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Sökning: WFRF:(Mzezewa Ropafadzo)

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1.
  • Puschmann, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Low prevalence of known pathogenic mutations in dominant PD genes: A Swedish multicenter study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 1353-8020 .- 1873-5126. ; 66, s. 158-165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019 The Authors Objective: To determine the frequency of mutations known to cause autosomal dominant Parkinson disease (PD) in a series with more than 10% of Sweden's estimated number of PD patients. Methods: The Swedish Parkinson Disease Genetics Network was formed as a national multicenter consortium of clinical researchers who together have access to DNA from a total of 2,206 PD patients; 85.4% were from population-based studies. Samples were analyzed centrally for known pathogenic mutations in SNCA (duplications/triplications, p.Ala30Pro, p.Ala53Thr) and LRRK2 (p.Asn1437His, p.Arg1441His, p.Tyr1699Cys, p.Gly2019Ser, p.Ile2020Thr). We compared the frequency of these mutations in Swedish patients with published PD series and the gnomAD database. Results: A family history of PD in first- and/or second-degree relatives was reported by 21.6% of participants. Twelve patients (0.54%) carried LRRK2 p.(Gly2019Ser) mutations, one patient (0.045%) an SNCA duplication. The frequency of LRRK2 p.(Gly2019Ser) carriers was 0.11% in a matched Swedish control cohort and a similar 0.098% in total gnomAD, but there was a marked difference between ethnicities in gnomAD, with 42-fold higher frequency among Ashkenazi Jews than all others combined. Conclusions: In relative terms, the LRRK2 p.(Gly2019Ser) variant is the most frequent mutation among Swedish or international PD patients, and in gnomAD. SNCA duplications were the second most common of the mutations examined. In absolute terms, however, these known pathogenic variants in dominant PD genes are generally very rare and can only explain a minute fraction of familial aggregation of PD. Additional genetic and environmental mechanisms may explain the frequent co-occurrence of PD in close relatives.
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2.
  • Rostami, Jinar, et al. (författare)
  • Astrocytes have the capacity to act as antigen-presenting cells in the Parkinson's disease brain
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuroinflammation. - 1742-2094 .- 1742-2094. ; 17:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundMany lines of evidence suggest that accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein (αSYN) in the Parkinson’s disease (PD) brain causes infiltration of T cells. However, in which ways the stationary brain cells interact with the T cells remain elusive. Here, we identify astrocytes as potential antigen-presenting cells capable of activating T cells in the PD brain. Astrocytes are a major component of the nervous system, and accumulating data indicate that astrocytes can play a central role during PD progression.MethodsTo investigate the role of astrocytes in antigen presentation and T-cell activation in the PD brain, we analyzed post mortem brain tissue from PD patients and controls. Moreover, we studied the capacity of cultured human astrocytes and adult human microglia to act as professional antigen-presenting cells following exposure to preformed αSYN fibrils.ResultsOur analysis of post mortem brain tissue demonstrated that PD patients express high levels of MHC-II, which correlated with the load of pathological, phosphorylated αSYN. Interestingly, a very high proportion of the MHC-II co-localized with astrocytic markers. Importantly, we found both perivascular and infiltrated CD4+ T cells to be surrounded by MHC-II expressing astrocytes, confirming an astrocyte T cell cross-talk in the PD brain. Moreover, we showed that αSYN accumulation in cultured human astrocytes triggered surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules critical for T-cell activation, while cultured human microglia displayed very poor antigen presentation capacity. Notably, intercellular transfer of αSYN/MHC-II deposits occurred between astrocytes via tunneling nanotubes, indicating spreading of inflammation in addition to toxic protein aggregates.ConclusionsIn conclusion, our data from histology and cell culture studies suggest an important role for astrocytes in antigen presentation and T-cell activation in the PD brain, highlighting astrocytes as a promising therapeutic target in the context of chronic inflammation.
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