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1.
  • Welen, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • COVIDENZA - A prospective, multicenter, randomized PHASE II clinical trial of enzalutamide treatment to decrease the morbidity in patients with Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Trials. - : BioMed Central. - 1745-6215. ; 22:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The main goal of the COVIDENZA trial is to evaluate if inhibition of testosterone signalling by enzalutamide can improve the outcome of patients hospitalised for COVID-19. The hypothesis is based on the observation that the majority of patients in need of intensive care are male, and the connection between androgen receptor signalling and expression of TMPRSS2, an enzyme important for SARS-CoV-2 host cell internalization.Hospitalised COVID-19 patients will be randomised (2:1) to enzalutamide plus standard of care vs. standard of care designed to identify superiority.Included participants, men or women above 50 years of age, must be hospitalised for PCR confirmed COVID-19 symptoms and not in need of immediate mechanical ventilation. Major exclusion criteria are breast-feeding or pregnant women, hormonal treatment for prostate or breast cancer, treatment with immunosuppressive drugs, current symptomatic unstable cardiovascular disease (see Additional file 1 for further details). The trial is registered at Umeå University Hospital, Region Västerbotten, Sweden and 8 hospitals are approved for inclusion in Sweden.Patients randomised to the treatment arm will be treated orally with 160 mg (4x40 mg) enzalutamide (Xtandi®) daily, for five consecutive days. The study is not placebo controlled. The comparator is standard of care treatment for patients hospitalised with COVID-19.The primary endpoints of the study are (time to) need of mechanical ventilation or discharge from hospital as assessed by a clinical 7-point ordinal scale (up to 30 days after inclusion).Randomisation was stratified by center and sex. Each strata was randomized separately with block size six with a 2:1 allocation ratio (enzalutamide + "standard of care": "standard of care"). The randomisation list, with consecutive subject numbers, was generated by an independent statistician using the PROC PLAN procedure of SAS version 9.4 software (SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, North Carolina) BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label trial.The trial is designed to have three phases. The first, an exploration phase of 45 participants (30 treatment and 15 control) will focus on safety and includes a more extensive laboratory assessment as well as more frequent safety evaluation. The second prolongation phase, includes the first 100 participants followed by an interim analysis to define the power of the study. The third phase is the continuation of the study up to maximum 600 participants included in total.The current protocol version is COVIDENZA v2.0 as of September 10, 2020. Recruitment started July 29, 2020 and is presently in safety pause after the first exploration phase. Recruitment is anticipated to be complete by 31 December 2021.Eudract number 2020-002027-10 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04475601 , registered June 8, 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
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2.
  • Vouzouneraki, K., et al. (författare)
  • Temporal relationship of sleep apnea and acromegaly: a nationwide study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Endocrine. - : Springer. - 1355-008X .- 1559-0100. ; 62:2, s. 456-463
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PurposePatients with acromegaly have an increased risk of sleep apnea, but reported prevalence rates vary largely. Here we aimed to evaluate the sleep apnea prevalence in a large national cohort of patients with acromegaly, to examine possible risk factors, and to assess the proportion of patients diagnosed with sleep apnea prior to acromegaly diagnosis.MethodsCross-sectional multicenter study of 259 Swedish patients with acromegaly. At patients' follow-up visits at the endocrine outpatient clinics of all seven university hospitals in Sweden, questionnaires were completed to assess previous sleep apnea diagnosis and treatment, cardiovascular diseases, smoking habits, anthropometric data, and S-IGF-1 levels. Daytime sleepiness was evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Patients suspected to have undiagnosed sleep apnea were referred for sleep apnea investigations.ResultsOf the 259 participants, 75 (29%) were diagnosed with sleep apnea before the study start. In 43 (57%) of these patients, sleep apnea had been diagnosed before the diagnosis of acromegaly. After clinical assessment and sleep studies, sleep apnea was diagnosed in an additional 20 patients, yielding a total sleep apnea prevalence of 37%. Higher sleep apnea risk was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, and index finger circumference. Sleep apnea was more frequent among patients with S-IGF-1 levels in the highest quartile.ConclusionSleep apnea is common among patients with acromegaly, and is often diagnosed prior to their acromegaly diagnosis. These results support early screening for sleep apnea in patients with acromegaly and awareness for acromegaly in patients with sleep apnea.
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3.
  • Ferrari, Raffaele, et al. (författare)
  • Frontotemporal dementia and its subtypes: a genome-wide association study.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4465. ; 13:7, s. 686-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a complex disorder characterised by a broad range of clinical manifestations, differential pathological signatures, and genetic variability. Mutations in three genes-MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72-have been associated with FTD. We sought to identify novel genetic risk loci associated with the disorder.
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4.
  • Gaulton, Kyle J., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic fine mapping and genomic annotation defines causal mechanisms at type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 47:12, s. 1415-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We performed fine mapping of 39 established type 2 diabetes (T2D) loci in 27,206 cases and 57,574 controls of European ancestry. We identified 49 distinct association signals at these loci, including five mapping in or near KCNQ1. 'Credible sets' of the variants most likely to drive each distinct signal mapped predominantly to noncoding sequence, implying that association with T2D is mediated through gene regulation. Credible set variants were enriched for overlap with FOXA2 chromatin immunoprecipitation binding sites in human islet and liver cells, including at MTNR1B, where fine mapping implicated rs10830963 as driving T2D association. We confirmed that the T2D risk allele for this SNP increases FOXA2-bound enhancer activity in islet- and liver-derived cells. We observed allele-specific differences in NEUROD1 binding in islet-derived cells, consistent with evidence that the T2D risk allele increases islet MTNR1B expression. Our study demonstrates how integration of genetic and genomic information can define molecular mechanisms through which variants underlying association signals exert their effects on disease.
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5.
  • Jonsen, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in genes encoding complement inhibitors CD46 and CFH affect the age at nephritis onset in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Arthritis Research & Therapy. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1478-6354 .- 1478-6362. ; 13, s. R206-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Inherited deficiencies of several complement components strongly predispose to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) while deficiencies of complement inhibitors are found in kidney diseases such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). METHODS: The exons of complement inhibitor genes: CD46 and CFH (factor H) were fully sequenced using Sanger method in SLE patients with nephritis originating from two cohorts from southern and mid Sweden (n = 196). All identified mutations and polymorphisms were then analyzed in SLE patients without nephritis (n = 326) and healthy controls (n = 523). RESULTS: We found non-synonymous, heterozygous mutations in CFH in 6.1% patients with nephritis in comparison to 4.0% and 5.4% in patients without nephritis and controls, respectively. No associations of SLE or nephritis with common variants in CFH (V62I/Y402H/E936D) were found. Furthermore, we found two non-synonymous heterozygous mutations in CD46 in SLE patients but not in controls. The A353V polymorphism, known to affect function of CD46, was found in 6.6% of nephritis patients vs 4.9% and 6.1% of the non-nephritis SLE patients and controls. The presence of mutations in CD46 and CFH did not predispose to SLE or nephritis but was associated with earlier onset of nephritis. Furthermore, we found weak indications that there is one protective and one risk haplotype predisposing to nephritis composed of several polymorphisms in non-coding regions of CD46, which were previously implicated in aHUS. CONCLUSION: SLE nephritis is not associated with frequent mutations in CFH and CD46 as found in aHUS but these may be modifying factors causing earlier onset of nephritis.
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6.
  • Kristensen, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • A dose based approach for evaluation of inter-observer variations in target delineation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Technical innovations & patient support in radiation oncology. - 2405-6324. ; 3-4, s. 41-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: Substantial inter-observer variations in target delineation have been presented previously. Target delineation for paediatric cases is difficult due to the small number of children, the variation in paediatric targets, the number of study protocols, and the individual patient's specific needs and demands. Uncertainties in target delineation might lead to under-dosage or over-dosage. The aim of this work is to apply the concept of a consensus volume and good quality treatment plans to visualise and quantify inter-observer target delineation variations in dosimetric terms in addition to conventional geometrically based volume concordance indices.Material and methods: Two paediatric cases were used to demonstrate the potential of adding dose metrics when evaluating target delineation diversity; Hodgkin's disease (case 1) and rhabdomyosarcoma of the parotid gland (case 2). The variability in target delineation (PTV delineations) between six centres was quantified using the generalised conformity index, CIgen, generated for volume overlap. The STAPLE algorithm, as implemented in CERR, was used for both cases to derive a consensus volumes. STAPLE is a probabilistic estimate of the true volume generated from all observers. Dose distributions created by each centre for the original target volumes were then applied to this consensus volume.Results: A considerable variation in target segmentation was seen in both cases. For case 1 the variation was 374-960 cm3 (average 669 cm3) and for case 2; 65-126 cm3 (average 109 cm3). CIgen were 0.53 and 0.70, respectively. The DVHs in absolute volume displayed for the delineated target volume as well as for the consensus volume adds information on both "compliant" target volumes as well as outliers which are hidden with just the use of concordance indices.Conclusions: The DVHs in absolute volume add valuable and easily understood information to various indices for evaluating uniformity in target delineation.
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7.
  • Caini, Saverio, et al. (författare)
  • Coffee, tea and melanoma risk : findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 140:10, s. 2246-2255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea consumption and risk of melanoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a multicentre prospective study that enrolled over 500,000 participants aged 25–70 years from ten European countries in 1992–2000. Information on coffee and tea drinking was collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between coffee and tea consumption and melanoma risk. Overall, 2,712 melanoma cases were identified during a median follow-up of 14.9 years among 476,160 study participants. Consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men (HR for highest quartile of consumption vs. non-consumers 0.31, 95% CI 0.14–0.69) but not among women (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.62–1.47). There were no statistically significant associations between consumption of decaffeinated coffee or tea and the risk of melanoma among both men and women. The consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men in this large cohort study. Further investigations are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the possible role of caffeine and other coffee compounds in reducing the risk of melanoma.
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8.
  • Jung, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • A comparison of very old patients admitted to intensive care unit after acute versus elective surgery or intervention
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of critical care. - : W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. - 0883-9441 .- 1557-8615. ; 52, s. 141-148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: We aimed to evaluate differences in outcome between patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) after elective versus acute surgery in a multinational cohort of very old patients (80 years; VIP). Predictors of mortality, with special emphasis on frailty, were assessed.Methods: In total, 5063 VIPs were induded in this analysis, 922 were admitted after elective surgery or intervention, 4141 acutely, with 402 after acute surgery. Differences were calculated using Mann-Whitney-U test and Wilcoxon test. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations with mortality.Results: Compared patients admitted after acute surgery, patients admitted after elective surgery suffered less often from frailty as defined as CFS (28% vs 46%; p < 0.001), evidenced lower SOFA scores (4 +/- 5 vs 7 +/- 7; p < 0.001). Presence of frailty (CFS >4) was associated with significantly increased mortality both in elective surgery patients (7% vs 12%; p = 0.01), in acute surgery (7% vs 12%; p = 0.02).Conclusions: VIPs admitted to ICU after elective surgery evidenced favorable outcome over patients after acute surgery even after correction for relevant confounders. Frailty might be used to guide clinicians in risk stratification in both patients admitted after elective and acute surgery. 
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9.
  • Kharlamova, N., et al. (författare)
  • False Positive Results in SARS-CoV-2 Serological Tests for Samples From Patients With Chronic Inflammatory Diseases
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - : FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. - 1664-3224. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases are often treated with immunosuppressants and therefore are of particular concern during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Serological tests will improve our understanding of the infection and immunity in this population, unless they tests give false positive results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the specificity of SARS-Cov-2 serological assays using samples from patients with chronic inflammatory diseases collected prior to April 2019, thus defined as negative. Samples from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, n=10), rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n=47) with or without rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP2) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n=10) with or without RF, were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using 17 commercially available lateral flow assays (LFA), two ELISA kits and one in-house developed IgG multiplex bead-based assay. Six LFA and the in-house validated IgG assay correctly produced negative results for all samples. However, the majority of assays (n=13), gave false positive signal for samples from patients with RA and SLE. This was most notable in samples from RF positive RA patients. No false positive samples were detected in any assay using samples from patients with MS. Poor specificity of commercial serological assays could possibly be, at least partly, due to interfering antibodies in samples from patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. For these patients, the risk of false positivity should be considered when interpreting results of the SARS-CoV-2 serological assays.
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10.
  • Nilsson, C. L., et al. (författare)
  • Chromosome 19 Annotations with Disease Speciation: A First Report from the Global Research Consortium
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Proteome Research. - 1535-3893 .- 1535-3907. ; 12:1, s. 134-149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A first research development progress report of the Chromosome 19 Consortium with members from Sweden, Norway, Spain, United States, China and India, a part of the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) global initiative, is presented (http://www.c-hpp.org). From the chromosome 19 peptide-targeted library constituting 6159 peptides, a pilot study was conducted using a subset with 125 isotope-labeled peptides. We applied an annotation strategy with triple quadrupole, ESI-Qtrap, and MALDI mass spectrometry platforms, comparing the quality of data within and in between these instrumental set-ups. LC–MS conditions were outlined by multiplex assay developments, followed by MRM assay developments. SRM was applied to biobank samples, quantifying kallikrein 3 (prostate specific antigen) in plasma from prostate cancer patients. The antibody production has been initiated for more than 1200 genes from the entire chromosome 19, and the progress developments are presented. We developed a dedicated transcript microarray to serve as the mRNA identifier by screening cancer cell lines. NAPPA protein arrays were built to align with the transcript data with the Chromosome 19 NAPPA chip, dedicated to 90 proteins, as the first development delivery. We have introduced an IT-infrastructure utilizing a LIMS system that serves as the key interface for the research teams to share and explore data generated within the project. The cross-site data repository will form the basis for sample processing, including biological samples as well as patient samples from national Biobanks.
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