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Sökning: WFRF:(Neely Megan)

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1.
  • Alfredsson, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting the risk of bleeding during dual antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndromes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Heart. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1355-6037 .- 1468-201X. ; 103:15, s. 1168-1176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin + a P2Y12 inhibitor is recommended for at least 12 months for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), with shorter durations considered for patients with increased bleeding risk. However, there are no decision support tools available to predict an individual patients bleeding risk during DAPT treatment in the post-ACS setting. Methods To develop a longitudinal bleeding risk prediction model, we analysed 9240 patients with unstable angina/non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) from the Targeted Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes (TRILOGY ACS) trial, who were managed without revascularisation and treated with DAPT for a median of 14.8 months. Results We identified 10 significant baseline predictors of non-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-related Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries (GUSTO) severe/life-threatening/moderate bleeding: age, sex, weight, NSTEMI (vs unstable angina), angiography performed before randomisation, prior peptic ulcer disease, creatinine, systolic blood pressure, haemoglobin and treatment with beta-blocker. The five significant baseline predictors of Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major or minor bleeding included age, sex, angiography performed before randomisation, creatinine and haemoglobin. The models showed good predictive accuracy with Therneaus C-indices: 0.78 (SE=0.024) for the GUSTO model and 0.67 (SE=0.023) for the TIMI model. Internal validation with bootstrapping gave similar C-indices of 0.77 and 0.65, respectively. External validation demonstrated an attenuated C-index for the GUSTO model (0.69) but not the TIMI model (0.68). Conclusions Longitudinal bleeding risks during treatment with DAPT in patients with ACS can be reliably predicted using selected baseline characteristics. The TRILOGY ACS bleeding models can inform riskbenefit considerations regarding the duration of DAPT following ACS.
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2.
  • Gurbel, Paul A., et al. (författare)
  • Platelet Function During Extended Prasugrel and Clopidogrel Therapy for Patients With ACS Treated Without Revascularization The TRILOGY ACS Platelet Function Substudy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. - : American Medical Association. - 1538-3598. ; 308:17, s. 1785-1794
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context The relationship of platelet function testing measurements with outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) initially managed medically without revascularization is unknown. Objective To characterize the differences and evaluate clinical outcomes associated with platelet reactivity among patients with ACS treated with clopidogrel or prasugrel. Design, Setting, and Patients Patients with medically managed unstable angina or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were enrolled in the TRILOGY ACS trial (2008 to 2011) comparing clopidogrel vs prasugrel. Of 9326 participants, 27.5% were included in a platelet function substudy: 1286 treated with prasugrel and 1278 treated with clopidogrel. Interventions Aspirin with either prasugrel (10 or 5 mg/d) or clopidogrel (75 mg/d); those 75 years or older and younger than 75 years but who weighed less than 60 kg received a 5-mg prasugrel maintenance dose. Main Outcome Measures Platelet reactivity, measured in P2Y(12) reaction units (PRUs), was performed at baseline, at 2 hours, and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after randomization. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke through 30 months. Results Among participants younger than 75 years and weighing 60 kg or more, the median PRU values at 30 days were 64 (interquartile range [IQR], 33-128) in the prasugrel group vs 200 (IQR, 141-260) in the clopidogrel group (P<.001), a difference that persisted through all subsequent time points. For participants younger than 75 years and weighing less than 60 kg, the median 30-day PRU values were 139 (IQR, 86-203) for the prasugrel group vs 209 (IQR, 148-283) for the clopidogrel group (P<.001), and for participants 75 years or older, the median PRU values were 164 (IQR, 105-216) for the prasugrel group vs 222 (IQR, 148-268) for the clopidogrel group (P<.001). At 30 months the rate of the primary efficacy end point was 17.2% (160 events) in the prasugrel group vs 18.9% (180 events) in the clopidogrel group (P=.29). There were no significant differences in the continuous distributions of 30-day PRU values for participants with a primary efficacy end point event after 30 days (n=214) compared with participants without an event (n=1794; P=.07) and no significant relationship between the occurence of the primary efficacy end point and continuous PRU values (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for increase of 60 PRUs, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.96-1.11; P=.44). Similar findings were observed with 30-day PRU cut points used to define high on-treatment platelet reactivity-PRU more than 208 (adjusted HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.89-1.52, P=.28) and PRU more than 230 (adjusted HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.90-1.61; P=.21). Conclusions Among patients with ACS without ST-segment elevation and initially managed without revascularization, prasugrel was associated with lower platelet reactivity than clopidogrel, irrespective of age, weight, and dose. Among those in the platelet substudy, no significant differences existed between prasugrel vs clopidogrel in the occurence of the primary efficacy end point through 30 months and no significant association existed between platelet reactivity and occurrence of ischemic outcomes.
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3.
  • Chan, Mark Y., et al. (författare)
  • Temporal biomarker profiling reveals longitudinal changes in risk of death or myocardial infarction in Non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : American Association for Clinical Chemistry. - 0009-9147. ; 63:7, s. 1214-1226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: There are conflicting data on whether changes in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations between time points (delta NT-proBNP and hs-CRP) are associated with a change in prognosis. METHODS: We measured NT-proBNP and hs-CRP at 3 time points in 1665 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). Cox proportional hazards was applied to the delta between temporal measurements to determine the continuous association with cardiovascular events. Effect estimates for delta NT-proBNP and hs-CRP are presented per 40% increase as the basic unit of temporal change. RESULTS: Median NT-proBNP was 370.0 (25th, 75th percentiles, 130.0, 996.0), 340.0 (135.0, 875.0), and 267.0 (111.0, 684.0) ng/L; and median hs-CRP was 4.6 (1.7, 13.1), 1.9 (0.8, 4.5), and 1.8 (0.8, 4.4) mg/L at baseline, 30 days, and 6 months, respectively. The deltas between baseline and 6 months were the most prognostically informative. Every 40% increase of delta NTproBNP (baseline to 6 months) was associated with a 14% greater risk of cardiovascular death (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.14, 95% CI, 1.03-1.27) and with a 14% greater risk of all-cause death (adjusted HR 1.14, 95% CI, 1.04 -1.26), while every 40% increase of delta hs- CRP (baseline to 6 months) was associated with a 9% greater risk of the composite end point (adjusted HR 1.09, 95% CI, 1.02-1.17) and a 10% greater risk of myocardial infarction (adjusted HR 1.10, 95%, CI 1.00 -1.20). CONCLUSIONS: Temporal changes in NT-proBNP and hs-CRP are quantitatively associated with future cardiovascular events, supporting their role in dynamic risk stratification of NSTEACS.
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4.
  • Cornel, Jan H., et al. (författare)
  • Anticoagulant therapy and outcomes in patients with prior or acute heart failure and acute coronary syndromes : Insights from the APixaban for PRevention of Acute ISchemic Events 2 trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 169:4, s. 531-538
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Clinical outcomes and the effects of oral anticoagulants among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and either a history of or acute heart failure (HF) are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the relationship between prior HF or acute HF complicating an index ACS event and subsequent clinical outcomes and the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with placebo in these populations. Methods High-risk patients were randomly assigned post-ACS to apixaban 5.0 mg or placebo twice daily. Median follow-up was 8 (4-12) months. The primary outcome was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The main safety outcome was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding. Results Heart failure was reported in 2,995 patients (41%), either as prior HF (2,076 [28%]) or acute HF (2,028 [27%]). Patients with HF had a very high baseline risk and were more often managed medically. Heart failure was associated with a higher rate of the primary outcome (prior HF: adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.73, 95% CI 1.42-2.10, P < .0001, acute HF: adjusted HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.35-2.01, P < .0001) and cardiovascular death (prior HF: HR 2.54, 95% CI 1.82-3.54, acute HF: adjusted HR 2.52, 95% CI 1.82-3.50). Patients with acute HF also had significantly higher rates of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding (prior HF: adjusted HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.65-2.27, P = .54, acute HF: adjusted HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.03-3.08, P = .04). There was no statistical evidence of a differential effect of apixaban on clinical events or bleeding in patients with or without prior HF; however, among patients with acute HF, there were numerically fewer events with apixaban than placebo (14.8 vs 19.3, HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.57-1.01, interaction P = .13), a trend that was not seen in patients with prior HF or no HF. Conclusions In high-risk patients post-ACS, both prior and acute HFs are associated with an increased risk of subsequent clinical events. Apixaban did not significantly reduce clinical events and increased bleeding in patients with and without HF; however, there was a tendency toward fewer clinical events with apixaban in patients with acute HF.
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5.
  • Hagström, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Very Low Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Long-term Outcomes of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Treated Without Revascularization : Insights From the TRILOGY ACS Trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cardiology. - 0160-9289 .- 1932-8737. ; 39:6, s. 329-337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; < 40 mg/dL) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, but it is unclear whether lower thresholds (< 30 mg/dL) are associated with increased hazard.Hypothesis: Very low levels of HDL-C may provide prognostic information in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients treated medically without revascularization.Methods: We examined data from 9064/9326 ACS patients enrolled in the TRILOGY ACS trial. Participants were randomized to clopidogrel or prasugrel plus aspirin. Study treatments continued for 6 to 30 months. Relationships between baseline HDL-C and the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke, and individual endpoints of death (cardiovascular and all-cause), MI, and stroke, adjusted for baseline characteristics through 30 months, were analyzed. The HDL-C was evaluated as a dichotomous variable-very low (< 30 mg/dL) vs higher (>= 30 mg/dL)-and continuously.Results: Median baseline HDL-C was 42mg/dL (interquartile range, 34-49mg/dL) with little variation over time. Frequency of the composite endpoint was similar for very low vs higher baseline HDL-C, with no risk difference between groups (hazard ratio [ HR]: 1.13, 95% confidence interval [ CI]: 0.95-1.34). Similar findings were seen for MI and stroke. However, risks for cardiovascular (HR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.13-1.78) and all-cause death (HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.11-1.67) were higher in patients with very low baseline HDL-C.Conclusions: Medically managed ACS patients with very low baseline HDL-C levels have higher risk of long-term cardiovascular and all-cause death but similar risks for nonfatal ischemic outcomes vs patients with higher baseline HDL-C.
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6.
  • Hess, Connie N., et al. (författare)
  • Apixaban Plus Mono Versus Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Acute Coronary Syndromes Insights From the APPRAISE-2 Trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 66:7, s. 777-787
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Bleeding limits anticoagulant treatment in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). OBJECTIVES We investigated whether background concomitant antiplatelet therapy influences the effects of apixaban after ACS. METHODS This study examined high-risk ACS patients who were treated with aspirin or aspirin plus clopidogrel and who were randomized to apixaban 5 mg twice daily or placebo. In a post-hoc analysis, we assessed whether the effect of apixaban on efficacy and safety outcomes varied by the concomitant antiplatelet regimen by using simple Cox modeling and marginal structural models with propensity scores and antiplatelet therapy as a time-dependent covariate. RESULTS At baseline, of 7,364 patients, 16.3% (n = 1,202) were on aspirin alone, and 79.0% (n = 5,814) were on aspirin plus clopidogrel. A total of 19.2% (n = 1,415) switched antiplatelet therapy during follow-up. No differential effect of apixaban versus placebo was observed for the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke in patients taking aspirin (12.21 per 100 patient-years vs. 13.21 per 100 patient-years; adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62 to 1.32) or aspirin plus clopidogrel (13.22 vs. 14.24; adjusted HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.14; p(interaction) = 0.84). Compared with placebo, apixaban increased Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction major bleeding in patients taking aspirin (1.48 vs. 0.25; adjusted HR: 6.62; 95% CI: 0.75 to 51.73) and in patients taking aspirin plus clopidogrel (2.58 vs. 1.02; adjusted HR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.34 to 4.45; p(interaction) = 0.41). Similar results were obtained with marginal structural models and in patients treated with and without percutaneous coronary intervention. CONCLUSIONS Post-ACS treatment with apixaban versus placebo showed no efficacy, but it increased bleeding regardless of concomitant therapy with aspirin alone or aspirin plus clopidogrel. (Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic Events 2 [APPRAISE-2]; NCT00831441) (J Am Coll Cardiol 2015; 66: 777-87)
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7.
  • Hess, Connie N., et al. (författare)
  • Differential occurrence, profile, and impact of first recurrent cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 187, s. 194-203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) trials typically use a composite primary outcome (myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, or cardiovascular death), but differential patient characteristics, timing, and consequences associated with individual component end points as first events have not been well studied. We compared patient characteristics and prognostic significance associated with first cardiovascular events in the post-ACS setting for initially stabilized patients. Methods We combined patient-level data from 4 trials of post-ACS antithrombotic therapies (PLATO, APPRAISE-2, TRACER, and TRILOGY ACS) to characterize the timing of and characteristics associated with first cardiovascular events (MI, stroke, or cardiovascular death). Landmark analysis at 7 days after index ACS presentation was used to focus on spontaneous, postdischarge events that were not confounded by in-hospital procedural complications. Using a competing risk framework, we tested for differential associations between prespecified covariates and the occurrence of nonfatal stroke vs MI as the first event, and we examined subsequent events after the first nonfatal event. Results Among 46,694 patients with a median follow-up of 358 (25th, 75th percentiles 262, 486) days, a first ischemic event occurred in 4,307 patients (9.2%) as follows: MI in 5.8% (n = 2,690), stroke in 1.0% (n = 477), and cardiovascular death in 2.4% (n = 1,140). Older age, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack, prior atrial fibrillation, and higher diastolic blood pressure were associated with a significantly greater risk of stroke vs MI, whereas prior percutaneous coronary intervention was associated with a greater risk of MI vs stroke. Second events occurred in 32% of those with a first nonfatal stroke at a median of 13 (3, 59) days after the first event and in 32% of those with a first nonfatal MI at a median of 35 (5, 137) days after the first event. The most common second event was a recurrent MI among those with MI as the first event and cardiovascular death among those with stroke as the first event. Conclusions Approximately 9% of patients experienced a first cardiovascular event in the post-ACS setting during a median follow-up of 1 year. Although the profile and prognostic implications of stroke vs MI as the first nonfatal event differ substantially, approximately one-third of these patients experienced a second event, typically soon after the first event. These findings have implications for improving post-ACS care and influencing the design of future cardiovascular trials.
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8.
  • Khan, Razi, et al. (författare)
  • Characterising and predicting bleeding in high-risk patients with an acute coronary syndrome
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Heart. - 1355-6037 .- 1468-201X. ; 101:18, s. 1475-1484
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective In the Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic Events (APPRAISE-2) trial, the use of apixaban, when compared with placebo, in high-risk patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) resulted in a significant increase in bleeding without a reduction in ischaemic events. The aim of this analysis was to provide further description of these bleeding events and to determine the baseline characteristics associated with bleeding in high-risk post-ACS patients. Methods APPRAISE-2 was a multinational clinical trial including 7392 high-risk patients with a recent ACS randomised to apixaban (5 mg twice daily) or placebo. Bleeding including Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major or minor bleeding, International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) major or clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding, and any bleeding were analysed using an on-treatment analysis. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to describe the timing of bleeding, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify predictors of ISTH major or CRNM bleeding and any bleeding. Median follow-up was 241 days. Results The proportion of patients who experienced TIMI major or minor, ISTH major or CRNM, and any bleeding was 1.5%, 2.2% and 13.3%, respectively. The incidence of bleeding was highest in the immediate post-ACS period (0.11 in the first 30 days vs 0.03 after 30 days events per 1 patient-year); however, > 60% of major bleeding events occurred > 30 days after the end of the index hospitalisation. Gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common cause of major bleeding, accounting for 45.9% of TIMI major or minor and 39.5% of ISTH major or CRNM bleeding events. Independent predictors of ISTH major or CRNM bleeding events included older age, renal dysfunction, dual oral antiplatelet therapy, smoking history, increased white cell count and coronary revascularisation. Conclusions When compared with placebo, the use of apixaban is associated with an important short-term and long-term risk of bleeding in high-risk post-ACS patients, with gastrointestinal bleeding being the most common source of major bleeding. The baseline predictors of major bleeding appear to be consistent with those identified in lower-risk ACS populations with shorter-term follow-up.
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9.
  • Lowenstern, Angela, et al. (författare)
  • Platelet-related biomarkers and their response to inhibition with aspirin and p2y12-receptor antagonists in patients with acute coronary syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. - 0929-5305 .- 1573-742X. ; 44:2, s. 145-153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial showed that treatment with ticagrelor reduced the rate of death due to vascular causes, myocardial infarction and stroke when compared to clopidogrel in patients with ST-elevation or non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS). While the comparative benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel increased over time, event rates accrued in both groups during the study period. The purpose of our biomarker-based exploratory analysis was to determine whether long-term platelet inhibition may be associated with platelet adaptation. A sample of 4000 participants from the PLATO trial also consented to participate in a prospectively designed biomarker substudy. Blood samples were procured at baseline, immediately prior to hospital discharge and at 1 and 6 months. Markers of platelet activity, including platelet count, serum CD40-ligand and soluble P-selectin were analyzed. Mean levels were compared at discharge, 1 and 6 months following study drug initiation-first for all patients and subsequently stratified by treatment group. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the short-term change rate (baseline to 1 month) and long-term change rate (1-6 months) for each biomarker. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios for each change in biomarker over the two time periods examined: baseline to 1 month and 1 to 6 months. Prior to randomized treatment (baseline), sCD40 ligand and sP-selectin levels were elevated above the normal range of the assay (0.39 and 33.5 A μg/L, respectively). The mean level of each biomarker was significantly different at 1 month compared to baseline (p < 0.0001). When stratified by treatment group, at 1 month patients treated with ticagrelor had a larger increase in platelet count compared to those treated with clopidogrel (p < 0.0001). Similarly, when comparing biomarker levels for all patients at 6 months with those at 1 month, each differed significantly (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between treatment groups during this time period. The rate of change for both platelet count and sP-selectin were significantly different between baseline and 1 month when compared to the 1 to 6-month time period (p < 0.0001). When comparing treatment groups, the rate of increase in platelets from baseline to 1 month was greater for patients treated with ticagrelor (p < 0.0001). This was no longer observed in the 1 to 6-month interval. Using a Cox proportional hazard model, the increase in platelet count from 1 to 6 months was associated with ischemic-thrombotic events, while sCD40 ligand decrease from 1 to 6 months was associated with hemorrhagic events. There were no differences between treatment groups for the associations with clinical endpoints. Dynamic changes in platelet count, sCD-40 ligand and sP-selectin occur over time among patients with ACS. Platelet-directed therapy with a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor in combination with aspirin modestly impacts the expression of these biomarkers. Platelet count and sCD40 ligand may offer modest overall predictive value for future ischemic-thrombotic or hemorrhagic clinical events, respectively. The existence of a platelet adaptome and its overall clinical significance among patients at risk for thrombotic events will require a more in-depth and platelet-biology specific investigation.
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10.
  • Sharma, Abhinav, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical consequences of bleeding among individuals with a recent acute coronary syndrome : Insights from the APPRAISE-2 trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 215, s. 106-113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) receiving oral antiplatelets and anticoagulants are at risk for bleeding and subsequent adverse non-bleeding-related events. Methods In this post hoc analysis, we evaluated 7,392 high-risk patients (median follow-up 241 days) with a recent ACS randomized to apixaban or placebo in APPRAISE-2. Clinical events during a 30-day period after Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major/minor bleeding were analyzed using unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models. Results In total, 153 (2.1%) patients experienced TIMI major/minor bleeding during follow-up. Bleeding risk for patients on triple therapy (apixaban, thienopyridine, and aspirin) was increased compared with those on dual therapy (apixaban plus aspirin: hazard ratio [HR] 2.02, 95% CI 1.08-3.79; thienopyridine plus aspirin: HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.41-2.83). Those receiving apixaban/aspirin had similar bleeding risk compared with those receiving thienopyridine/aspirin (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.53-1.95). Patients who experienced TIMI major/minor bleeding had an increased risk of 30-day all-cause mortality (HR 24.7, 95% CI 15.34-39.66) and ischemic events (HR 6.7, 95% CI 3.14-14.14). Conclusions In a contemporary cohort of high-risk patients after ACS, bleeding was associated with a significantly increased risk of subsequent ischemic events and mortality regardless of antithrombotic or anticoagulant strategy. Patients receiving apixaban plus aspirin had a similar bleeding risk compared with those receiving thienopyridine plus aspirin. Interventions to improve outcomes in patients after ACS should include strategies to optimize the reduction in ischemic events while minimizing the risk of bleeding.
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