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Sökning: WFRF:(Nilsson CF)

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2.
  • Dewan, Ramita, et al. (författare)
  • Pathogenic Huntingtin Repeat Expansions in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neuron. - : Cell Press. - 0896-6273. ; 109:3, s. 448-460.e4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using large-scale whole-genome sequencing, Dewan et al. identify pathogenic HTT repeat expansions in patients diagnosed with FTD/ALS neurodegenerative disorders. Autopsies confirm the TDP-43 pathology expected in FTD/ALS and show polyglutamine inclusions within the frontal cortices but no striatal degeneration. These data broaden the phenotype resulting from HTT repeat expansions.
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3.
  • Dezfouli, Mahya, et al. (författare)
  • Newborn Screening for Presymptomatic Diagnosis of Complement and Phagocyte Deficiencies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - : FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. - 1664-3224 .- 1664-3224. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The clinical outcomes of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are greatly improved by accurate diagnosis early in life. However, it is not common to consider PIDs before the manifestation of severe clinical symptoms. Including PIDs in the nation-wide newborn screening programs will potentially improve survival and provide better disease management and preventive care in PID patients. This calls for the detection of disease biomarkers in blood and the use of dried blood spot samples, which is a part of routine newborn screening programs worldwide. Here, we developed a newborn screening method based on multiplex protein profiling for parallel diagnosis of 22 innate immunodeficiencies affecting the complement system and respiratory burst function in phagocytosis. The proposed method uses a small fraction of eluted blood from dried blood spots and is applicable for population-scale performance. The diagnosis method is validated through a retrospective screening of immunodeficient patient samples. This diagnostic approach can pave the way for an earlier, more comprehensive and accurate diagnosis of complement and phagocytic disorders, which ultimately lead to a healthy and active life for the PID patients.
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4.
  • Imel, Erik A., et al. (författare)
  • Burosumab versus conventional therapy in children with X-linked hypophosphataemia : a randomised, active-controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 393:10189, s. 2416-2427
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: X-linked hypophosphataemia in children is characterised by elevated serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), hypophosphataemia, rickets, lower extremity bowing, and growth impairment. We compared the efficacy and safety of continuing conventional therapy, consisting of oral phosphate and active vitamin D, versus switching to burosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against FGF23, in paediatric X-linked hypophosphataemia.Methods: In this randomised, active-controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial at 16 clinical sites, we enrolled children with X-linked hypophosphataemia aged 1-12 years. Key eligibility criteria were a total Thacher rickets severity score of at least 2.0, fasting serum phosphorus lower than 0.97 mmol/L (3.0 mg/dL), confirmed PHEX (phosphate-regulating endopep-tidase homolog, X-linked) mutation or variant of unknown significance in the patient or a family member with appropriate X-linked dominant inheritance, and receipt of conventional therapy for at least 6 consecutive months for children younger than 3 years or at least 12 consecutive months for children older than 3 years. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1: 1) to receive either subcutaneous burosumab starting at 0.8 mg/kg every 2 weeks (burosumab group) or conventional therapy prescribed by investigators (conventional therapy group). Both interventions lasted 64 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in rickets severity at week 40, assessed by the Radiographic Global Impression of Change global score. All patients who received at least one dose of treatment were included in the primary and safety analyses. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02915705.Findings: Recruitment took place between Aug 3, 2016, and May 8, 2017. Of 122 patients assessed, 61 were enrolled. Of these, 32 (18 girls, 14 boys) were randomly assigned to continue receiving conventional therapy and 29 (16 girls, 13 boys) to receive burosumab. For the primary endpoint at week 40, patients in the burosumab group had significantly greater improvement in Radiographic Global Impression of Change global score than did patients in the conventional therapy group (least squares mean +1.9 [SE 0.1] with burosumab vs +0.8 [0.1] with conventional therapy; difference 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.5; p<0.0001). Treatment-emergent adverse events considered possibly, probably, or definitely related to treatment by the investigator occurred more frequently with burosumab (17 [59%] of 29 patients in the burosumab group vs seven [22%] of 32 patients in the conventional therapy group). Three serious adverse events occurred in each group, all considered unrelated to treatment and resolved.Interpretation: Significantly greater clinical improvements were shown in rickets severity, growth, and biochemistries among children with X-linked hypophosphataemia treated with burosumab compared with those continuing conventional therapy. Copyright (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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5.
  • Lopes, José Pedro, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans Induces MCP-1 Release and Delays the Death of Human Mast Cells
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 2235-2988. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cryptococcosis, caused by the basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans, is a life-threatening disease affecting approximately one million people per year worldwide. Infection can occur when C. neoformans cells are inhaled by immunocompromised people. In order to establish infection, the yeast must bypass recognition and clearance by immune cells guarding the tissue. Using in vitro infections, we characterized the role of mast cells (MCs) in cryptococcosis. We found that MCs recognize C. neoformans and release inflammatory mediators such as tryptase and cytokines. From the latter group MCs released mainly CCL-2/MCP-1, a strong chemoattractant for monocytic cells. We demonstrated that supernatants of infected MCs recruit monocytes but not neutrophils. During infection with C. neoformans, MCs have a limited ability to kill the yeast depending on the serotype. C. neoformans, in turn, modulates the lifespan of MCs both, by presence of its polysaccharide capsule and by secreting soluble modulators. Taken together, MCs might have important contributions to fungal clearance during early stages of cryptocococis where these cells regulate recruitment of monocytes to mucosal tissues.
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6.
  • Lopes, Jose Pedro, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans elicits a temporal response in primary human mast cells
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immunosuppressed patients are frequently afflicted with severe mycoses caused by opportunistic fungal pathogens. Besides being a commensal, colonizing predominantly skin and mucosal surfaces, Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen. Mast cells are present in tissues prone to fungal colonization being expectedly among the first immune cells to get into contact with C. albicans. However, mast cell-fungus interaction remains a neglected area of study. Here we show that human mast cells mounted specific responses towards C. albicans. Collectively, mast cell responses included the launch of initial, intermediate and late phase components determined by the secretion of granular proteins and cytokines. Initially mast cells reduced fungal viability and occasionally internalized yeasts. C. albicans could evade ingestion by intracellular growth leading to cellular death. Furthermore, secreted factors in the supernatants of infected cells recruited neutrophils, but not monocytes. Late stages were marked by the release of cytokines that are known to be anti-inflammatory suggesting a modulation of initial responses. C. albicans-infected mast cells formed extracellular DNA traps, which ensnared but did not kill the fungus. Our results suggest that mast cells serve as tissue sentinels modulating antifungal immune responses during C. albicans infection. Consequently, these findings open new doors for understanding fungal pathogenicity.
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7.
  • Nordenfelt, Patrik, et al. (författare)
  • Health-related quality of life in relation to disease activity in adults with hereditary angioedema in Sweden
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. - : OceanSide Publications. - 1088-5412 .- 1539-6304. ; 38:6, s. 447-455
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) is impaired in patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) but has not yet been satisfactorily described.Objective: To study HR-QoL in patients with HAE by combining different HR-QoL instruments with disease activity assessment. Methods: All adults in the Swedish HAE registry were invited to take part in this questionnaire study, which used the generic HR-QoL instruments, EuroQol 5 Dimensions 5 Level (EQ-5D-5L) and the RAND Corporation Short Form 36 (RAND-36), the disease-specific Angioedema Quality of Life instrument (AE-QoL), the recently introduced Angioedema Activity Score (AAS) form, and questionnaires on sick leave and prophylactic medication.Results: Sixty-four of 133 adults (26 men, 38 women) between 18 and 91 years old responded. The most affected HR-QoL dimensions in the EQ-5D-5L were pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression; in the RAND-36, energy/fatigue, general health, pain; and, in the AE-QoL, fears/shame and fatigue/mood. Women had lower HR-QoL in the RAND-36 for general health and energy/fatigue (p < 0.05). Patients who reported any AAS of >0 had significantly impaired HR-QoL. There were significant associations (p < 0.05) between the AAS and EQ-5D-5L, between the AAS and all dimensions of the RAND-36 except physical function, and between the AAS and AE-QoL in all dimensions. Nine of 36 patients who reported sick leave during the previous 4 weeks had significantly impaired HR-QoL in all the instruments (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in HR-QoL in the patients with and the patients without prophylactic medication, except for the nutrition dimension of the AE-QoL (p < 0.05).Conclusion: Comprehensive information is obtained by combining different HR-QoL instruments. Pain, anxiety/depression, and fatigue/mood are important aspects of HAE but the AE-QoL disregards pain. HR-QoL was not significantly affected by prophylaxis. Increased disease activity was associated with impaired HR-QoL, which justifies more active disease management.
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8.
  • Nordenfelt, Patrik, et al. (författare)
  • Hereditary Angioedema in Swedish Adults: Report From the National Cohort
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Acta Dermato-Venereologica. - : ACTA DERMATO-VENEREOLOGICA. - 0001-5555 .- 1651-2057. ; 96:4, s. 540-545
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is rare, disabling and sometimes life-threatening. The aim of this study is to describe its prevalence, symptomatology and treatment in Sweden. A total of 146 patients were identified; 110 adults and 36 children with HAE type I (n = 136) or II (n = 10), giving a minimum HAE prevalence of 1.54/100,000. All patients received a written questionnaire followed by a structured telephone interview. This report focuses on the 102 adults who responded. Females reported 19 attacks in the previous year vs. 9 for males (p < 0.01), and females reported 10 days of sick leave vs. 4 days for males (p < 0.05). For all treated acute attacks, plasma-derived Cl-inhibitor concentrate (pdClINH) (used in 27% of patients) had a good effect. For maintenance treatment, 43% used attenuated androgens and 8% used pdClINH, which reduced their attack rate by more than 50%. In conclusion, the minimum HAE prevalence in Sweden was 1.54/100,000. HAE affected females more severely. Attenuated androgens and pdClINH had a good effect on preventing attacks.
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9.
  • Padidela, Raja, et al. (författare)
  • Patient-Reported Outcomes from a Randomized, Active-Controlled, Open-Label, Phase 3 Trial of Burosumab Versus Conventional Therapy in Children with X-Linked Hypophosphatemia
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Calcified Tissue International. - : Springer. - 0171-967X .- 1432-0827. ; 108, s. 622-633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Changing to burosumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting fibroblast growth factor 23, significantly improved phosphorus homeostasis, rickets, lower-extremity deformities, mobility, and growth versus continuing oral phosphate and active vitamin D (conventional therapy) in a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial involving children aged 1-12 years with X-linked hypophosphatemia. Patients were randomized (1:1) to subcutaneous burosumab or to continue conventional therapy. We present patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from this trial for children aged ≥ 5 years at screening (n = 35), using a Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) questionnaire and SF-10 Health Survey for Children. PROMIS pain interference, physical function mobility, and fatigue scores improved from baseline with burosumab at weeks 40 and 64, but changed little with continued conventional therapy. Pain interference scores differed significantly between groups at week 40 (- 5.02, 95% CI - 9.29 to - 0.75; p = 0.0212) but not at week 64. Between-group differences were not significant at either week for physical function mobility or fatigue. Reductions in PROMIS pain interference and fatigue scores from baseline were clinically meaningful with burosumab at weeks 40 and 64 but not with conventional therapy. SF-10 physical health scores (PHS-10) improved significantly with burosumab at week 40 (least-squares mean [standard error] + 5.98 [1.79]; p = 0.0008) and week 64 (+ 5.93 [1.88]; p = 0.0016) but not with conventional therapy (between-treatment differences were nonsignificant). In conclusion, changing to burosumab improved PRO measures, with statistically significant differences in PROMIS pain interference at week 40 versus continuing with conventional therapy and in PHS-10 at weeks 40 and 64 versus baseline.
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10.
  • Salci, Konstantin, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic effects of a late hypotensive insult combined with reduced intracranial compliance following traumatic brain injury in the rat
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. - 0300-9734 .- 2000-1967. ; 115:4, s. 221-231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction. Traumatic brain injury makes the brain vulnerable to secondary insults. Post-traumatic alterations in intracranial dynamics, such as reduced intracranial compliance (IC), are thought to further potentiate the effects of secondary insults. Reduced IC combined with intracranial volume insults leads to metabolic disturbances in a rat model. The aim of the present study was to discern whether a post-traumatic hypotensive insult in combination with reduced IC caused more pronounced secondary metabolic disturbances in the injured rat brain. Materials and methods. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8/group): 1) trauma with hypotension; 2) trauma and reduced IC with hypotension; 3) sham injury with hypotension; and 4) sham injury and reduced IC with hypotension. A weight drop model of cortical contusion trauma was used. IC was reduced by gluing rubber film layers on the inside of bilateral bone flaps before replacement. Microdialysis probes were placed in the perimeter of the trauma zone. Hypotension was induced 2 h after trauma. Extracellular (EC) levels of lactate, pyruvate, hypoxanthine, and glycerol were analyzed. Results. The trauma resulted in a significant increase in EC dialysate levels of lactate, lactate/pyruvate ratio, hypoxanthine, and glycerol. A slight secondary increase in lactate was noted for all groups but group 2 during hypotension, otherwise no late effects were seen. There were no effects of reduced IC. Discussion. In conclusion, reduced IC did not increase the metabolic disturbances caused by the post-traumatic hypotensive insult. The results suggest that a mild to moderate hypotensive insult after initial post-traumatic resuscitation may be tolerated better than an early insult before resuscitation.
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