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  • Nyberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Striatal dopamine D2 binding is related to frontal BOLD response during updating of long-term memory representations
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 46:4, s. 1194-1199
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multi-modal brain imaging was used to examine the relation between individual differences in resting-state striatal dopamine D2 binding and the magnitude of prefrontal BOLD activation during updating of long-term memory (LTM) representations. Increased activity in the left prefrontal cortex was observed when LTM updating was required, and there was a positive correlation between striatal D2 activity and the magnitude of left prefrontal activity during updating. These findings support predictions from neurocomputational models of a relation of dopaminergic neurotransmission to transient cognitive operations and related brain activity.
  • Bäckman, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Dopamine D(1) receptors and age differences in brain activation during working memory
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - Fayetteville, N.Y : Elsevier. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 32:10, s. 1849-1856
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In an fMRI study, 20 younger and 20 healthy older adults were scanned while performing a spatial working-memory task under two levels of load. On a separate occasion, the same subjects underwent PET measurements using the radioligand [(11)C] SCH23390 to determine dopamine D(1) receptor binding potential (BP) in caudate nucleus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The fMRI study revealed a significant load modulation of brain activity (higher load>lower load) in frontal and parietal regions for younger, but not older, adults. The PET measurements showed marked age-related reductions of D(1) BP in caudate and DLPFC. Statistical control of caudate and DLPFC D(1) binding eliminated the age-related reduction in load-dependent BOLD signal in left frontal cortex, and attenuated greatly the reduction in right frontal and left parietal cortex. These findings suggest that age-related alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission may contribute to underrecruitment of task-relevant brain regions during working-memory performance in old age.
  • Bäckman, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • The correlative triad among aging, dopamine, and cognition : current status and future prospects.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review. - 0149-7634. ; 30:6, s. 791-807
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The brain neuronal systems defined by the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) have since long a recognized role in the regulation of motor functions. More recently, converging evidence from patient studies, animal research, pharmacological intervention, and molecular genetics indicates that DA is critically implicated also in higher-order cognitive functioning. Many cognitive functions and multiple markers of striatal and extrastriatal DA systems decline across adulthood and aging. Research examining the correlative triad among adult age, DA, and cognition has found strong support for the view that age-related DA losses are associated with age-related cognitive deficits. Future research strategies for examining the DA-cognitive aging link include assessing (a) the generality/specificity of the effects; (b) the relationship between neuromodulation and functional brain activation; and (c) the release of DA during actual task performance.
  • de Frias, Cindy M, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of COMT Gene Polymorphism on fMRI-assessed Sustained and Transient Activity during a Working Memory Task.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience. - Cambridge, Mass. : Published by the MIT Press with the Cognitive Neuroscience Institute. - 0898-929X .- 1530-8898. ; 22:7, s. 1614-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract The catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene-encoding an enzyme that is essential for the degradation of dopamine (DA) in prefrontal cortex (PFC)-contains a single nucleotide polymorphism (val/met) important for cognition. According to the tonic-phasic hypothesis, individuals carrying the low-enzyme-activity allele (met) are characterized by enhanced tonic DA activity in PFC, promoting sustained cognitive representations in working memory. Val carriers have reduced tonic but enhanced phasic dopaminergic activity in subcortical regions, enhancing cognitive flexibility. We tested the tonic-phasic DA hypothesis by dissociating sustained and transient brain activity during performance on a 2-back working memory test using mixed blocked/event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were men recruited from a random sample of the population (the Betula study) and consisted of 11 met/met and 11 val/val carriers aged 50 to 65 years, matched on age, education, and cognitive performance. There were no differences in 2-back performance between genotype groups. Met carriers displayed a greater transient medial temporal lobe response in the updating phase of working memory, whereas val carriers showed a greater sustained PFC activation in the maintenance phase. These results support the tonic-phasic theory of DA function in elucidating the specific phenotypic influence of the COMT val(158)met polymorphism on different components of working memory.
  • Duarte Fernandes, Carla Patricia, et al. (författare)
  • Lack of association of the rs1344706 ZNF804A variant with cognitive functions and DTI indices of white matter microstructure in two independent healthy populations
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry Research. - : Elsevier. - 0925-4927 .- 1872-7506. ; 222:1-2, s. 60-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The rs1344706 single nucleotide polymorphism with in intron 2 of the ZNF804A gene is strongly associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This variant has also been associated in some studies with a range of cognitive and neuro imaging phenotypes, but several studies have reported no effect on the same phenotypes in other samples. Here, we genotyped 670 healthy adult Norwegian subjects and 1753 healthy adult Swedish subjects for rs1344706, and tested for associations with cognitive phenotypes including general intellectual abilities, memory functions and cognitive inhibition. We also tested whether rs1344706 is associated with white matter microstructural properties using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 250 to 340 of the Norwegian and Swedish subjects, respectively. Whole-brain voxel-wise statistical modeling of the effect of the ZNF804A variant on two DTI indices, fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD), was performed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), and commonly reported effect sizes were calculated within several large-scale white matter pathways based on neuroanatomic atlases. No significant associations were found between rs1344706 and the cognitive traits or white matter microstructure. We conclude that the rs1344706 SNP has no significant effect on these phenotypes in our two reasonably powered samples.
  • Giddaluru, Sudheer, et al. (författare)
  • Genetics of structural connectivity and information processing in the brain
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Brain Structure and Function. - 1863-2653 .- 1863-2661. ; 221:9, s. 4643-4661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the genetic factors underlying brain structural connectivity is a major challenge in imaging genetics. Here, we present results from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of whole-brain white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of microstructural coherence measured using diffusion tensor imaging. Data from independent GWASs of 355 Swedish and 250 Norwegian healthy adults were integrated by meta-analysis to enhance power. Complementary GWASs on behavioral data reflecting processing speed, which is related to microstructural properties of WM pathways, were performed and integrated with WM FA results via multimodal analysis to identify shared genetic associations. One locus on chromosome 17 (rs145994492) showed genome-wide significant association with WM FA (meta P value = 1.87 × 10(-08)). Suggestive associations (Meta P value <1 × 10(-06)) were observed for 12 loci, including one containing ZFPM2 (lowest meta P value = 7.44 × 10(-08)). This locus was also implicated in multimodal analysis of WM FA and processing speed (lowest Fisher P value = 8.56 × 10(-07)). ZFPM2 is relevant in specification of corticothalamic neurons during brain development. Analysis of SNPs associated with processing speed revealed association with a locus that included SSPO (lowest meta P value = 4.37 × 10(-08)), which has been linked to commissural axon growth. An intergenic SNP (rs183854424) 14 kb downstream of CSMD1, which is implicated in schizophrenia, showed suggestive evidence of association in the WM FA meta-analysis (meta P value = 1.43 × 10(-07)) and the multimodal analysis (Fisher P value = 1 × 10(-07)). These findings provide novel data on the genetics of WM pathways and processing speed, and highlight a role of ZFPM2 and CSMD1 in information processing in the brain.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
  • Jonasson, Lars S., et al. (författare)
  • Dopamine release in nucleus accumbens during rewarded task switching measured by [11C]raclopride
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 99, s. 357-364
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reward and motivation have positive influences on cognitive-control processes in numerous settings. Models of reward implicate corticostriatal loops and the dopamine (DA) system, with special emphasis on D2 receptors in nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In this study, 11 right-handed males (35-40 years) were scanned with positron emission tomography (PET) in a single [(11)C]raclopride dynamic scan during rewarded and non-rewarded task switching. Rewarded task switching (relative to baseline task switching) decreased [(11)C]raclopride binding in NAcc. Decreasing NAcc [(11)C]raclopride binding was strongly associated with task reaction time measures that reflect individual differences in effort and control strategies. Voxelwise analyses additionally revealed reward-related DA release in anterodorsal caudate, a region previously associated with task-switching. These PET findings provide evidence for striatal DA release during motivated cognitive control, and further suggest that NAcc DA release predicts the task reaction time benefits of reward incentives.
  • Karalija, Nina, et al. (författare)
  • A common polymorphism in the dopamine transporter gene predicts working memory performance and in vivo dopamine integrity in aging
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Academic Press. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 245
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dopamine (DA) integrity is suggested as a potential cause of individual differences in working memory (WM) performance among older adults. Still, the principal dopaminergic mechanisms giving rise to WM differences remain unspecified. Here, 61 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, located in or adjacent to various dopamine-related genes, were assessed for their links to WM performance in a sample of 1313 adults aged 61–80 years from the Berlin Aging Study II. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression was conducted to estimate associations between polymorphisms and WM. Rs40184 in the DA transporter gene, SLC6A3, showed allelic group differences in WM, with T-carriers performing better than C homozygotes (p<0.01). This finding was replicated in an independent sample from the Cognition, Brain, and Aging study (COBRA; baseline: n = 181, ages: 64–68 years; 5-year follow up: n = 129). In COBRA, in vivo DA integrity was measured with 11C-raclopride and positron emission tomography. Notably, WM as well as in vivo DA integrity was higher for rs40184 T-carriers at baseline (p<0.05 for WM and caudate and hippocampal D2-receptor availability) and at the 5-year follow-up (p<0.05 for WM and hippocampal D2 availability). Our findings indicate that individual differences in DA transporter function contribute to differences in WM performance in old age, presumably by regulating DA availability.
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