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1.
  • Johnson, Toby, et al. (författare)
  • Blood Pressure Loci Identified with a Gene-Centric Array.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - : Cell Press. - 1537-6605 .- 0002-9297. ; 89:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Raised blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have identified 47 distinct genetic variants robustly associated with BP, but collectively these explain only a few percent of the heritability for BP phenotypes. To find additional BP loci, we used a bespoke gene-centric array to genotype an independent discovery sample of 25,118 individuals that combined hypertensive case-control and general population samples. We followed up four SNPs associated with BP at our p < 8.56 × 10(-7) study-specific significance threshold and six suggestively associated SNPs in a further 59,349 individuals. We identified and replicated a SNP at LSP1/TNNT3, a SNP at MTHFR-NPPB independent (r(2) = 0.33) of previous reports, and replicated SNPs at AGT and ATP2B1 reported previously. An analysis of combined discovery and follow-up data identified SNPs significantly associated with BP at p < 8.56 × 10(-7) at four further loci (NPR3, HFE, NOS3, and SOX6). The high number of discoveries made with modest genotyping effort can be attributed to using a large-scale yet targeted genotyping array and to the development of a weighting scheme that maximized power when meta-analyzing results from samples ascertained with extreme phenotypes, in combination with results from nonascertained or population samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcript expression data highlight potential gene regulatory mechanisms at the MTHFR and NOS3 loci. These results provide candidates for further study to help dissect mechanisms affecting BP and highlight the utility of studying SNPs and samples that are independent of those studied previously even when the sample size is smaller than that in previous studies.
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2.
  • Druker, Brian J., et al. (författare)
  • Five-year follow-up of patients receiving imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 355:23, s. 2408-2417
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The cause of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a constitutively active BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase. Imatinib inhibits this kinase, and in a short-term study was superior to interferon alfa plus cytarabine for newly diagnosed CML in the chronic phase. For 5 years, we followed patients with CML who received imatinib as initial therapy. METHODS: We randomly assigned 553 patients to receive imatinib and 553 to receive interferon alfa plus cytarabine and then evaluated them for overall and event-free survival; progression to accelerated-phase CML or blast crisis; hematologic, cytogenetic, and molecular responses; and adverse events. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 60 months. Kaplan-Meier estimates of cumulative best rates of complete cytogenetic response among patients receiving imatinib were 69% by 12 months and 87% by 60 months. An estimated 7% of patients progressed to accelerated-phase CML or blast crisis, and the estimated overall survival of patients who received imatinib as initial therapy was 89% at 60 months. Patients who had a complete cytogenetic response or in whom levels of BCR-ABL transcripts had fallen by at least 3 log had a significantly lower risk of disease progression than did patients without a complete cytogenetic response (P<0.001). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events diminished over time, and there was no clinically significant change in the profile of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: After 5 years of follow-up, continuous treatment of chronic-phase CML with imatinib as initial therapy was found to induce durable responses in a high proportion of patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00006343 [ClinicalTrials.gov].)
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3.
  • Mak, Elijah, et al. (författare)
  • In vivo coupling of tau pathology and cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia (Amsterdam, Netherlands). - : Wiley. - 2352-8729. ; 10, s. 678-687
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: The deposition of neurofibrillary tangles in neurodegenerative disorders is associated with neuronal loss on autopsy; however, their in vivo associations with atrophy across the continuum of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain unclear.Methods: We estimated cortical thickness, tau ([18F]-AV-1451), and amyloid β (Aβ) status ([11C]-PiB) in 47 subjects who were stratified into Aβ- (14 healthy controls and six mild cognitive impairment-Aβ-) and Aβ+ (14 mild cognitive impairment-Aβ+ and 13 AD) groups.Results: Compared with the Aβ- group, tau was increased in widespread regions whereas cortical thinning was restricted to the temporal cortices. Increased tau binding was associated with cortical thinning in each Aβ group. Locally, regional tau was associated with temporoparietal atrophy.Discussion: These findings position tau as a promising therapeutic target. Further studies are needed to elucidate the casual relationships between tau pathology and trajectories of atrophy in AD.
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4.
  • Deming, Yuetiva, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies four novel loci associated with Alzheimer's endophenotypes and disease modifiers.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica. - 1432-0533. ; 133:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • More than 20 genetic loci have been associated with risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but reported genome-wide significant loci do not account for all the estimated heritability and provide little information about underlying biological mechanisms. Genetic studies using intermediate quantitative traits such as biomarkers, or endophenotypes, benefit from increased statistical power to identify variants that may not pass the stringent multiple test correction in case-control studies. Endophenotypes also contain additional information helpful for identifying variants and genes associated with other aspects of disease, such as rate of progression or onset, and provide context to interpret the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We conducted GWAS of amyloid beta (Aβ42), tau, and phosphorylated tau (ptau181) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 3146 participants across nine studies to identify novel variants associated with AD. Five genome-wide significant loci (two novel) were associated with ptau181, including loci that have also been associated with AD risk or brain-related phenotypes. Two novel loci associated with Aβ42 near GLIS1 on 1p32.3 (β = -0.059, P = 2.08 × 10(-8)) and within SERPINB1 on 6p25 (β = -0.025, P = 1.72 × 10(-8)) were also associated with AD risk (GLIS1: OR = 1.105, P = 3.43 × 10(-2)), disease progression (GLIS1: β = 0.277, P = 1.92 × 10(-2)), and age at onset (SERPINB1: β = 0.043, P = 4.62 × 10(-3)). Bioinformatics indicate that the intronic SERPINB1 variant (rs316341) affects expression of SERPINB1 in various tissues, including the hippocampus, suggesting that SERPINB1 influences AD through an Aβ-associated mechanism. Analyses of known AD risk loci suggest CLU and FERMT2 may influence CSF Aβ42 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively) and the INPP5D locus may affect ptau181 levels (P = 0.009); larger studies are necessary to verify these results. Together the findings from this study can be used to inform future AD studies.
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5.
  • Deming, Yuetiva, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies four novel loci associated with Alzheimer’s endophenotypes and disease modifiers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - : Springer. - 0001-6322. ; 133:5, s. 839-856
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • More than 20 genetic loci have been associated with risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but reported genome-wide significant loci do not account for all the estimated heritability and provide little information about underlying biological mechanisms. Genetic studies using intermediate quantitative traits such as biomarkers, or endophenotypes, benefit from increased statistical power to identify variants that may not pass the stringent multiple test correction in case–control studies. Endophenotypes also contain additional information helpful for identifying variants and genes associated with other aspects of disease, such as rate of progression or onset, and provide context to interpret the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We conducted GWAS of amyloid beta (Aβ42), tau, and phosphorylated tau (ptau181) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 3146 participants across nine studies to identify novel variants associated with AD. Five genome-wide significant loci (two novel) were associated with ptau181, including loci that have also been associated with AD risk or brain-related phenotypes. Two novel loci associated with Aβ42 near GLIS1 on 1p32.3 (β = −0.059, P = 2.08 × 10−8) and within SERPINB1 on 6p25 (β = −0.025, P = 1.72 × 10−8) were also associated with AD risk (GLIS1: OR = 1.105, P = 3.43 × 10−2), disease progression (GLIS1: β = 0.277, P = 1.92 × 10−2), and age at onset (SERPINB1: β = 0.043, P = 4.62 × 10−3). Bioinformatics indicate that the intronic SERPINB1 variant (rs316341) affects expression of SERPINB1 in various tissues, including the hippocampus, suggesting that SERPINB1 influences AD through an Aβ-associated mechanism. Analyses of known AD risk loci suggest CLU and FERMT2 may influence CSF Aβ42 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively) and the INPP5D locus may affect ptau181 levels (P = 0.009); larger studies are necessary to verify these results. Together the findings from this study can be used to inform future AD studies.
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6.
  • Dichgans, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • METACOHORTS for the study of vascular disease and its contribution to cognitive decline and neurodegeneration : An initiative of the Joint Programme for Neurodegenerative Disease Research
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia. - : Wiley. - 1552-5260. ; 12:12, s. 1235-1249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dementia is a global problem and major target for health care providers. Although up to 45% of cases are primarily or partly due to cerebrovascular disease, little is known of these mechanisms or treatments because most dementia research still focuses on pure Alzheimer's disease. An improved understanding of the vascular contributions to neurodegeneration and dementia, particularly by small vessel disease, is hampered by imprecise data, including the incidence and prevalence of symptomatic and clinically “silent” cerebrovascular disease, long-term outcomes (cognitive, stroke, or functional), and risk factors. New large collaborative studies with long follow-up are expensive and time consuming, yet substantial data to advance the field are available. In an initiative funded by the Joint Programme for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, 55 international experts surveyed and assessed available data, starting with European cohorts, to promote data sharing to advance understanding of how vascular disease affects brain structure and function, optimize methods for cerebrovascular disease in neurodegeneration research, and focus future research on gaps in knowledge. Here, we summarize the results and recommendations from this initiative. We identified data from over 90 studies, including over 660,000 participants, many being additional to neurodegeneration data initiatives. The enthusiastic response means that cohorts from North America, Australasia, and the Asia Pacific Region are included, creating a truly global, collaborative, data sharing platform, linked to major national dementia initiatives. Furthermore, the revised World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases version 11 should facilitate recognition of vascular-related brain damage by creating one category for all cerebrovascular disease presentations and thus accelerate identification of targets for dementia prevention.
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7.
  • Im, Annie, et al. (författare)
  • Risk Factors for Graft-versus-Host Disease in Haploidentical Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Using Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Biology of blood and marrow transplantation. - 1083-8791 .- 1523-6536. ; 26:8, s. 1459-1468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has significantly increased the successful use of haploidentical donors with a relatively low incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Given its increasing use, we sought to determine risk factors for GVHD after haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (haplo-HCT) using PTCy. Data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research on adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, or chronic myeloid leukemia who underwent PTCy-based haplo-HCT (2013 to 2016) were analyzed and categorized into 4 groups based on myeloablative (MA) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood (PB) graft source. In total, 646 patients were identified (MA-BM = 79, MA-PB = 183, RIC-BM = 192, RIC-PB = 192). The incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD at 6 months was highest in MA-PB (44%), followed by RIC-PB (36%), MA-BM (36%), and RIC-BM (30%) (P = .002). The incidence of chronic GVHD at 1 year was 40%, 34%, 24%, and 20%, respectively (P < .001). In multivariable analysis, there was no impact of stem cell source or conditioning regimen on grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD; however, older donor age (30 to 49 versus <29 years) was significantly associated with higher rates of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 2.12; P = .01). In contrast, PB compared to BM as a stem cell source was a significant risk factor for the development of chronic GVHD (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.62; P = .01) in the RIC setting. There were no differences in relapse or overall survival between groups. Donor age and graft source are risk factors for acute and chronic GVHD, respectively, after PTCy-based haplo-HCT. Our results indicate that in RIC haplo-HCT, the risk of chronic GVHD is higher with PB stem cells, without any difference in relapse or overall survival.
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8.
  • Rendo, Verónica, et al. (författare)
  • Exploiting loss of heterozygosity for allele-selective colorectal cancer chemotherapy
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Allelic losses occurring in cancer cells have been suggested as potential targets for therapy. Here, the authors show how recurring loss of heterozygosity of a drug metabolic gene in colorectal cancers can be exploited using a low molecular weight compound. Cancer chemotherapy targeting frequent loss of heterozygosity events is an attractive concept, since tumor cells may lack enzymatic activities present in normal constitutional cells. To find exploitable targets, we map prevalent genetic polymorphisms to protein structures and identify 45 nsSNVs (non-synonymous small nucleotide variations) near the catalytic sites of 17 enzymes frequently lost in cancer. For proof of concept, we select the gastrointestinal drug metabolic enzyme NAT2 at 8p22, which is frequently lost in colorectal cancers and has a common variant with 10-fold reduced activity. Small molecule screening results in a cytotoxic kinase inhibitor that impairs growth of cells with slow NAT2 and decreases the growth of tumors with slow NAT2 by half as compared to those with wild-type NAT2. Most of the patient-derived CRC cells expressing slow NAT2 also show sensitivity to 6-(4-aminophenyl)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)pyrazin-2-amine (APA) treatment. These findings indicate that the therapeutic index of anti-cancer drugs can be altered by bystander mutations affecting drug metabolic genes.
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