectively (P = .02). CONCLUSION Use of BRAF inhibition results in robust and durable responses in BRAF V600E–mutated PLGG. Prospective studies are required to determine long-term survival and functional outcomes with BRAF inhibitor therapy in childhood gliomas.
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8.
  • Smith, Nathan, et al. (författare)
  • Kinematics and Ultraviolet to Infrared Morphology of the Inner Homunculus of η Carinae
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X. ; 605:1, s. 405-424
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first ultraviolet and optical images of η Car and itscircumstellar Homunculus nebula, obtained with the Advanced Camera forSurveys/High Resolution Camera (ACS/HRC) on board the Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST). Compared to those at visual wavelengths, UV imagesreveal excess emission 0.1"-0.6" from the central source along the minoraxis that may emanate from the outer parts of η Car's nonsphericalstellar wind, which dominates the UV flux from η Car. The UVemission fills the cavity inside a dust torus measured from infrared(IR) data; within 0.2" of the star the UV emission projects a morphologyreminiscent of the IR torus, but it is a factor of 10 smaller. This``little torus'' seen in the UV may be related to the ``LittleHomunculus'' discovered recently, signifying recurrent mass ejectionswith the same geometry. Finally, we reexamine the kinematics of nebularcondensations near the star (Weigelt objects C and D) in HST images andspectra obtained over the past decade. We measure heliocentricvelocities slower than previous estimates, and from proper motions wederive an ejection date of 1908+/-12 yr, assuming linear motion.However, because of radiative acceleration, these objects may have beenejected earlier-perhaps during the 1890 outburst of η Car.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.
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9.
  • Strosberg, Jonathan, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of liver tumour burden, alkaline phosphatase elevation, and target lesion size on treatment outcomes with Lu-177-Dotatate : an analysis of the NETTER-1 study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : SPRINGER. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089. ; 47:10, s. 2372-2382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose To assess the impact of baseline liver tumour burden, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) elevation, and target lesion size on treatment outcomes with Lu-177-Dotatate. Methods In the phase 3 NETTER-1 trial, patients with advanced, progressive midgut neuroendocrine tumours (NET) were randomised to 177Lu-Dotatate (every 8 weeks, four cycles) plus octreotide long-acting release (LAR) or to octreotide LAR 60 mg. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Analyses of PFS by baseline factors, including liver tumour burden, ALP elevation, and target lesion size, were performed using Kaplan-Meier estimates; hazard ratios (HRs) with corresponding 95% CIs were estimated using Cox regression. Results Significantly prolonged median PFS occurred with Lu-177-Dotatate versus octreotide LAR 60 mg in patients with low (< 25%), moderate (25-50%), and high (> 50%) liver tumour burden (HR 0.187, 0.216, 0.145), and normal or elevated ALP (HR 0.153, 0.177), and in the presence or absence of a large target lesion (diameter > 30 mm; HR, 0.213, 0.063). Within the Lu-177-Dotatate arm, no significant difference in PFS was observed amongst patients with low/moderate/high liver tumour burden (P = 0.7225) or with normal/elevated baseline ALP (P = 0.3532), but absence of a large target lesion was associated with improved PFS (P = 0.0222). Grade 3 and 4 liver function abnormalities were rare and did not appear to be associated with high baseline liver tumour burden. Conclusions Lu-177-Dotatate demonstrated significant prolongation in PFS versus high-dose octreotide LAR in patients with advanced, progressive midgut NET, regardless of baseline liver tumour burden, elevated ALP, or the presence of a large target lesion. : NCT01578239, EudraCT: 2011-005049-11
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