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Sökning: WFRF:(Nerg Ossi)

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  • Luikku, Antti J., et al. (författare)
  • Predicting Development of Alzheimer's Disease in Patients with Shunted Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 71:4, s. 1233-1243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients often develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) related brain pathology. Disease State Index (DSI) is a method to combine data from various sources for differential diagnosis and progression of neurodegenerative disorders.Objective: To apply DSI to predict clinical AD in shunted iNPH-patients in a defined population.Methods: 335 shunted iNPH-patients (median 74 years) were followed until death (n = 185) or 6/2015 (n = 150). DSI model (including symptom profile, onset age of NPH symptoms, atrophy of medial temporal lobe in CT/MRI, cortical brain biopsy finding, and APOE genotype) was applied. Performance of DSI model was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.Results: A total of 70 (21%) patients developed clinical AD during median follow-up of 5.3 years. DSI-model predicted clinical AD with moderate effectiveness (AUC= 0.75). Significant factors were cortical biopsy (0.69), clinical symptoms (0.66), and medial temporal lobe atrophy (0.66).Conclusion: We found increased occurrence of clinical AD in previously shunted iNPH patients as compared with general population. DSI supported the prediction of AD. Cortical biopsy during shunt insertion seems indicated for earlier diagnosis of comorbid AD.
  • Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid-beta and Tau Dynamics in Human Brain Interstitial Fluid in Patients with Suspected Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 46:1, s. 261-269
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Amyloid-beta (A beta(1-42)), total tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau (P-tau(181)) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are the most promising biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Still, little is known about the dynamics of these molecules in the living brain. In a transgenic mouse brain, soluble A beta decreases with increasing age and advanced A beta pathology as seen similarly in CSF. Objective: To assess the relationship between AD-related pathological changes in human brain tissue, ventricular and lumbar CSF, and brain interstitial fluid (ISF). Methods: Altogether 11 patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus underwent frontal cortical brain biopsy, 24-h intraventricular pressure monitoring, and a microdialysis procedure. AD-related biomarkers were analyzed from brain tissue, CSF, and ISF. Results: ISF T-tau levels decreased strongly within the first 12 h, then plateauing until the end of the experiment. A beta(1-42) and P-tau(181) remained stable during the experiment (n = 3). T-tau and P-tau were higher in the ISF than in ventricular or lumbar CSF, while A beta(1-42) levels were within similar range in both CSF and ISF samples. ISF P-tau correlated with the ventricular CSF T-tau (r = 0.70, p = 0.017) and P-tau(181) (r = 0.64, p = 0.034). Five patients with amyloid pathology in the brain biopsy tended to reveal lower ISF A beta(1-42) levels than those six without amyloid pathology. Conclusions: This is the first study to report ISF A beta and tau levels in the human brain without significant brain injury. The set-up used enables sampling from the brain ISF for at least 24 h without causing adverse effects due to the microdialysis procedure to follow the dynamics of the key molecules in AD pathogenesis in the living brain at various stages of the disease.
  • Luikku, Antti J., et al. (författare)
  • Multimodal analysis to predict shunt surgery outcome of 284 patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurochirurgica. - 0001-6268 .- 0942-0940. ; 158:12, s. 2311-2319
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Optimal selection of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients for shunt surgery is challenging. Disease State Index (DSI) is a statistical method that merges multimodal data to assist clinical decision-making. It has previously been shown to be useful in predicting progression in mild cognitive impairment and differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia. In this study, we use the DSI method to predict shunt surgery response for patients with iNPH. In this retrospective cohort study, a total of 284 patients (230 shunt responders and 54 non-responders) from the Kuopio NPH registry were analyzed with the DSI. Analysis included data from patients' memory disorder assessments, age, clinical symptoms, comorbidities, medications, frontal cortical biopsy, CT/MRI imaging (visual scoring of disproportion between Sylvian and suprasylvian subarachnoid spaces, atrophy of medial temporal lobe, superior medial subarachnoid spaces), APOE genotyping, CSF AD biomarkers, and intracranial pressure. Our analysis showed that shunt responders cannot be differentiated from non-responders reliably even with the large dataset available (AUC = 0.58). Prediction of the treatment response in iNPH is challenging even with our extensive dataset and refined analysis. Further research of biomarkers and indicators predicting shunt responsiveness is still needed.
  • Putaala, Jukka, et al. (författare)
  • Searching for Explanations for Cryptogenic Stroke in the Young: Revealing the Triggers, Causes, and Outcome (SECRETO): Rationale and design
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Stroke Journal. - : SAGE Publications. - 2396-9873. ; 2:2, s. 116-125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Worldwide, about 1.3 million annual ischaemic strokes (IS) occur in adults aged <50 years. Of theseearly-onset strokes, up to 50% can be regarded as cryptogenic or associated with conditions with poorly documented causality like patent foramen ovale and coagulopathies. Key hypotheses/aims: (1) Investigate transient triggers and clinical/sub-clinical chronic risk factors associated with cryptogenic IS in the young; (2) use cardiac imaging methods exceeding state-of-the-art to reveal novel sources for embolism; (3) search for covert thrombosis and haemostasis abnormalities; (4) discover new disease pathways using next-generation sequencing and RNA gene expression studies; (5) determine patient prognosis by use of phenotypic and genetic data; and (6) adapt systems medicine approach to investigate complex risk-factor interactions. Design: Searching for Explanations for Cryptogenic Stroke in the Young: Revealing the Etiology, Triggers, and Outcome (SECRETO; NCT01934725) is a prospective multi-centre case–control study enrolling patients aged 18–49 years hospitalised due to first-ever imaging-proven IS of undetermined etiology. Patients are examined according to a standardised protocol and followed up for 10 years. Patients are 1:1 age- and sex-matched to stroke-free controls. Key study elements include centralised reading of echocardiography, electrocardiography, and neurovascular imaging, as well as blood samples for genetic, gene-expression, thrombosis and haemostasis and biomarker analysis. We aim to have 600 patient–control pairs enrolled by the end of 2018. Summary: SECRETO is aiming to establish novel mechanisms and prognosis of cryptogenic IS in the young and will provide new directions for therapy development for these patients. First results are anticipated in 2019.
  • Pyykko, Okko T., et al. (författare)
  • Incidence, Comorbidities, and Mortality in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: World Neurosurgery. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1878-8750 .- 1878-8769. ; 112, s. E624-E631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECT: To investigate the incidence, comorbidities, mortality, and causes of death in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). METHODS: A cohort of 536 patients with possible NPH from a defined population with a median follow-up time of 5.1 years, (range 0.04-19.9 years) was included in the study. Patients were evaluated by brain imaging and intraventricular pressure monitoring, with a brain biopsy specimen immunostained against amyloid-beta and hyper-phosphorylated tau. Hospital records were reviewed for vascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Death certificates and yearly population of the catchment area were obtained from national registries. RESULTS: A total of 283 patients had a clinical diagnosis of iNPH, leading to a median annual incidence of 1.58 iNPH patients per 100,000 inhabitants (range, 0.8-4.5). Alzeimer disease-related brain biopsy findings were less frequent in iNPH patients than in non-iNPH patients (P < 0.05). An overrepresentation of hypertension (52% vs. 33%, P < 0.001) and T2DM (23% vs. 13%, P = 0.002) was noted in iNPH patients. Age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.04/year, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.06, P< 0.001) and T2DM (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.23-2.16, P < 0.001) increased the risk of death in the iNPH patients and in the total population. iNPH was associated with decreased risk of death (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.50-0.78, P < 0.001). The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Dementia as a cause of death was more common in non-iNPH patients (27% vs. 10%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension and T2DM are common in iNPH and the latter causes excess mortality in the affected patients.
  • Pyykkö, Okko T, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker and brain biopsy findings in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 9:3, s. e91974-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the role of soluble APP (sAPP) and amyloid beta (Ab) isoforms, proinflammatory cytokines, and biomarkers of neuronal damage in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in relation to brain biopsy Ab and hyperphosphorylated tau (HPt) findings. Methods: The study population comprised 102 patients with possible NPH with cortical brain biopsies, ventricular and lumbar CSF samples, and DNA available. The final clinical diagnoses were: 53 iNPH (91% shunt-responders), 26 AD (10 mixed iNPH+AD), and 23 others. Biopsy samples were immunostained against Ab and HPt. CSF levels of AD-related biomarkers (Ab42, p-tau, total tau), non-AD-related Ab isoforms (Ab38, Ab40), sAPP isoforms (sAPPa, sAPPb), proinflammatory cytokines (several interleukins (IL), interferon-gamma, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and biomarkers of neuronal damage (neurofilament light and myelin basic protein) were measured. All patients were genotyped for APOE. Results: Lumbar CSF levels of sAPP alpha were lower (p<0.05) in patients with shunt-responsive iNPH compared to non-iNPH patients. sAPPb showed a similar trend (p = 0.06). CSF sAPP isoform levels showed no association to Ab or HPt in the brain biopsy. Quantified Ab load in the brain biopsy showed a negative correlation with CSF levels of Ab42 in ventricular (r = 20.295, p = 0.003) and lumbar (r = 20.356, p = 0.01) samples, while the levels of Ab38 and Ab40 showed no correlation. CSF levels of proinflammatory cytokines and biomarkers of neuronal damage did not associate to the brain biopsy findings, diagnosis, or shunt response. Higher lumbar/ventricular CSF IL-8 ratios (p<0.001) were seen in lumbar samples collected after ventriculostomy compared to the samples collected before the procedure. Conclusions: The role of sAPP isoforms in iNPH seems to be independent from the amyloid cascade. No neuroinflammatory background was observed in iNPH or AD.
  • Rinne, Juha O., et al. (författare)
  • [C-11]PIB PET Is Associated with the Brain Biopsy Amyloid-beta Load in Subjects Examined for Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 67:4, s. 1343-1351
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is frequently associated with concomitant amyloid-beta (A beta) pathology. Objective: To compare the [C-11]PIB PET uptake in the patients with suspected iNPH to A beta and hyperphosphorylated-tau (HP tau) in the right frontal cortical biopsy, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) A beta, the response to a CSF shunt, and the final clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Patients (n = 21) from Kuopio NPH Registry (http://www.uef.fi/nph) with intraventricular pressure monitoring, immunostaining for A beta and HP tau in the right frontal cortical biopsies, and a Mini-Mental State Examination and a Clinical Dementia Rating underwent [C-1(1)]PIB PET. A beta, total tau, and P tau(181) were measured by ELISA from the ventricular (n= 15) and the lumbar (n = 9) CSF. Response to the shunt was seen in 13 out of the 15 shunted patients. AD was diagnosed in 8 patients during a median follow-up of 6 years (mean 7.3 +/- 2.4 years, range 3-1). Results: [C-11]PIB uptake in the right frontal cortex (rho = 0.60, p < 0.01) and the combined neocortical [C-11]PIB uptake score (rho = 0.61, p < 0.01) were associated with a higher A beta load in the right frontal cortical biopsy. Excluding one (1/15) outlier, [C-11]PIB uptake was also associated with the ventricular CSF A beta (rho = -0.58, p = 0.03). Conclusions: The findings show that [C-11]PIB PET can reliably detect simultaneous amyloid pathology among the iNPH patients. Further studies will show whether amyloid PET could predict a clinical response to the shunt operation. In addition, the presence of A beta pathology in the patients with iNPH might also warrant treatment with current AD drugs.
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