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Sökning: WFRF:(Nabholz Benoit)

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1.
  • Clement, Yves, et al. (författare)
  • Evolutionary forces affecting synonymous variations in plant genomes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 13:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Base composition is highly variable among and within plant genomes, especially at third codon positions, ranging from GC-poor and homogeneous species to GC-rich and highly heterogeneous ones (particularly Monocots). Consequently, synonymous codon usage is biased in most species, even when base composition is relatively homogeneous. The causes of these variations are still under debate, with three main forces being possibly involved: mutational bias, selection and GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC). So far, both selection and gBGC have been detected in some species but how their relative strength varies among and within species remains unclear. Population genetics approaches allow to jointly estimating the intensity of selection, gBGC and mutational bias. We extended a recently developed method and applied it to a large population genomic dataset based on transcriptome sequencing of 11 angiosperm species spread across the phylogeny. We found that at synonymous positions, base composition is far from mutation-drift equilibrium in most genomes and that gBGC is a widespread and stronger process than selection. gBGC could strongly contribute to base composition variation among plant species, implying that it should be taken into account in plant genome analyses, especially for GC-rich ones.
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2.
  • Figuet, Emeric, et al. (författare)
  • Life History Traits, Protein Evolution, and the Nearly Neutral Theory in Amniotes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - 0737-4038 .- 1537-1719. ; 33:6, s. 1517-1527
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that small populations should accumulate deleterious mutations at a faster rate than large populations. The analysis of nonsynonymous (dN) versus synonymous (dS) substitution rates in birds versus mammals, however, has provided contradictory results, questioning the generality of the nearly neutral theory. Here we analyzed the impact of life history traits, taken as proxies of the effective population size, on molecular evolutionary and population genetic processes in amniotes, including the so far neglected reptiles. We report a strong effect of species body mass, longevity, and age of sexual maturity on genome-wide patterns of polymorphism and divergence across the major groups of amniotes, in agreement with the nearly neutral theory. Our results indicate that the rate of protein evolution in amniotes is determined in the first place by the efficiency of purifying selection against deleterious mutations-and this is true of both radical and conservative amino acid changes. Interestingly, the among-species distribution of dN/dS in birds did not follow this general trend: dN/dS was not higher in large, long-lived than in small, short-lived species of birds. We show that this unexpected pattern is not due to a more narrow range of life history traits, a lack of correlation between traits and Ne, or a peculiar distribution of fitness effects of mutations in birds. Our analysis therefore highlights the bird dN/dS ratio as a molecular evolutionary paradox and a challenge for future research.
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3.
  • Galtier, N., et al. (författare)
  • Mitochondrial DNA as a marker of molecular diversity : a reappraisal
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Molecular Ecology. - 0962-1083 .- 1365-294X. ; 18:22, s. 4541-4550
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Over the last three decades, mitochondrial DNA has been the most popular marker of molecular diversity, for a combination of technical ease-of-use considerations, and supposed biological and evolutionary properties of clonality, near-neutrality and clock-like nature of its substitution rate. Reviewing recent literature on the subject, we argue that mitochondrial DNA is not always clonal, far from neutrally evolving and certainly not clock-like, questioning its relevance as a witness of recent species and population history. We critically evaluate the usage of mitochondrial DNA for species delineation and identification. Finally, we note the great potential of accumulating mtDNA data for evolutionary and functional analysis of the mitochondrial genome.
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4.
  • Jarvis, Erich D., et al. (författare)
  • Phylogenomic analyses data of the avian phylogenomics project
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: GigaScience. - 2047-217X .- 2047-217X. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Determining the evolutionary relationships among the major lineages of extant birds has been one of the biggest challenges in systematic biology. To address this challenge, we assembled or collected the genomes of 48 avian species spanning most orders of birds, including all Neognathae and two of the five Palaeognathae orders. We used these genomes to construct a genome-scale avian phylogenetic tree and perform comparative genomic analyses. Findings: Here we present the datasets associated with the phylogenomic analyses, which include sequence alignment files consisting of nucleotides, amino acids, indels, and transposable elements, as well as tree files containing gene trees and species trees. Inferring an accurate phylogeny required generating: 1) A well annotated data set across species based on genome synteny; 2) Alignments with unaligned or incorrectly overaligned sequences filtered out; and 3) Diverse data sets, including genes and their inferred trees, indels, and transposable elements. Our total evidence nucleotide tree (TENT) data set (consisting of exons, introns, and UCEs) gave what we consider our most reliable species tree when using the concatenation-based ExaML algorithm or when using statistical binning with the coalescence-based MP-EST algorithm (which we refer to as MP-EST*). Other data sets, such as the coding sequence of some exons, revealed other properties of genome evolution, namely convergence. Conclusions: The Avian Phylogenomics Project is the largest vertebrate phylogenomics project to date that we are aware of. The sequence, alignment, and tree data are expected to accelerate analyses in phylogenomics and other related areas.
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5.
  • Jarvis, Erich D., et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 346:6215, s. 1320-1331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in Neoaves, two groups we named Passerea and Columbea, representing independent lineages of diverse and convergently evolved land and water bird species. Among Passerea, we infer the common ancestor of core landbirds to have been an apex predator and confirm independent gains of vocal learning. Among Columbea, we identify pigeons and flamingoes as belonging to sister clades. Even with whole genomes, some of the earliest branches in Neoaves proved challenging to resolve, which was best explained by massive protein-coding sequence convergence and high levels of incomplete lineage sorting that occurred during a rapid radiation after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event about 66 million years ago.
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6.
  • Künstner, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Evolutionary Constraint in Flanking Regions of Avian Genes
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - 0737-4038 .- 1537-1719. ; 28:9, s. 2481-2489
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An important comprehension from comparative genomic analysis is that sequence conservation beyond neutral expectations is frequently found outside protein-coding regions, indicating important functional roles of noncoding DNA. Understanding the causes of constraint on noncoding sequence evolution forms an important area of research, not least in light of the importance for understanding the evolution of gene expression. We aligned all orthologous genes of chicken and zebra finch together with 5 kb of their upstream and downstream noncoding sequences, to study the evolution of gene flanking sequences in the avian genome. Using ancestral repeats as a neutral reference, we detected significant evolutionary constraint in the 3' flanking region, highest directly after termination (60%) and then gradually decreasing to about 20% 5 kb downstream. Constraint was higher in annotated 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) than in non-UTRs at the same distance from the stop codon and higher in sequences annotated as microRNA (miRNA)-binding sites than in non-miRNA-binding sites within 3' UTRs. Constraint was also higher when estimated for a smaller data set of genes from more closely related songbird species, indicating turnover of functional elements during avian evolution. On the 5' flanking side constraint was readily seen within the first 125 bp immediately upstream of the start codon (34%) and was about 10% for remaining sequence within 5 kb upstream. Analysis of chicken polymorphism data gave further support for the highest constraint directly before and after the translated region. Finally, we found that genes evolving under the highest constraint measured by d(N)/d(S) also had the highest level of constraint in the 3' flanking region. This study broadens the insights into gene flanking sequence evolution by adding new findings from a vertebrate lineage other than mammals.
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7.
  • Künstner, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Significant Selective Constraint at 4-Fold Degenerate Sites in the Avian Genome and Its Consequence for Detection of Positive Selection
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology and Evolution. - 1759-6653 .- 1759-6653. ; 3, s. 1381-1389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A major conclusion from comparative genomics is that many sequences that do not code for proteins are conserved beyond neutral expectations, indicating that they evolve under the influence of purifying selection and are likely to have functional roles. Due to the degeneracy of the genetic code, synonymous sites within protein-coding genes have previously been seen as "silent" with respect to function and thereby invisible to selection. However, there are indications that synonymous sites of vertebrate genomes are also subject to selection and this is not necessarily because of potential codon bias. We used divergence in ancestral repeats as a neutral reference to estimate the constraint on 4-fold degenerate sites of avian genes in a whole-genome approach. In the pairwise comparison of chicken and zebra finch, constraint was estimated at 24-32%. Based on three-species alignments of chicken, turkey, and zebra finch, lineage-specific estimates of constraint were 43%, 29%, and 24%, respectively. The finding of significant constraint at 4-fold degenerate sites from data on interspecific divergence was replicated in an analysis of intraspecific diversity in the chicken genome. These observations corroborate recent data from mammalian genomes and call for a reappraisal of the use of synonymous substitution rates as neutral standards in molecular evolutionary analysis, for example, in the use of the well-known d(N)/d(S) ratio and in inferences on positive selection. We show by simulations that the rate of false positives in the detection of positively selected genes and sites increases several-fold at the levels of constraint at 4-fold degenerate sites found in this study.
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8.
  • Mugal, Carina F., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide analysis in chicken reveals that local levels of genetic diversity are mainly governed by the rate of recombination
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - 1471-2164 .- 1471-2164. ; 14, s. 86-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Polymorphism is key to the evolutionary potential of populations. Understanding which factors shape levels of genetic diversity within genomes forms a central question in evolutionary genomics and is of importance for the possibility to infer episodes of adaptive evolution from signs of reduced diversity. There is an on-going debate on the relative role of mutation and selection in governing diversity levels. This question is also related to the role of recombination because recombination is expected to indirectly affect polymorphism via the efficacy of selection. Moreover, recombination might itself be mutagenic and thereby assert a direct effect on diversity levels. Results: We used whole-genome re-sequencing data from domestic chicken (broiler and layer breeds) and its wild ancestor (the red jungle fowl) to study the relationship between genetic diversity and several genomic parameters. We found that recombination rate had the largest effect on local levels of nucleotide diversity. The fact that divergence (a proxy for mutation rate) and recombination rate were negatively correlated argues against a mutagenic role of recombination. Furthermore, divergence had limited influence on polymorphism. Conclusions: Overall, our results are consistent with a selection model, in which regions within a short distance from loci under selection show reduced polymorphism levels. This conclusion lends further support from the observations of strong correlations between intergenic levels of diversity and diversity at synonymous as well as non-synonymous sites. Our results also demonstrate differences between the two domestic breeds and red jungle fowl, where the domestic breeds show a stronger relationship between intergenic diversity levels and diversity at synonymous and non-synonymous sites. This finding, together with overall lower diversity levels in domesticates compared to red jungle fowl, seem attributable to artificial selection during domestication.
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9.
  • Nabholz, Benoit, et al. (författare)
  • Dynamic Evolution of Base Composition : Causes and Consequences in Avian Phylogenomics
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - 0737-4038 .- 1537-1719. ; 28:8, s. 2197-2210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Resolving the phylogenetic relationships among birds is a classical problem in systematics, and this is particularly so when it comes to understanding the relationships among Neoaves. Previous phylogenetic inference of birds has been limited to mitochondrial genomes or a few nuclear genes. Here, we apply deep brain transcriptome sequencing of nine bird species (several passerines, hummingbirds, dove, parrot, and emu), using next-generation sequencing technology to understand features of transcriptome evolution in birds and how this affects phylogenetic inference, and combine with data from two bird species using first generation technology. The phylogenomic data matrix comprises 1,995 genes and a total of 0.77 Mb of exonic sequence. First, we find an unexpected heterogeneity in the evolution of base composition among avian lineages. There is a pronounced increase in guanine + cytosine (GC) content in the third codon position in several independent lineages, with the strongest effect seen in passerines. Second, we evaluate the effect of GC content variation on phylogenetic reconstruction. We find important inconsistencies between the topologies obtained with or without taking GC variation into account, each supporting different conclusions of past studies and also influencing hypotheses on the evolution of the trait of vocal learning. Third, we demonstrate a link between GC content evolution and recombination rate and, focusing on the zebra finch lineage, find that recombination seems to drive GC content. Although we cannot reveal the causal relationships, this observation is consistent with the model of GC-biased gene conversion. Finally, we use this unparalleled amount of avian sequence data to study the rate of molecular evolution, calibrated by fossil evidence and augmented with data from alligator transcriptome sequencing. There is a 2- to 3-fold variation in substitution rate among lineages with passerines being the most rapidly evolving and ratites the slowest. This study illustrates the potential of next-generation sequencing for phylogenomic studies but also the pitfalls when using genome-wide data with heterogeneous base composition.
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10.
  • Nabholz, Benoit, et al. (författare)
  • High Levels of Gene Expression Explain the Strong Evolutionary Constraint of Mitochondrial Protein-Coding Genes
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - 0737-4038 .- 1537-1719. ; 30:2, s. 272-284
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution has been widely accepted as the guiding principle for understanding how selection affects gene sequence evolution. One of its central predictions is that the rate at which proteins evolve should negatively scale with effective population size (N-e). In contrast to the expectation of reduced selective constraint in the mitochondrial genome following from its lower N-e, we observe what can be interpreted as the opposite: for a taxonomically diverse set of organisms (birds, mammals, insects, and nematodes), mitochondrially encoded protein-coding genes from the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (mtOXPHOS; n = 12-13) show markedly stronger signatures of purifying selection (illustrated by low d(N)/d(S)) than their nuclear counterparts interacting in the same pathway (nuOXPHOS; n: similar to 75). To understand these unexpected evolutionary dynamics, we consider a number of structural and functional parameters including gene expression, hydrophobicity, transmembrane position, gene ontology, GC content, substitution rate, proportion of amino acids in transmembrane helices, and protein-protein interaction. Across all taxa, unexpectedly large differences in gene expression levels (RNA-seq) between nuclear and mitochondrially encoded genes, and to a lower extent hydrophobicity, explained most of the variation in d(N)/d(S). Similarly, differences in d(N)/d(S) between functional OXPHOS protein complexes could largely be explained by gene expression differences. Overall, by including gene expression and other functional parameters, the unexpected mitochondrial evolutionary dynamics can be understood. Our results not only reaffirm the link between gene expression and protein evolution but also open new questions about the functional role of expression level variation between mitochondrial genes.
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