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  • Nilsson, Anders K., et al. (författare)
  • Acylated monogalactosyl diacylglycerol : prevalence in the plant kingdom and identification of an enzyme catalyzing galactolipid head group acylation in Arabidopsis thaliana
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Plant Journal. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0960-7412 .- 1365-313X. ; 84:6, s. 1152-1166
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The lipid phase of the thylakoid membrane is mainly composed of the galactolipids mono-and digalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG and DGDG, respectively). It has been known since the late 1960s that MGDG can be acylated with a third fatty acid to the galactose head group (acyl-MGDG) in plant leaf homogenates. In certain brassicaceous plants like Arabidopsis thaliana, the acyl-MGDG frequently incorporates oxidized fatty acids in the form of the jasmonic acid precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA). In the present study we further investigated the distribution of acylated and OPDA-containing galactolipids in the plant kingdom. While acyl-MGDG was found to be ubiquitous in green tissue of plants ranging from non-vascular plants to angiosperms, OPDA-containing galactolipids were only present in plants from a few genera. A candidate protein responsible for the acyl transfer was identified in Avena sativa (oat) leaf tissue using biochemical fractionation and proteomics. Knockout of the orthologous gene in A. thaliana resulted in an almost total elimination of the ability to form both non-oxidized and OPDA-containing acyl-MGDG. In addition, heterologous expression of the A. thaliana gene in E. coli demonstrated that the protein catalyzed acylation of MGDG. We thus demonstrate that a phylogenetically conserved enzyme is responsible for the accumulation of acyl-MGDG in A. thaliana. The activity of this enzyme in vivo is strongly enhanced by freezing damage and the hypersensitive response.
  • Harrysson Drotz, Stina, et al. (författare)
  • Both catabolic and anabolic heterotrophic microbial activity proceed in frozen soils
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 1091-6490 .- 0027-8424. ; 107, s. 21046-21051
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A large proportion of the global soil carbon pool is stored in soils of high-latitude ecosystems in which microbial processes and production of greenhouse gases proceed during the winter months. It has been suggested that microorganisms have limited ability to sequester substrates at temperatures around and below 0 degrees C and that a metabolic shift to dominance of catabolic processes occurs around these temperatures. However, there are contrary indications that anabolic processes can proceed, because microbial growth has been observed at far lower temperatures. Therefore, we investigated the utilization of the microbial substrate under unfrozen and frozen conditions in a boreal forest soil across a temperature range from -9 degrees C to +9 degrees C, by using gas chromatography-isotopic ratio mass spectrometry and (13)C magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy to determine microbial turnover and incorporation of (13)C-labeled glucose. Our results conclusively demonstrate that the soil microorganisms maintain both catabolic (CO(2) production) and anabolic (biomass synthesis) processes under frozen conditions and that no significant differences in carbon allocation from [(13)C] glucose into [(13)C] CO(2) and cell organic (13)C-compounds occurred between +9 degrees C and -4 degrees C. The only significant metabolic changes detected were increased fluidity of the cell membranes synthesized at frozen conditions and increased production of glycerol in the frozen samples. The finding that the processes in frozen soil are similar to those in unfrozen soil has important implications for our general understanding and conceptualization of soil carbon dynamics in high-latitude ecosystems.
  • Lundén, P., et al. (författare)
  • Psychoacoustic evaluation as a tool for optimization in the development of an urban soundscape simulator
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 5th Audio Mostly - A Conference on Interaction With Sound, AM '10. - New York, USA : ACM Digital Library. - 9781450300469 ; , s. 1859802-
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper will discuss the use of psychoacoustic evaluation as a tool for optimization of the soundscape simulator developed in the Listen project. The listen project is a three-year research project focused around developing a demonstrator, which auralizes the sound environment produced by road and railway traffic. The resolution of the parameter space of the simulator heavily influences the performance of the simulator. The perceptual resolution of the parameter space is investigated and the resolution is adjusted accordingly. The most important parameter is velocity. Adjustments of the resolution of this parameter alone gives a 60% reduction of the usage of memory.
  • Moor, Helen, et al. (författare)
  • Towards a trait-based ecology of wetland vegetation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Ecology. - : Wiley. - 0022-0477 .- 1365-2745. ; 105:6, s. 1623-1635
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. Functional traits mechanistically capture plant responses to environmental gradients as well as plant effects on ecosystem functioning. Yet most trait-based theory stems from terrestrial systems and extension to other habitats can provide new insights. 2. Wetlands differ from terrestrial systems in conditions (e.g. soil water saturation, anoxia, pH extremes), plant adaptations (e.g. aerenchyma, clonality, ubiquity of bryophytes) and important processes (e.g. denitrification, peat accumulation, methane emission). Wetland plant adaptations and trait (co-)variation can be situated along major plant trait trade-off axes (e.g. the resource economics spectrum), but soil saturation represents a complex stress gradient beyond a simple extension of commonly studied water availability gradients. 3. Traits that affect ecosystem functioning overlap with patterns in terrestrial systems. But wetland-specific traits that mediate plant effects on soil redox conditions, microbial communities and on water flow, as well as trait spectra of mosses, vary among wetland types. 4. Synthesis. With increasing availability of quantitative plant traits a trait-based ecology of wetlands is emerging, with the potential to advance process-based understanding and prediction. We provide an interactive cause-and-effect framework that may guide research efforts to disentangle the multiple interacting processes involved in scaling from environmental conditions to ecosystem functioning via plant communities.
  • Peichl, Matthias, et al. (författare)
  • A 12-year record reveals pre-growing season temperature and water table level threshold effects on the net carbon dioxide exchange in a boreal fen
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-9326. ; 9:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study uses a 12-year time series (2001-2012) of eddy covariance measurements to investigate the long-term net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) and inter-annual variations in relation to abiotic drivers in a boreal fen in northern Sweden. The peatland was a sink for atmospheric CO2 in each of the twelve study years with a 12-year average (+/- standard deviation) NEE of -58 +/- 21 g C m(-2) yr(-1). For ten out of twelve years, the cumulative annual NEE was within a range of -42 to -79 g C m(-2) yr(-1) suggesting a general state of resilience of NEE to moderate inter-annual climate variations. However, the annual NEE of -18 and -106 g C m(-2) yr(-1) in 2006 and 2008, respectively, diverged considerably from this common range. The lower annual CO2 uptake in 2006 was mainly due to late summer emissions related to an exceptional drop in water table level (WTL). A positive relationship (R-2 = 0.65) between pre-growing season (January to April) air temperature (Ta) and summer (June to July) gross ecosystem production (GEP) was observed. We suggest that enhanced GEP due to mild pre-growing season air temperature in combination with air temperature constraints on ecosystem respiration (ER) during the following cooler summer explained most of the greater net CO2 uptake in 2008. Differences in the annual and growing season means of other abiotic variables (e.g. radiation, vapor pressure deficit, precipitation) and growing season properties (i.e. start date, end date, length) were unable to explain the inter-annual variations of NEE. Overall, our findings suggest that this boreal fen acts as a persistent contemporary sink for atmospheric CO2 that is, however, susceptible to severe anomalies in WTL and pre-growing season air temperature associated with predicted changes in climate patterns for the boreal region.
  • Segura, Javier H., et al. (författare)
  • Boreal tree species affect soil organic matter composition and saprotrophic mineralization rates
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Plant and Soil. - : Springer. - 0032-079X .- 1573-5036. ; 441:1-2, s. 173-190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To investigate how different tree species affect the composition of SOM and its mineralization in boreal forest ecosystems.Methods: We used pyrolysis GC-MS for molecular-level characterization of the SOM formed under five common boreal tree species at a replicated field experiment similar to 50years after plantation. We incubated soil samples at 4, 9, 14 and 19 degrees C and measured inherent CO2 production and substrate-induced respiration. We then evaluated if the saprotrophic microbial activity and its temperature sensitivity was controlled by the SOM composition.Results: The molecular composition of the SOM emerged as key factor influencing SOM properties in plots with different tree species. Most of the variance in the SOM content was explained by the organo-chemical composition of the SOM. More importantly, the fraction of the microbial community able to utilize the native SOM was largely controlled by the SOM organo-chemical composition. Temperature sensitivity of CO2 production (Q(10)) was not explained by SOM composition. However, the microbial access to different SOM pools varied with temperature.Conclusions: These results bridge the gap between the paradigms of short-term litter and long-term SOM decomposition showing that, on an intermediate timescale (similar to 50 years), boreal tree species affect SOM molecular composition and saprotrophic mineralization rates.
  • Segura, Javier H., et al. (författare)
  • Microbial mineralization of cellulose in frozen soils
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - London : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-latitude soils store ~40% of the global soil carbon and experience winters of up to 6 months or more. The winter soil CO2 efflux importantly contributes to the annual CO2 budget. Microorganisms can metabolize short chain carbon compounds in frozen soils. However, soil organic matter (SOM) is dominated by biopolymers, requiring exoenzymatic hydrolysis prior to mineralization. For winter SOM decomposition to have a substantial influence on soil carbon balances it is crucial whether or not biopolymers can be metabolized in frozen soils. We added 13C-labeled cellulose to frozen (−4 °C) mesocosms of boreal forest soil and followed its decomposition. Here we show that cellulose biopolymers are hydrolyzed under frozen conditions sustaining both CO2 production and microbial growth contributing to slow, but persistent, SOM mineralization. Given the long periods with frozen soils at high latitudes these findings are essential for understanding the contribution from winter to the global carbon balance.
  • Segura, Javier H., et al. (författare)
  • Microbial utilization of simple carbon substrates in boreal peat soils at low temperatures
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry. - : Elsevier. - 0038-0717 .- 1879-3428. ; 135, s. 438-448
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Boreal peatlands are key high-latitude ecosystem types and act as a carbon (C) sink storing an estimated 25% of the world's soil C. These environments are currently seeing the most substantial changing climate, especially during the winter. CO2 emissions during the winter can correspond to 80% of the growing season's net CO2 assimilation. Yet, our conceptual understanding of the controls on microbial metabolic activity in peat soils at temperatures ≤0 °C is poor. We used stable isotope probing of peat samples and tracked the fate of 13C-glucose using 13C-NMR. We show that microorganisms in frozen boreal peat soils utilize monomeric C-substrates to sustain both catabolic and anabolic metabolism at temperatures down to −5 °C. The 13C-substrate was transformed into 13C–CO2, different metabolites, and incorporated into membrane phospholipid fatty acids. The 16S rRNA-based community analyses revealed the activity at −3 °C changes the composition of the bacterial community over relevant timescales. Below 0 °C, small temperature changes have strong effects on process rates and small differences in winter soil temperature may affect C dynamics of northern peatlands. Understanding biological processes at low and below zero temperatures are central for the overall functioning of these systems representing one of the world's major soil C pools.
  • Soucemarianadin, Laure N., et al. (författare)
  • Two dimensional NMR spectroscopy for molecular characterization of soil organic matter : Application to boreal soils and litter
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Organic Geochemistry. - : Elsevier. - 0146-6380 .- 1873-5290. ; 113, s. 184-195
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Organic soils in boreal ecosystems and peatlands represent a huge global carbon pool and their composition strongly affects soil properties. Nevertheless, the characterization of soil organic matter (SOM) molecular composition, which is essential for elucidating soil carbon processes and turnover, is not easily achieved, and further advances in the area are greatly needed. Two dimensional (2D) liquid state H-1-C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used on dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) extracts of SOM to achieve molecular level characterization, with signals from many identifiable molecular groups observable. Here we show that a simple and fast sample preparation allows acquisition of 2D H-1-C-13 NMR spectra from extracts of plant litter and organic layers in boreal ecosystems, with fast data acquisition. Our 2D NMR spectra revealed several differences in the DMSO extracts of different tree litter samples, O-horizons of forest soil, peat-forming moss (Sphagnum) and peat. The results mirror established differences between OM in soils and litter of different forest ecosystems (e.g. between deciduous and coniferous litter) but also provide indications for research to untangle previously conflicting results (e.g. cutin degradation in soil or carbohydrate degradation in peat). Thus, combination of 2D NMR methods can greatly improve analysis of litter composition and SOM composition, thereby facilitating the elucidation of their roles in biogeochemical and ecological processes that are critical for foreseeing feedback mechanisms for SOM turnover as a result of global environmental change.
  • Öquist, Mats G., et al. (författare)
  • The effect of temperature and substrate quality on the carbon use efficiency of saprotrophic decomposition
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Plant and Soil. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0032-079X .- 1573-5036. ; 414:1, s. 113-125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and aims: Mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes a major carbon flux to the atmosphere. The carbon use efficiency (CUE) of the saprotrophic microorganisms mineralizing SOM is integral for soil carbon dynamics. Here we investigate how the CUE is affected by temperature, metabolic conditions, and the molecular complexity of the substrate.Methods: We incubated O-horizon soil samples (with either 13C–glucose or 13C–cellulose) from a boreal coniferous forest at 4, 9, 14, and 19 °C, and calculated CUEs based on the amount of 13C–CO2and 13C–labelled microbial biomass produced. The effects of substrate, temperature, and metabolic conditions (representing unlimited substrate supply and substrate limitation) on CUE were evaluated.Results: CUE from metabolizing glucose was higher as compared to cellulose. A slight decrease in CUE with increasing temperature was observed in glucose amended samples (but only in the range 9–19 °C), but not in cellulose amended samples. CUE differed significantly with metabolic conditions, i.e. CUE was higher during unlimited growth conditions as compared to conditions with substrate limitation.Conclusions: We conclude that it is integral to account for both differences in CUE during different metabolic phases, as well as complexity of substrate, when interpreting temperature dependence on CUE in incubation studies.
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