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Sökning: WFRF:(Nilbert M)

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1.
  • Lagerstedt-Robinson, K., et al. (författare)
  • Mismatch repair gene mutation spectrum in the Swedish Lynch syndrome population
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Oncology Reports. - : SPANDIDOS PUBL LTD. - 1021-335X .- 1791-2431. ; 36:5, s. 2823-2835
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lynch syndrome caused by constitutional mismatch-repair defects is one of the most common hereditary cancer syndromes with a high risk for colorectal, endometrial, ovarian and urothelial cancer. Lynch syndrome is caused by mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes i.e., MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. After 20 years of genetic counseling and genetic testing for Lynch syndrome, we have compiled the mutation spectrum in Sweden with the aim to provide a population-based perspective on the contribution from the different MMR genes, the various types of mutations and the influence from founder mutations. Mutation data were collected on a national basis from all laboratories involved in genetic testing. Mutation analyses were performed using mainly Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. A total of 201 unique disease-predisposing MMR gene mutations were identified in 369 Lynch syndrome families. These mutations affected MLH1 in 40%, MSH2 in 36%, MSH6 in 18% and PMS2 in 6% of the families. A large variety of mutations were identified with splice site mutations being the most common mutation type in MLH1 and frameshift mutations predominating in MSH2 and MSH6. Large deletions of one or several exons accounted for 21% of the mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 and 22% in PMS2, but were rare (4%) in MSH6. In 66% of the Lynch syndrome families the variants identified were private and the effect from founder mutations was limited and predominantly related to a Finnish founder mutation that accounted for 15% of the families with mutations in MLH1. In conclusion, the Swedish Lynch syndrome mutation spectrum is diverse with private MMR gene mutations in two-thirds of the families, has a significant contribution from internationally recognized mutations and a limited effect from founder mutations.
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2.
  • Clendenning, M, et al. (författare)
  • A frame-shift mutation of PMS2 is a widespread cause of Lynch syndrome
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 45:6, s. 340-345
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: When compared to the other mismatch repair genes involved in Lynch syndrome, the identification of mutations within PMS2 has been limited (<2% of all identified mutations), yet the immunohistochemical analysis of tumour samples indicates that approximately 5% of Lynch syndrome cases are caused by PMS2. This disparity is primarily due to complications in the study of this gene caused by interference from pseudogene sequences. Methods: Using a recently developed method for detecting PMS2 specific mutations, we have screened 99 patients who are likely candidates for PMS2 mutations based on immunohistochemical analysis. Results: We have identified a frequently occurring frame-shift mutation (c.736_741del 6ins11) in 12 ostensibly unrelated Lynch syndrome patients (20% of patients we have identified with a deleterious mutation in PMS2, n = 61). These individuals all display the rare allele (population frequency <0.05) at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 11, and have been shown to possess a short common haplotype, allowing us to calculate that the mutation arose around 1625 years ago (65 generations; 95% confidence interval 22 to 120). Conclusion: Ancestral analysis indicates that this mutation is enriched in individuals with British and Swedish ancestry. We estimate that there are >10 000 carriers of this mutation in the USA alone. The identification of both the mutation and the common haplotype in one Swedish control sample (n = 225), along with evidence that Lynch syndrome associated cancers are rarer than expected in the probands' families, would suggest that this is a prevalent mutation with reduced penetrance.
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3.
  • Nilbert, Mef, et al. (författare)
  • The power of empirical data; lessons from the clinical registry initiatives in Scandinavian cancer care
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0284-186X. ; 59:11, s. 1343-1356
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In Scandinavia, there is a strong tradition for research and quality monitoring based on registry data. In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 63 clinical registries collect data on disease characteristics, treatment and outcome of various cancer diagnoses and groups based on process-related and outcome-related variables. Aim: We describe the cancer-related clinical registries, compare organizational structures and quality indicators and provide examples of how these registries have been used to monitor clinical performance, develop prediction models, assess outcome and provide quality benchmarks. Further, we define unmet needs such as inclusion of patient-reported outcome variables, harmonization of variables and barriers for data sharing. Results and conclusions: The clinical registry framework provides an empirical basis for evidence-based development of high-quality and equitable cancer care. The registries can be used to follow implementation of new treatment principles and monitor patterns of care across geographical areas and patient groups. At the same time, the lessons learnt suggest that further developments and coordination are needed to utilize the full potential of the registry initiative in cancer care.
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4.
  • Rohlin, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Inactivation of promoter 1B of APC causes partial gene silencing: evidence for a significant role of the promoter in regulation and causative of familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Oncogene. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5594. ; 30:50, s. 4977-89
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Two promoters, 1A and 1B, have been recognized in APC, and 1B is thought to have a minor role in the regulation of the gene. We have identified a novel deletion encompassing half of this promoter in the largest family (Family 1) of the Swedish Polyposis Registry. The mutation leads to an imbalance in allele-specific expression of APC, and transcription from promoter 1B was highly impaired in both normal colorectal mucosa and blood from mutation carriers. To establish the significance of promoter 1B in normal colorectal mucosa (from controls), expression levels of specific transcripts from each of the promoters, 1A and 1B, were examined, and the expression from 1B was significantly higher compared with 1A. Significant amounts of transcripts generated from promoter 1B were also determined in a panel of 20 various normal tissues examined. In FAP-related tumors, the APC germline mutation is proposed to dictate the second hit. Mutations leaving two or three out of seven 20-amino-acid repeats in the central domain of APC intact seem to be required for tumorigenesis. We examined adenomas from mutation carriers in Family 1 for second hits in the entire gene without any findings, however, loss of the residual expression of the deleterious allele was observed. Three major conclusions of significant importance in relation to the function of APC can be drawn from this study; (i) germline inactivation of promoter 1B is disease causing in FAP; (ii) expression of transcripts from promoter 1B is generated at considerable higher levels compared with 1A, demonstrating a hitherto unknown importance of 1B; (iii) adenoma formation in FAP, caused by impaired function of promoter 1B, does not require homozygous inactivation of APC allowing for alternative genetic models as basis for adenoma formation.
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7.
  • von Salomé, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 13:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS) caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a large cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990–2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM–MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families) comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM) we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R) estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171), or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R) and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86). The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1 and MSH6 are smaller.
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8.
  • Brännström, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Multidisciplinary team conferences promote treatment according to guidelines in rectal cancer
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - : Informa Healthcare. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 54:4, s. 447-453
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Multidisciplinary team (MDT) conferences have been introduced into standard cancer care, though evidence that it benefits the patient is weak. We used the national Swedish Rectal Cancer Register to evaluate predictors for case discussion at a MDT conference and its impact on treatment.Material and methods. Of the 6760 patients diagnosed with rectal cancer in Sweden between 2007 and 2010, 78% were evaluated at a MDT. Factors that influenced whether a patient was discussed at a preoperative MDT conference were evaluated in 4883 patients, and the impact of MDT evaluation on the implementation of preoperative radiotherapy was evaluated in 1043 patients with pT3c-pT4 M0 tumours, and in 1991 patients with pN+ M0 tumours.Results. Hospital volume, i.e. the number of rectal cancer surgical procedures performed per year, was the major predictor for MDT evaluation. Patients treated at hospitals with < 29 procedures per year had an odds ratio (OR) for MDT evaluation of 0.15. Age and tumour stage also influenced the chance of MDT evaluation. MDT evaluation significantly predicted the likelihood of being treated with preoperative radiotherapy in patients with pT3c-pT4 M0 tumours (OR 5.06, 95% CI 3.08–8.34), and pN+ M0 (OR 3.55, 95% CI 2.60–4.85), even when corrected for co-morbidity and age.Conclusion. Patients with rectal cancer treated at high-volume hospitals are more likely to be discussed at a MDT conference, and that is an independent predictor of the use of adjuvant radiotherapy. These results indirectly support the introduction into clinical practice of discussing all rectal cancer patients at MDT conferences, not least those being treated at low-volume hospitals.
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9.
  • Clendenning, M, et al. (författare)
  • Long-range PCR facilitates the identification of PMS2-specific mutations
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 27:5, s. 490-495
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations within the DNA mismatch repair gene, "postmeiotic segregation increased 2" (PMS2), have been associated with a predisposition to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; Lynch syndrome). The presence of a large family of highly homologous PMS2 pseudogenes has made previous attempts to sequence PMS2 very difficult. Here, we describe a novel method that utilizes long-range PCR as a way to preferentially amplify PMS2 and not the pseudogenes. A second, exon-specific, amplification from diluted long-range products enables us to obtain a clean sequence that shows no evidence of pseudogene contamination. This method has been used to screen a cohort of patients whose tumors were negative for the PMS2 protein by immunohistochemistry and had not shown any mutations within the MLH1 gene. Sequencing of the PMS2 gene from 30 colorectal and I I endometrial cancer patients identified 10 novel sequence changes as well as 17 sequence changes that had previously been identified. In total, putative pathologic mutations were detected in 11 of the 41 families. Among these were five novel mutations, c.705+1G > T, c.736-741del6ins11, c.862_863del, c.1688G > T, and c.2007-IG > A. We conclude that PMS2 mutation detection in selected Lynch syndrome and Lynch syndrome-like patients is both feasible and desirable.
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10.
  • Engellau, Jacob, et al. (författare)
  • Time dependence of prognostic factors for patients with soft tissue sarcoma : a Scandinavian Sarcoma Group Study of 338 malignant fibrous histiocytomas
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 1097-0142 .- 0008-543X. ; 100:10, s. 2233-2239
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Prognostic factors for metastasis in soft tissue sarcoma govern decisions regarding adjuvant treatment. However, the significance of initial tumor-related prognostic factors over time is largely unknown.METHODS: The current study included 338 patients with malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the extremities or the trunk wall whose tumors were reviewed by the Scandinavian Sarcoma Pathology Review Group. Of these 338 patients, 329 (97%) had high-grade tumors. The median follow-up period was 7 years. Metastases occurred in 110 of 338 of patients after a median follow-up period of 14 months, with roughly one-third (32 of 110) occurring after 2 years. The authors investigated the prognostic significance of tumor size, tumor depth, histologic grade, microscopic tumor necrosis, vascular invasion, mitotic rate, and local tumor recurrence at various time intervals using metastases as an endpoint.RESULTS: On univariate analysis, all investigated factors were found to be correlated with metastases for the entire follow-up period and also for the first 2 years of follow-up; beyond this time point, only size, tumor depth, and local recurrence were significant. On multivariate analysis, necrosis and local tumor recurrence were significant for the entire follow-up duration and also for the first 2 years of follow-up, whereas only tumor depth and local recurrence were significant beyond 2 years of follow-up. For all initial factors, the annual metastasis risks in the high-risk and low-risk groups converged to < 0.1 after 2 years and to near 0 after 5 years.CONCLUSIONS: Prognostic factors for metastasis in MFH were time dependent. The predictive value of the initial prognostic factors was limited to the first 2 years of follow-up. The lack of observed prognostic value beyond 2 years of follow-up probably was attributable to heterogeneity within risk categories as a result of measurement errors and unknown biologic variations.
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