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Sökning: WFRF:(Niwa S)

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  • Wang, Zhaoming, et al. (författare)
  • Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 23:24, s. 6616-6633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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  • Toshito, T., et al. (författare)
  • Measurements of projectile-like Be-8 and B-9 production in 200-400 MeV/nucleon C-12 on water
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics. - 0556-2813 .- 1089-490X. ; 78:6, s. 4-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have studied the production of the projectile-like fragments Be-8 and B-9 produced in interactions of 200 to 400 MeV/nucleon carbon ions with water, using emulsion detectors. In this Brief Report we present the first published production cross section of the projectile-like fragment B-9 in the energy region above 100 MeV/nucleon. The measured production cross sections of these nuclides were compared to calculations using a semiempirical model. We found that the measured cross sections deviate from the calculated values by a factor up to about six. This information is of importance for benchmarking and improving heavy ion nuclear reaction models.
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  • Toshito, T., et al. (författare)
  • Measurements of total and partial charge-changing cross sections for 200-to 400-MeV/nucleon C-12 on water and polycarbonate
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics. - 0556-2813 .- 1089-490X. ; 75:5, s. 8-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have studied charged nuclear fragments produced by 200- to 400-MeV/nucleon carbon ions, interacting with water and polycarbonate, using a newly developed emulsion detector. Total and partial charge-changing cross sections for the production of B, Be, and Li fragments were measured and compared with both previously published measurements and model predictions. This study is of importance for validating and improving carbon-ion therapy treatment planning systems and for estimating the radiological risks for personnel on space missions, because carbon is a significant component of galactic cosmic rays.
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  • McLaughlin, J. K., et al. (författare)
  • International renal-cell cancer study. VIII. Role of diuretics, other anti-hypertensive medications and hypertension
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - New York, USA : John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 63:2, s. 216-221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Risk of renal-cell cancer in relation to use of diuretics, other anti-hypertensive medications and hypertension was assessed in a multi-center, population-based, case-control study conducted in Australia, Denmark, Germany, Sweden and the United States, using a shared protocol and questionnaire. A total of 1,732 histologically confirmed cases and 2,309 controls, frequency-matched to cases by age and sex, were interviewed. The association between renal-cell cancer and the drugs was estimated by relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Risks were increased among users of diuretics and other anti-hypertensive medications. After adjustment for hypertension, risk for diuretics was reduced to unity, except among long-term (15+ years) users. Risk for use of non-diuretic anti-hypertensive drugs remained significantly elevated and increased further with duration of use. Overall risk was not enhanced when both classes of medications were used. Excess risk was not restricted to any specific type of diuretic or anti-hypertensive drug and no trend was observed with estimated lifetime consumption of any particular type of product. The RR for hypertension after adjustment for diuretics and other anti-hypertensive medications was 1.4 (95% CI = 1.2-1.7), although among non-users of any anti-hypertensive medications, there was little excess risk associated with a history of hypertension. Exclusion of drug use that first occurred within 5 years of cancer diagnosis or interview did not alter the associations. Our findings suggest small effects on renal-cell cancer risk associated with hypertension and use of diuretics and other anti-hypertensive medications. However, because of potential misclassifications of these highly correlated variables, it is difficult to distinguish the effect of treatment from its indication, hypertension.
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  • Wolk, A., et al. (författare)
  • International renal cell cancer study. VII. Role of diet
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Hoboken, USA : John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 65:1, s. 67-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated the role of diet in the etiology of renal cell cancer (RCC) in a multi-center, population-based case-control study conducted in Australia, Denmark, Sweden and the United States, using a shared protocol. A total of 1,185 incident histopathologically confirmed cases (698 men, 487 women) and 1,526 controls (915 men, 611 women) frequency-matched to cases by sex and age were included in the analyses. The association between RCC and diet was estimated by relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex, study center, body mass index and smoking. A statistically significant positive association was observed for total energy intake (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4-2.2 for the highest vs. lowest quartile, p value for trend < 0.00001), while the hypothesis that protein and fat are risk factors independent of energy was not supported. Fried meats were associated with increased RCC risk, while vegetables and fruits were protective, with the strongest effect observed for the highest quartile of consumption of orange/dark green vegetables but not vitamin C or beta carotene. Increased risk was associated with low intake (lowest decile) of vitamin E and magnesium. We observed an apparent protective effect of alcohol confined to women and probably due to chance. Our findings indicate an important role of nutrition in the development of RCC. The apparent positive association of energy intake with risk of RCC needs further investigation in a prospective cohort study to exclude the possible impact of differences in recall between cases and controls.
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10.
  • McCredie, M., et al. (författare)
  • International renal-cell cancer study. II. Analgesics
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - New York, USA : John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 60:3, s. 345-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There has been concern about the role of analgesics in the development of renal-cell cancer, although a few studies have reported moderately elevated risks with regular or long-term use. In a large international case-control study of renal-cell cancer we examined, among other hypotheses, the effect of phenacetin-containing and of other types of analgesics: paracetamol (acetaminophen), salicylates (mainly aspirin) and pyrazolones (e.g., antipyrine or phenazone). Relative risks, adjusted for the effects of age, sex, body-mass index, tobacco smoking and study centre, were not significantly increased with intake of phenacetin, either when lifetime consumption was categorized at the level of > or = 0.1 kg or when subjects were subdivided further by amount. Nor were paracetamol, salicylates or pyrazolones linked with renal-cell cancer. No consistently increasing risks with consumption level was found. The lack of association was not altered by restricting analgesic use to that which occurred 5 or 10 years before the defined "cut-off" date or when analysis was restricted to exclusive users of a particular type of analgesic. Neither was the risk influenced by the rate of consumption or whether the consumption had occurred at a young age. Our study provides clear evidence that aspirin is unrelated to renal-cell cancer risk, and our findings do not support the hypothesis that analgesics containing phenacetin or paracetamol increase the risk, although the number of "regular" users and the amount of these types of analgesic consumed were too small to confidently rule out a minor carcinogenic effect of phenacetin and paracetamol.
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